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Argumentative essay breastfeeding Essay Sample. Writer Essays? Many of the long-term benefits attributed to breast-feeding may be an effect not of solar system breast-feeding or breast milk itself but of the general good health and prosperity of women who choose to breast-feed. Faced with societal norms, legal uncertainties, and incorrect information, some women choose the option of writer not breastfeeding. Many women are not even aware that breastfeeding is ways an essay, a natural, mutually beneficial way to feed an infant. Breast milk is the most complete form of nutrition for infants. A mother’s milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby’s growth and usually, breast milk is the canadian s world essays 2nd ed, digested more easily than formula, which means that breastfed babies gain less unnecessary weight. There are theories suggesting that breastfeeding may prevent adult obesity because children who are breastfed learn to pay someone homework, trust their body’s signals regarding how much and when they eat. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Furthermore, breast milk aids in the development of essay system a newborn’s immune system, prevents diarrhea, maximizes a child’s physical and intellectual potential, promotes the recovery of a sick child, and breastfeeding helps to bond mother and baby.
Health care costs are typically lower for breastfed children as they are not as sick as often due to the canadian s world essays, their strong immune system. This also results in a more productive workforce because the mothers of these children miss less work. Knowing these benefits, why do some mothers choose not to service, breastfeed? Some women are uncomfortable with breastfeeding due to the canadian writer essays 2nd ed, societal norms, intimidated, or just simply ignorant to all of the benefits and institutional thesis, the beauty that come with breastfeeding. “Biology determines babies’ needs, but cultural expectations and personal situations influence how parents respond to that need. The Canadian Writer? When babies’ biological needs and in the economic history of south, existing cultural norms are at odds with each other, parents sometimes make decisions that do not optimize growth and development, and can even be harmful” (Spangler, 2005). In our society there is more emphasis placed upon the sexual aspect of a woman’s breasts than the functional aspects.
Some pregnant women do not have the desire to breastfeed because of the sexual connotations with breasts; it is not actually because they believe that formula will provide better nourishment for s world 2nd ed, their babies. Formula feeding has become a sign of modernity, freedom, sophistication, and affluence. Service Learning? Due to the breasts being viewed as sexual objects, many people are uncomfortable with breastfeeding in public. Some people believe that it is indecent and that a woman should not bare her breasts for the sake of the canadian writer essays feeding her child. It is question solar, a shame that society is more accepting of a half-naked woman on the cover of the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed a magazine than of a woman providing the best possible nourishment for her child. Some people argue that breastfeeding in public should be done in a tasteful, discreet way. There are so many different opinions and pay someone, concerns from the s world, public as well as mothers themselves. Many mothers do not plan to breastfeed their babies because they do not think it can be done once they return to work, but this can be done.
A working mother may have the option of arranging her lunch around the baby’s schedule, or she can pump during a break. Using the more sophisticated pumps on the market, it is possible to pump 8-10 ounces in dissertation service 15 minutes (Law, 407). A major concern regarding breastfeeding is being tied down to the canadian writer 2nd ed, the baby at essay solar, all times. While it is essays, true that breastfed babies are dependent upon their mothers for nourishment, a mother can enjoy the freedom of buy university report leaving the house by breastfeeding her baby in a public place or pumping her milk into bottles. Writer S World? Breastfeeding provides a natural, mutually beneficial, cost-effective way to feed an infant, but it is not widely popular in Western culture. Many women choose not to breastfeed because cultural norms make them feel insecure about nursing in public, if at solar system, all. Furthermore, many myths about breastfeeding may make a woman feel uncomfortable and unsure of her abilities. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that arming the the canadian s world 2nd ed, public with accurate information about the benefits of breastfeeding will increase awareness, acceptance, and essay question, will encourage more women to do what is best for their babies. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Argumentative essay breastfeeding. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Argumentative essay breastfeeding. You are the registered nurse performing a health assessment on a newborn infant. From the functional health pattern portion of the writer s world essays, assessment, you learn the mother is reluctant to breastfeed#8230; Breastfeeding: The Policy Process. Breastfeeding is the best nourishment for newborns, infants, and toddlers. The Surgeon General has started an initiative to educate and promote breastfeeding to new mothers and their family support system#8230;. There are many choices new parents must make. Many decisions such as what doctor will assist you, what kinds of things you must buy, diapers, childcare and even fun decisions#8230; Mother’s Milk or a Synthetic Substitute. Mother’s Milk or a Synthetic Substitute One of the best days of a mother’s life is when she finds out that she is pregnant. She thinks of, what will my#8230; Breastfeeding is the most importance nutrition a newborn can receive.
The benefits of breastfeeding are tremendous. The Surgeon General states, “Breastfeeding protects babies from infections and essay question, illnesses that include diarrhea,#8230; 1. What are the responsibilities of companies in this or similar situations? -A company going international and selling products that may, in the canadian s world essays one way or another, become a threat to#8230;
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The canadian writers world essays 2nd ed
Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only essays 2nd ed access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point? Then you’ve come to my calculus the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template.
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Click here to download. The Chicago template pack. This one’s pretty simple – initially we only had one version of this resume template, one with green headings. The Canadian Writer Essays. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since we’d named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to essay question system continue on with the city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the s world styling so much and demanded more choices. But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is buy university yet another resume template that is the canadian s world so simple, clear, and easy to institutional read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for the canadian essays a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it.
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This resume is so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is infused with a soft and gentle touch, and the canadian essays stands out as being particularly well crafted. That’s why it’s one of our most popularly downloaded resumes. Those of you with a flair for the abstract, and report who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the Elegant template’s style and formatting. The Canadian S World. It’s easy to read, clear, and institutional thesis makes great use of white space. It’s tough to generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned. S World. Text in pay someone my calculus homework headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by 4.8, giving the “elegant” feel. Top – 2.54? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 1.9? Right – 1.9? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt.
Click here to s world download. The Elegant template pack. Making the essays economic of south yorkshire Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by our resident expert. We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on the canadian writer essays 2nd ed, the resume without losing clarity and readability. She came up with this columned approach — headings are left aligned to solar system help save space, and have large enough text to be very clear.
Due to this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the the canadian s world essays reputation of that university. Those of you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful. The left-aligned headings allow you to cut down wasted space to reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy. If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and dissertation service learning allowing for more job descriptions to be written.
Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to the canadian writer s world 2nd ed those who prefer straight lines and boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others.
These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only come into essay existence within the writer s world last 20-30 years. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to report those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of resume template: the Modern. Sporting a very “flat” design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to the canadian s world 2nd ed produce a template that is anything but “classic”. The modern is all about efficiency and dissertation service learning simplicity.
The contact details, job headings and skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and writer s world aesthetically appealing form. This resume template looks equally good in printed form or on an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for in the economic yorkshire those who don’t feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for their personality type or the the canadian writer position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a “Classic” resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template. Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Milano is famed for it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and institutional thesis of course, it’s fashion industry.
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Regardless of industry, if you are looking for the canadian writer s world essays a way to stand out amongst the other applicants without calling too much attention to yourself, consider downloading the Milano and essay question customizing it with your own information for your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to writer s world essays 2nd ed download. The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If that’s the case, then the Park template below is the perfect option for buy university report you. Download this subtle and classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance.
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The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for buy university the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to the canadian 2nd ed choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the ‘Modern.’ Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck!
I am trying to essays economic of south yorkshire decide what to the canadian s world 2nd ed use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out question solar system, our ‘Elegant’ templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is the canadian essays good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it. Essays And Social Yorkshire. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary?
Should I switch to writer 2nd ed Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and a half ago and I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for question solar a television producer?
Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to go. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the ‘Chicago’ on the canadian s world essays, for size.
Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for essays of south a project manager. Which template is writer 2nd ed suitable for a job at question solar system, a bank? which Template is better for a job of medical field? You might want to the canadian writer s world 2nd ed check out our internship and in the economic of south engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt!
What resume is the canadian essays 2nd ed most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for buy university a management consultant? or an auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of those professions. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of preference. We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and writer s world essays 2nd ed Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier)
We suggest trying the my calculus homework ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of the canadian writer 2nd ed space for thesis you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to writer s world essays 2nd ed use for a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for institutional thesis someone with a criminal history, but if we had to writer essays 2nd ed choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out thesis, our tips on how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an essays 2nd ed, internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out institutional, our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of s world essays 2nd ed experience.
What kind of resume would you recommend for service someone changing careers from the canadian writer a lower tier job to essay question a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed. Good luck with the career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template. Best of luck finding an thesis, HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck!
What template would you suggest to the canadian s world essays use? I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the example and fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for essays in the college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of the canadian writer essays 2nd ed resume will you recommend for pay someone to do my calculus a college student, applying for the canadian s world 2nd ed a job.
which resume would you recommend for buy university report a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to work? Good luck on writer, the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for buy university report this! I’ll use the Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is the canadian essays to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to the position to which you’re applying.
Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck!
With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the buy university report reverse-chronological is writer s world a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and to do best of the canadian s world essays 2nd ed luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is essay question solar system merging? All staff must re-apply.
All of the canadian s world essays 2nd ed these resume templates are perfect for someone in your situation – it just depends on essay question solar, your preference. Since your goal is to prove the the canadian s world 2nd ed value you bring to service learning the table to your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the the canadian s world following link for some ideas to buy university make the content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. The Canadian Writer S World Essays. Check out pay someone homework, this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. What you want to do is highlight your education over writer essays 2nd ed, professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for you, then proceed from there. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius’ Original Templates – Expert’s Choice Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
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Use the writer s world tips index page to access smaller focused listings of tips. This page lists many other pages available on the web, together with a condensed list of tuning tips that each page includes. For the most part I've eliminated any tips that are wrong, but one or two may have slipped past me. Remember that the tuning tips listed are not necessarily good coding practice. They are performance optimizations that you probably should not use throughout your code. Instead they apply to speeding up critical sections of code where performance has already been identified as a problem. The tips here include only solar system, those that are available online for free. I do not intend to summarize any offline resources (such as the various books available including mine, Java Performance Tuning). The tips here are of very variable quality and the canadian s world, usefulness, some real gems but some dross and quite a bit of repetition. Comments in square brackets, , have been added by me.
Use this page by using your browser's find or search option to identify particular tips you are interested in on the page, and essay solar system, follow up by reading the referenced web page if clarification is necessary. This page is currently 411KB. This page is s world, updated once a month. Essay Question Solar? You can receive email notification of any changes by the canadian writer subscribing to the newsletter. Performance planning for managers (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). To End? Tips: Include budget for performance management. 2nd Ed? Create internal performance experts. Report? Set performance requirements in the specifications.
Include a performance focus in the analysis. Require performance predictions from the design. Create a performance test environment. Test a simulation or skeleton system for validation. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Integrate performance logging into the application layer boundaries. Performance test the system at multiple scales and question solar system, tune using the resulting information Deploy the system with performance logging features. A long list of most of the the canadian writer tuning techniques covered in my Java Performance Tuning book (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: [Since the question solar referred to page is already a summary list, I have not extracted it here. Especially since there are nearly 300 techniques listed. Check the page out directly]. Comparing the performance of LinkedLists and ArrayLists (and Vectors) (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava).
Tips: ArrayList is the canadian writer s world essays, faster than Vector except when there is no lock acquisition required in HotSpot JVMs (when they have about the same performance). Vector and ArrayList implementations have excellent performance for indexed access and update of elements, since there is no overhead beyond range checking. Adding elements to, or deleting elements from the end of essays economic of south yorkshire a Vector or ArrayList also gives excellent performance except when the the canadian s world essays capacity is exhausted and the internal array has to be expanded. Inserting and deleting elements to Vectors and service, ArrayLists always require an s world 2nd ed array copy (two copies when the internal array must be grown first). The number of elements to be copied is proportional to [size-index], i.e. to the distance between the insertion/deletion index and the last index in the collection. Essay Question? The array copying overhead grows significantly as the size of the the canadian collection increases, because the number of elements that need to be copied with each insertion increases. For insertions to Vectors and ArrayLists, inserting to learning the front of the collection (index 0) gives the worst performance, inserting at the end of the collection (after the last element) gives the best performance. Writer S World 2nd Ed? LinkedLists have a performance overhead for question indexed access and update of elements, since access to any index requires you to writer essays traverse multiple nodes. LinkedList insertions/deletion overhead is essays in the economic and social history yorkshire, dependent on the how far away the insertion/deletion index is from the 2nd ed closer end of the collection. Synchronized wrappers (obtained from essays and social history yorkshire Collections.synchronizedList(List)) add a level of indirection which can have a high performance cost.
Only List and Map have efficient thread-safe implementations: the Vector and Hashtable classes respectively. List insertion speed is critically dependent on the size of the collection and the position where the element is to be inserted. For small collections ArrayList and LinkedList are close in the canadian s world essays 2nd ed, performance, though ArrayList is generally the question faster of the two. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Precise speed comparisons depend on ways to end an essay the JVM and the index where the object is being added. Pre-sizing ArrayLists and Vectors improves performance significantly. LinkedLists cannot be pre-sized. ArrayLists can generate far fewer objects for writer s world 2nd ed the garbage collector to reclaim, compared to LinkedLists.
For medium to large sized Lists, the location where elements are to buy university report inserted is writer s world, critical to institutional thesis the performance of the list. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? ArrayLists have the edge for random access. A dedicated List implementation designed to match data, collection types and data manipulation algorithms will always provide the best performance. ArrayList internal node traversal from the start to the end of the collection is significantly faster than LinkedList traversal. Consequently queries implemented in the class can be faster. Iterator traversal of all elements is faster for essay question solar system ArrayList compared to Linkedlist.
Using the WeakHashMap class (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: WeakHashMap can be used to reduce memory leaks. The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Keys that are no longer strongly referenced from the application will automatically make the corresponding value reclaimable. To use WeakHashMap as a cache, the keys that evaluate as equal must be recreatable. Using WeakHashMap as a cache gives you less control over when cache elements are removed compared with other cache types. Clearing elements of a WeakHashMap is ways to end an essay, a two stage process: first the key is reclaimed, then the corresponding value is writer s world 2nd ed, released from the WeakHashMap. String literals and other objects like Class which are held directly by the JVM are not useful as keys to essays and social history of south a WeakHashMap, as they are not necessarily reclaimable when the application no longer references them.
The WeakHashMap values are not released until the the canadian writer 2nd ed WeakHashMap is altered in some way. For predictable releasing of values, it may be necessary to add a dummy value to the WeakHashMap. If you do not call any mutator methods after populating the WeakHashMap, the values and pay someone to do my calculus, internal WeakReference objects will never be dereferenced [no longer true from 1.4, where most methods now allow values to writer essays be released]. WeakHashMap wraps an my calculus homework internal HashMap adding an extra level of indirection which can be a significant performance overhead. [no longer true from 1.4]. The Canadian? Every call to get() creates a new WeakReference object. Economic And Social History? [no longer true from 1.4]. WeakHashMap.size() iterates through the keys, making it an the canadian writer s world operation that takes time proportional to the size of the WeakHashMap. [no longer true from 1.4].
WeakHashMap.isEmpty() iterates through the collection looking for a non-null key, so a WeakHashMap which is empty requires more time for isEmpty() to return than a similar WeakHashMap which is thesis, not empty. [no longer true from 1.4, where isEmpty() is the canadian s world, now slower than previous versions]. A high level overview of technical performance tuning, covering 5 levels of an essay tuning competence. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Start tuning by the canadian writer essays 2nd ed examining the application architecture for potential bottlenecks. Architecture bottlenecks are often easy to spot: they are the connecting lines on the diagrams; the single threaded components; the components with many connecting lines attached; etc. Ensure that application performance is measureable for the given performance targets. Ensure that there is dissertation service learning, a test environment which represents the the canadian writer 2nd ed running system. This test-bed should support testing the application at different loads, including a low load and a fully scaled load representing maximum expected usage. After targeting design and architecture, the biggest bang for good an essay your buck in terms of improving performance is choosing a better VM, and then choosing a better compiler.
Start code tuning with proof of concept bottleneck removal: this consists of using profilers to identify bottlenecks, then making simplified changes which may only improve the performance at s world 2nd ed the bottleneck for a specialized set of activities, and proceeding to the next bottleneck. After tuning competence is gained, move to full tuning. Good Ways An Essay? Each multi-user performance test can typically take a full day to run and analyse. Even simple multi-user performance tuning can take several weeks. After the easily idenitified bottlenecks have been removed, the remaining performance improvements often come mainly from writer 2nd ed targeting loops, structures and algorithms. Essays And Social? In running systems, performance should be continually monitored to writer s world 2nd ed ensure that any performance degradation can be promptly identified and addressed. Chapter 4 of Java Performance Tuning, Object Creation. Ways To End? (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Establish whether you have a memory problem. S World 2nd Ed? Reduce the number of good to end an essay temporary objects being used, especially in loops. Avoid creating temporary objects within frequently called methods. Presize collection objects.
Reuse objects where possible. Empty collection objects before reusing them. The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? (Do not shrink them unless they are very large.) Use custom conversion methods for converting between data types (especially strings and streams) to reduce the number of buy university report temporary objects. Define methods that accept reusable objects to writer s world be filled in with data, rather than methods that return objects holding that data. Good Ways? (Or you can return immutable objects.) Canonicalize objects wherever possible. Compare canonicalized objects by identity. [Canonicalizing objects means having only the canadian writer 2nd ed, a single reference of an object, with no copies possible]. Create only the essays in the economic history number of objects a class logically needs (if that is the canadian writer s world essays, a small number of objects). Dissertation Service? Replace strings and other objects with integer constants. Compare these integers by identity. Use primitive data types instead of objects as instance variables. Avoid creating an object that is only for accessing a method. Flatten objects to 2nd ed reduce the number of and social history nested objects. Preallocate storage for large collections of objects by writer s world essays 2nd ed mapping the instance variables into an essay multiple arrays.
Use StringBuffer rather than the string concatenation operator (+). Use methods that alter objects directly without making copies. Create or use specific classes that handle primitive data types rather than wrapping the essays primitive data types. Consider using a ThreadLocal to solar provide threaded access to singletons with state. Use the final modifier on the canadian essays 2nd ed instance-variable definitions to create immutable internally accessible objects. Use WeakReference s to hold elements in large canonical lookup tables. (Use SoftReference s for ways an essay cache elements.) Reduce object-creation bottlenecks by targeting the writer s world essays 2nd ed object-creation process. Keep constructors simple and inheritance hierarchies shallow. Avoid initializing instance variables more than once. Use the buy university clone() method to the canadian s world 2nd ed avoid calling any constructors. Clone arrays if that makes their creation faster. Create copies of simple arrays faster by initializing them; create copies of complex arrays faster by cloning them.
Eliminate object-creation bottlenecks by to end an essay moving object creation to an alternative time. Create objects early, when there is spare time in the application, and hold those objects until required. Use lazy initialization when there are objects or variables that may never be used, or when you need to distribute the the canadian writer s world load of creating objects. Use lazy initialization only when there is a defined merit in the design, or when identifying a bottleneck which is alleviated using lazy initialization. My article on basic optimizations for queries on collections (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Use short-circuit boolean operators instead of the essays in the and social of south yorkshire normal boolean operators. Eliminate any unnecessarily repeated method calls from loops. Eliminate unnecessary casts. Avoid synchronization where possible.
Avoid method calls by implementing queries in a subclass, allowing direct field access. The Canadian Writer S World 2nd Ed? Use temporary local variables to buy university report manipulate data fields (instance/class variables). Use more precise object typing where possible. Before manual tuning, HotSpot VMs are often faster than JIT VMs. Writer? But JIT VMs tend to buy university benefit more from the canadian s world essays 2nd ed manual tuning and can end up faster than HotSpot VMs. Article about optimizing queries on Maps. Good Ways To End? (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Avoid using synchronization in read-only or single-threaded queries.
In the SDK, Enumerators are faster than Iterators due to the specific implementations. Eliminate repeatedly called methods where alternatives are possible. S World 2nd Ed? Iterator.hasNext() and Enumerator.hasMoreElements() do not need to be repeatedly called when the my calculus size of the essays 2nd ed collection is known. Use collection.size() and dissertation, a loop counter instead. Avoid accessing collection data through the data access methods by s world essays 2nd ed implementing a query in the collection class. Elminate repeated casts by thesis casting once and holding the writer s world essays cast item in a correctly typed variable. Reimplement the question solar system collection class to writer essays specialize for the data being held in the collection. Reimplment the Map class to use a hash function which is more efficient for the data being mapped. Optimizing hash functions: generating a perfect hash function (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: perfect hash functions guarantee that every key maps to a separate entry in an essay, a hashtable, and so provide more efficient hastable implementations than generic hash functions. perfect hash functions are possible when the key data is restricted to a known set of s world 2nd ed elements. Optimize Map implementations by specializing the types of internal datastructures, and method parameter types and return types.
Optimize Map implementations by using a specialized hash function that is dissertation service, optimized for the key type, rather than generic to the canadian writer essays all possible types of essays of south keys. The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? Generate a perfect hash function using some variable combination of simple arithmentic operators. Perfect hash functions may require excessive amounts of memory. Minimal perfect hash maps do not require any excess memory, but may impose significant overheads on the map. Microtuning (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Performance is dependent on solar data as well as code. Different data can make identical code perform very differently. Always start tuning with a baseline measurement.
The System.currentTimeMillis() method is the most basic measuring tool for tuning. The Canadian S World Essays? You may need to essay question system repeatedly call a method in order to reliably measure its average execution time. Minimize the possibility that CPU time will be allocated to anything other than the test while it is s world, running by buy university ensuring no other processes are runing during the s world 2nd ed test, and that the test remains in ways to end an essay, the foreground. Baseline measurements normally show some useful information, e.g. the average execution time for one call to a method. Multiplying the average time taken to execute a method or sequence of methods, by the number of times that sequence will be called in a time period, gives you an the canadian essays 2nd ed estimate of the fraction of the total time that the sequence takes.
There are three routes to tuning a method: Consider unexpected differences in different test runs; Analyze the algorithm; Profile the ways method. The Canadian S World Essays? Creating an exception is dissertation service learning, a costly procedure, because of filling in stack trace. A profiler should ideally be able to take a snapshot of performance between two arbitrary points. Tuning is an iterative process: you normally find one bottleneck, make changes that improve performance, test those changes, and then start again. The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Algorithm changes usually provide the best speedup, but can be difficult to dissertation find. Examining the code for the causes of the differences in speed between two variations of test runs can be useful, but is restricted to those tests for which you can devise alternatives that show significant timing variations.
Profiling is the canadian writer s world, always an option and almost always provides something that can be speeded up. But the report law of diminishing returns kicks in after a while, leaving you with bottlenecks that are not worth speeding up, because the potential speedup is too small for essays the effort required. Generic integer parsing (as with the Integer constructors and methods) may be overkill for dissertation service learning converting simple integer formats. Simple static methods are probably best left to the canadian writer s world 2nd ed be inlined by the JIT compiler rather than by hand. String.equals() is expensive if you are only and social history, testing for the canadian s world 2nd ed an empty string. It is quicker to test if the length of the string is buy university report, 0. Set a target speedup to reach. With no target, tuning can carry on for much longer than is needed. A generic tuning procedure is: Identify the bottleneck; Set a performance target; Use representative data; Measure the writer s world 2nd ed baseline; Analyze the method; Test the change; Repeat. Efficiently formatting doubles (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava).
Tips: Double.toString(double) is slow. Pay Someone To Do My Calculus? It needs to process more than you might think, and does more than you might need. Proprietary conversion algorithms can be significantly faster. One such algorithm is presented in the article. Converting integers to strings can also be faster than the SDK. An algorithm successively stripping off the highest is used in writer s world essays 2nd ed, the article. Formatting numbers using java.text.DecimalFormat is always slower than Double.toString(double), because it first calls Double.toString(double) then parses and converts the result. Formatting using a proprietary conversion algorithm can be faster than any of the methods discussed so far, if the number of digits being printed is not large. The actual time taken depends on the number of digits being printed.
Multiprocess JVMs (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Report? Tips: Using or implementing a multiprocess framework to combine Java processes into one JVM can save on memory space overheads and reduce startup time. Measuring JDBC performance (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Effectively profiling distributed applications can be difficult. I/O can show up as significant in profiling, simply because of the nature of a distributed application. It can be unclear whether threads blocking on writer s world reads and ways, writes are part of the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed a significant bottleneck or simply a side issue. Service Learning? When profiling, it is usually worthwhile to have separate measurements available for the canadian writer s world essays the communication subsystems. Wrapping the JDBC classes provides an effective technique for measuring database calls. [Article discusses how to create JDBC wrapers to measure the performance of database calls]. If more than a few rows of a query are being read, then the ResultSet.next() method can spend a significant amount of time fetching rows from the database, and this time should be included in measurements of institutional database access. JDBC wrappers are simple and robust, and require very little alteration to the application using them (i.e, are low maintenance), so they are suitable to be retained within a deployed application.
Catching OutOfMemoryErrors (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: -Xmx and -Xms (-mx and -ms) specify the heap max and starting sizes. Runtime.totalMemory() gives the current process size, Runtime.maxMemory() (available from SDK 1.4) gives the -Xmx value. The Canadian S World Essays? Repeatedly allocating memory by creating objects and holding onto institutional thesis, them will expand the process to the canadian s world 2nd ed its maximum possible size. This technique can also be used to dissertation service flush memory. If a process gets too large, the operating system will start paging the process causing a severe decrease in the canadian essays, performance. It is reasonable to buy university catch the OutOfMemoryError if you can restore your application to essays a known state that can proceed with processing. For example, daemon service threads can often do this. The RandomAccess interface. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: A java.util.List object which implements RandomAccess should be faster when using List.get() than when using Iterator.next(). Use instanceof RandomAccess to test whether to use List.get() or Iterator.next() to solar system traverse a List object. [Article describes how to guard the test to support all versions of Java].
Whoopee!! A non-blocking I/O library for Java. Writer S World Essays? This is the single most important functionality missing from the SDK for scalable server applications. Good To End? The important class is SelectSet which allows you to the canadian writer 2nd ed multiplex all your i/o streams. If you want a scalable server and can use this class then DO SO. NOTE THAT SDK 1.4 WILL INCLUDE NON_BLOCKING I/O (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Matt Welsh, Publisher Welsh). Tips: [The system select(2)/poll(2) functions allow you to pay someone to do homework take any collection of i/o streams and ask the operating system to check whether any of them can execute read/write/accept without blocking. The Canadian? The system call will block if requested until any one of the i/o streams is ready to execute. Before Java, no self-respecting server would sit on multiple threads in blocked i/o mode, wasting thread resources: instead select/poll would have been used.] For years, Jonathan Hardwick's old but classic site was the only coherent Java performance tuning site on the web.
He built it while doing his PhD. It wasn't updated beyond March 1998, when he moved to Microsoft, but most tips are still useful and good to end, valid. The Canadian S World Essays? The URL is for the top page, there are another eight pages. Thanks Jonathan. (Page last updated March 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jonathan Hardwick, Publisher Hardwick). Tips: Don't optimize as you go. Write your program concentrating on clean, correct, and understandable code. Use profiling to find out where that 80% of execution time is going, so you know where to concentrate your effort. Always run before and after benchmarks.
Use the right algorithms and data structures. Compile with optimization flag, javac -O. Use a JIT. Multithread for multi-processor machines. Use clipping to reduce the amount of work done in repaint() Use double buffering to improve perceived speed. Use image strips or compression to speed up downloading times.
Animation in Java Applets from JavaWorld and Performing Animation from Sun are two good tutorials. Use high-level primitives; it's much faster to call drawPolygon() on a bunch of points than looping with drawLine(). Good Ways? If you have to draw a single pixel drawLine (x,y,x,y) may be faster than fillRect (x,y,1,1). The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Use Buffered I/O classes. Avoid synchronized methods if you can. Buy University? Synchronizing on methods rather than on code blocks is slightly faster. Use exceptions only where you really need them. Use StringBuffer instead of +. The Canadian Essays? Use System.arraycopy() and report, any other optimized API's available from the SDK. Replace the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed generic standard classes with faster implementations specific to dissertation learning the application. Create subclasses to override methods with faster versions.
Avoid expensive constructs and data structures, e.g. one-dimensional array is s world essays 2nd ed, faster than a two-dimensional array. Use the faster switch bytecode. Use private and static methods, and final classes, to encourage inlining by in the history of south yorkshire the compiler. Reuse objects. The Canadian Writer S World Essays? Local variables are the faster than instance variables, which are in turn faster than array elements. ints are the fastest data type. Compiler optimizations: loop invariant code motion; common subexpression elimination; strength reduction; variable allocation reassignment. Pay Someone To Do Homework? Use java -prof or other profiler. Use a timing harness to run benchmarks. Use a memory measurement harness to run benchmarks.
Call system.gc() before every timing run to minimize inconsistent results due to garbage collection in the canadian essays, the middle of a run. Use JAR or zip files. If size is a constraint: use SDK classes wherever possible; inherit whatever possible; put common code in one place; initialize big arrays at runtime by parsing a string; use short names; Balancing Network Load with Priority Queues (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Frank Fabian, Publisher Dr. Dobb's).
Tips: Hardware traffic managers redirect user requests to a farm of dissertation service learning servers based on server availability, IP address, or port number. All traffic is routed to the load balancer, then requests are fanned out to servers based on the balancing algorithm. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? Popular load-balancing algorithms include: server availability (find a server with available processing capability); IP address management (route to the nearest server by IP address); port number (locate different types of servers on different machines, and route by port number); HTTP header checking (route by URI or cookie, etc). Essays In The And Social Of South? Web hits should cater for handling peak hit rate, not the average rate. You can model hit rates using gaussian distribution to determine the the canadian 2nd ed average hit rate per time unit (e.g. per good ways to end second) at peak usage, then a poisson probability gives the the canadian essays 2nd ed probability of a given number of users simulatneously hitting the institutional thesis server within that time unit. [Article gives an example with gaussian fitted to peak traffic of 4000 users with a standard deviation of the canadian essays 20 minutes resulting in report, an average of 1.33 users per the canadian writer s world essays second at the peak, which in turn gives the service learning probabilities that 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 users hitting the server within one second as 26%, 35%, 23%, 10%, 3%, 1%, 0.2%.
Service time was 53 milliseconds, which means that the server can service 19 hits per essays 2nd ed second without the service rate requiring requests being queued.] System throughput is the arrival rate divided by the service rate. If the ratio becomes greater than one, requests exceed the system capability and will be lost or need to be queued. If requests are queued because capacity is exceeded, the throughput must drop sufficiently to handle the good an essay queued requests or the system will fail (the service rate must increase or arrival rate decrease). If the average throughput exceeds 1, then the the canadian s world essays 2nd ed system will fail. Sort incoming requests into different priority queues, and thesis, service the requests according to the priorities assigned to each queue. The Canadian Writer S World? [Article gives the example where combining user and thesis, automatic requests in one queue can result in a worst case user wait of 3.5 minutes, as opposed to less than 0.1 seconds if priority queues are used]. [Note that Java application servers often do not show a constant service time. Instead the service time often increases with higher concurrency due to non-linear effects of garbage collection].
Cutting Edge Java Game Programming. Oldish but still useful intro book to games programming using Java. The Canadian Writer? (Page last updated 1996, Added 2001-06-18, Author Neil Bartlett, Steve Simkin , Publisher Coriolis). Tips: AWT components are not useful as game actors (sprites) as they do not overlap well, nor are they good at being moved around the screen. Institutional Thesis? Celled image files efficiently store an animated image by dividing an image into a rectangular grid of cells, and allocating a different animation image to each cell. A sequence of writer similar images (as you would have for buy university report an animation) will be stored and transferred efficiently in most image formats.
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If a common high-level operation requires many consecutive remote method calls, you need to revisit the class's interface. Essay System? A naively designed remote interface can lead to an application that has serious scalability and performance problems. [Article gives examples showing the effect of applying the listed advice]. Glen McCluskey's paper with 30 tuning tips, now free. (Page last updated October 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher McCluskey). S World? Tips: Faster algorithms are better. Different architectures can be functionally identical but perform very differently. Keep performance in mind at the design stage. Use the fastest available JVM.
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Creating Doubles from strings is slow. Buffer i/o. Dissertation Learning? MessageFormat is slow. Reuse objects. The Canadian Writer S World? File information such as File.length() requires a system call and can be slow.
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Move constant conditionals outside loops. Combine similar loops. Nest the busiest loop, if loops are interchangeable. Unroll the loop, as a last resort. Service? Convert expressions to writer 2nd ed table Lookups. Ways To End An Essay? Use caching. Pre-compute values or delay evaluation to shift calculation cost to another time. [Also gives information on using Solaris Trace Normal Format (TNF) utilities for writer s world essays profiling java applications].
Detailed article on load testing systems (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Himanshu Bhatt, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Internet systems should be load-tested throughout development. Load testing can provide the basis for: Comparing varying architectural approaches; Performance tuning; Capacity planning. Initially you should identify the probable performance and scalability based on institutional the requirements. You should be asking about: numbers of users/components; component interactions; throughput and transaction rates; performance requirements. Factor in batch requirements and performance characteristics of dependent (sub)systems. Note that additional layers, like security, add overheads to performance.
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JDBC Performance Tips (targeted at AS/400, but generically applicable) (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Authors Richard Dettinger and Mark Megerian, Publisher IBM). Essays? Tips: Move to the latest releases of Java as they become available. Use prepared statements (PreparedStatement class) [article provides coded example of buy university report using Statement vs. The Canadian 2nd Ed? PreparedStatement]. Economic And Social Of South? Note that two database calls are made for each row in a ResultSet: one to describe the writer column, the second to tell the db where to essay system put the data.
PreparedStatements make the the canadian s world 2nd ed description calls at construction time, Statements make them on every execution. Avoid retrieving unnecessary columns: don't use SELECT *. If you are not using stored procedures or triggers, turn off autocommit. All transaction levels operate faster with autocommit turned off, and doing this means you must code commits. Coding commits while leaving autocommit on will result in extra commits being done for every db operation. Use the appropriate transaction level. Increasing performance costs for transaction levels are: TRANSACTION_NONE; TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED; TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED; TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ; TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Note that TRANSACTION_NONE, with autocommit set to true gives access to triggers, stored procedures, and large object columns.
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Use threads. Prioritize threads. Use notify instead of notifyAll. Use synchronization sparingly. Counting down is often faster than counting up. Writer Essays? [the loop test comparison to 0 is what matters]. Keep synchronized methods out of loops if you possibly can. Avoid excessive String manipulation. Economic And Social History Of South? Use String Buffers or Arrays rather than String. byte arrays may be faster than StringBuffers for certain operations, especially if you use System.arraycopy(). Use StringBuffer rather than the + operator. Watch out for slow fonts, Fonts vary in speed of rendering. Keep the writer paint method small.
It will get called a lot. Double buffer where possible. For some applications that access the date a lot, it can help to buy university report set the local timezone to be GMT, so that no conversion has to the canadian s world 2nd ed take place. Potential compiler optimizations: loop invariant code motion; common subexpression elimination; strength reduction; variable allocation. Don't turn off native threads. Use .jar files.
Rewrite Java library classes to make them smaller or instantiate fewer objects or eliminate synchronization. Install classes locally. Tutorial on the full screen capabilities in report, the 1.4 release (5 pages plus example pages under the top page) (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Michael Martak, Publisher Sun). Tips: The full-screen exclusive mode provides maximum image display and drawing performance by allowing direct drawing to the screen. Use java.awt.GraphicsDevice.isFullScreenSupported() to determine if full-screen exclusive mode is available. If it is not available, full-screen drawing can still be used, but better performance will be obtained by using a fixed size window in normal screen mode. The Canadian Essays? Full-screen exclusive applications should not be resizable. Turn off decoration using the setUndecorated() method. Change the screen display mode (size, depth and refresh rate), to the best match for your image bit depth and display size so that scaling and other image alterations can be avoided or minimized.
Don't define the screen painting code in the paint() method called by the AWT thread. Define your own rendering loop for screen drawing, to be executed in any thread other than the AWT thread. In The? Use the setIgnoreRepaint() method on your application window and components to turn off all paint events dispatched from the the canadian writer essays 2nd ed operating system completely, since these may be called during inappropriate times, or worse, end up calling paint, which can lead to race conditions between the AWT event thread and your rendering loop. Do not rely on the update or repaint methods for delivering paint events. To Do Homework? Do not use heavyweight components, since these will still incur the overhead of essays 2nd ed involving the AWT and the platform's windowing system. Use double buffering (drawing to an off-screen buffer, then copying the finished drawing to the screen). Use page-flipping (changing the video pointer so that an off-screen buffer becomes the on-screen buffer, with no image copying required). Use a flip chain (a sequence of off-screen buffers which the essay question solar video pointer successively points to one after the other). Writer? java.awt.image.BufferStrategy provides getDrawGraphics() (to get an off-screen buffer) and show() (to display the buffer on screen). Use java.awt.BufferCapabilities to customize the service learning BufferStrategy for optimizing the performance of your application.
If you use a buffer strategy for double-buffering in a Swing application, you probably want to essays 2nd ed turn off double-buffering for your Swing components, Multi-buffering is only useful when the drawing time exceeds the time spent to do a show. Don't make any assumptions about performance: profile your application and identify the bottlenecks first. HP Java tuning site, including optimizing Java and optimizing HPUX for Java. This is the top page, but several useful pages lie off it (tips extracted for inclusion below). Includes a nice procedure list for tuning apps, and some useful forms for what you should record while tuning. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher HP). Tips: Have a performance target.
Consider architecture and components for bottlenecks. Third-party components may have options that cause bottlenecks. Having debugging turned on institutional thesis can cause performance problems. Having logging turned on can cause performance problems. Is the underlying machine powerful enough. Carefully document any tests and changes.
Create a performance baseline. The Canadian Writer S World Essays? Make one change at a time. Report? Be careful not to lose a winning tune because it's hidden by the canadian s world a bad tune made at the same time. Record all aspects of the system (app/component/version/version date/dependent software/CPU/Numbers of CPUs/RAM/Disk space/patches/OS config/etc.) Give the JVMs top system priority. Tune the heap size (-mx, -ms options) and use -verbosegc to minimize garbage collection impact. A larger heap reduces the frequency of garbage collection but increases the length of in the economic and social history time that any particular garbage collection takes.
Rules of thumbs are: 50% of free space available after a gc; set the maximum heap size to be 3-4 times the space required for the estimated maximum number of live objects; set the s world essays 2nd ed initial heap to size a little below the dissertation learning space required for the average data set, and the maximum value large enough to handle the s world 2nd ed largest data set; increase -Xmn for applications that create many short-lived objects [is -Xmn a standard option?]. [These rules of thumb should only be considered as starting points. In The And Social History Of South Yorkshire? Ultimately you need to writer s world essays tune the VM heap empirically, i.e. by trial and good to end an essay, error]. You may need to add flags to the canadian s world essays third party products running in the JVM to eliminate explicit calls to garbage collect (VisiBroker has this known problem). Watch out for thesis bottlenecks introduced from writer 2nd ed third party products. Make sure you know and use the my calculus homework options available, many of which can affect performance (for better or worse). Document the changes you make so that you will be able to reproduce the performance. computationally intensive applications should increase the number of CPUs to writer 2nd ed increase overall system performance and institutional thesis, throughput. Be certain that the the canadian writer 2nd ed application's CPU usage is a factor limiting performance: often, highly contended locks and ways an essay, garbage collections that are too frequent will make the the canadian writer 2nd ed system look busy, but little work is done by the application. Pay Someone To Do My Calculus? [Some nice detailed description on how to writer s world essays 2nd ed profile and analyze application problems, from the HP system and JVM level at http://www.devresource.hp.com/JavaATC/JavaPerfTune/symptoms_solutions.html.] J2EE Application server performance (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Misha Davidson, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Pay Someone To Do Homework? Tips: Good performance has sub-second latency (response time) and hundreds of (e-commerce) transactions per the canadian second.
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Using multiple levels of BodyTags combined with iteration will likely slow down the processing of the the canadian page significantly. Use optimistic transactions: write to institutional the database while checking that new data is not be overwritten by essays 2nd ed using WHERE clauses containing the old data. However note that optimistic transactions can lead to worse performance if many transactions fail. Use lazy-loading of dependent objects. For read-only queries involving large amounts of to end an essay data, avoid EJB objects and use JavaBeans as an intermediary to access manipulate and store the data for JSP access. Use stateless session EJBs to cache and manage infrequently changed data. Update the s world essays 2nd ed EJB occasionally.
Use a dedicated session bean to perform and cache all JNDI lookups in a minimum number of good ways to end an essay requests. Minimize interprocess communication. Use clustering (multiple servers) to increase scalability. Using the Syslog class for logging (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Nate Sammons, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use Syslog to log system performance. Logging should not take up a significant amount of the s world essays system's resources nor interfere with its operation. Use static final boolean s to buy university report wrap logging statements so that they can be easily turned off or eliminated.
Beware of logging to slow external channels. These will slow down logging, and hence the application too. Glen McCluskey's article on tuning Java I/O performance. Weak on serialization tuning. (Page last updated March 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). S World? Tips: Avoid accessing the disk. Avoid accessing the underlying operating system. Avoid method calls. Avoid processing bytes and characters individually. Use buffering either at the class level or at the array level. Disable line buffering.
MessageFormat is slow. Reuse objects. Creating a buffered RandomAccessFile class can be faster than plain RandomAccessFile if you are seeking alot. Compression can help I/O, but only sometimes. Use caching to solar speed I/O. Your own tokenizer will be faster than using the available SDK tokenizer. The Canadian S World Essays? Many java.io.File methods are system calls which can be slow. Designing Entity Beans for Improved Performance (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Beth Stearns, Publisher Sun). Tips: Remember that every call of an entity bean method is potentially a remote call.
Designing with one access method per buy university report data attribute should only writer s world 2nd ed, be used where remote access will not occur, i.e. entities are guaranteed to be in the same container. Use a value object which encapsulates all of an buy university report entity's data attributes, and which transfers all the the canadian essays 2nd ed data in one network transfer. This may result in large objects being transferred though. Group entity bean data attributes in subsets, and use multiple value objects to buy university provide remote access to those subsets. Performance tuning report in German. Thanks to Peter Kofler for extracting the tips. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Sebastian Ritter, Publisher Ritter). Tips: Performance optimizations vary in effect on different platforms. Always test for your platforms. Reasons not to optimize: can lead to unreadable source code; can cause new errors; optimizations are often compiler/JVM/platform dependent; can lose object orientation. Reasons to the canadian writer s world optimize: application uses too much memory/processor/I/O; application is unnaceptably slow. Don't optimize before you have at institutional thesis least a functioning prototype and some identified bottlenecks.
Try to the canadian 2nd ed optimize the dissertation learning design first before targeting the writer 2nd ed implementation. Profile applications. Use the 80/20 rull which suggests that 80% of the work is done in 20% of the code. Target loops in essays in the history of south, particular. S World? Monitor running applications to maintain performance. Plan and budget for some resources to optimize the application. Try to have or develop a couple of buy university report performance experts. Specify performance in the project requirements, and specify seperate performance requirements for the various layers of the the canadian essays application. Consider the effects of performance at the analysis stage, and include testing of 3rd party tools. Use a benchmark harness to homework make repeatable performance tests, varying the number of users, data, etc.
Use profilers and logging to measure performance and identify performance problems. Optimize the runtime system if the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed optimization does not require alterations to the application design or implementation. Test various JVMs and choose the optimal JVM. JIT compilers are faster but require more memory than interpreter JVMs. HotSpot can provide better performance and a faster startup and maintain a relatively low memory requirement. Design in in the and social of south yorkshire, asynchronous operations so tasks are not waiting for others to finish when they don't need to. use the right VM use the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed right threading model (native vs. green) use native compilers give more ram to the VM give all ram to short-lived applications to completely avoid GC use alternate/optimizing compilers use the institutional thesis right database driver use direct JDBC drivers expand all JDK classes into the filesystem to increase access to classes use slot-local variables (1st 128 bit = 4 slots) (applies for s world 2nd ed interpreters only) use int use Arraylist instead of Vector use own Hashtable implementations for primitives (i.e. int) use caches use object pools avoid remote method calls use callbacks to avoid blocking remote method calls use batching for remote method calls use the flyweight pattern to to do my calculus homework reduce object creation [The flyweight pattern uses a factory instead of 'new' to reuse objects rather than always create new ones]. use the the canadian s world essays 2nd ed right access modifier: static private final protected public use inlining use shallow hierarchies (to avoid long instantiation chains) use empty default constructors use direct variable access (not recommended, breaks OO) mix model with view (not recommended, breaks OO) use better algorithms remove redundant code optimize loops unroll loops use int as loop counter count/test loops towards 0 use Exception terminated loops for long loops use constants for good expressions with known results, e.g. replace x = 3; . The Canadian S World Essays? (x does not change) . ; x += 3; with x = 3; . (x does not change) . ; x = 6; move code outside loops how to optimize: 1st check for learning better algorithms, 2nd optimize loops use shift for *2 and /2 do not initialize with default values (0, null) use char arrays for mutable Strings use arrays instead of the canadian writer collections use the private final modifier use System.arraycopy() to copy arrays use Hashtable keys with fast hashcode() do not use Strings as keys for Hashtables use new Hashtable() instaed of Hashtable.clear() for very large Hashtables inspect JDK source use methods in order: static final instance interface synchronized use own specialized methods instead of JDK's generalized ones avoid synchronization avoid new objects reuse objects use the original instead of overloaded constructors (give default parameters by your own) avoid inner classes use + for concenating 2 Strings, use Stringbuffer for institutional concenating more Strings use clone to create new objects (instead of new) use instance.hashcode() to test for equality of the canadian writer essays 2nd ed intances use native JDK implemented methods (as System.arraycopy()) avoid Exceptions (use Exceptions only for cases with probability 50%, else use error flags) combine multiple small try-catchs to one larger block use Streams instead of Readers, use Reader and Writer only if you need internationalization use buffering for io use EOFException and thesis, ArrayOutOfBoundsException for the canadian writer terminating io reading loops use transient fields to buy university report speedup serialisation use externalization instead of the canadian writer 2nd ed serialisation use multiple threads to increase perceived performance use awt instead of swing for speed use swing instead of awt for buy university report less memory use super.paint() to 2nd ed initially draw something (i.e. background) to increase perceived performance use your own wrapper for primitives (with setter methods) use Graphics.drawPolygon() (native implemented) instead of several Graphics.drawlines(). use low priority threads to initialize graphic components in question solar, the background use synchronized blocks instead of synchronized methods cache (SQL) Statements for DB access use PreparedStatements for DB access.
Accelerating GUI apps (after 1.4) (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Dana Nourie, Publisher Sun). Tips: To add many items to writer essays a JComboBox, add them in one go using a Model on a vector, e.g. new JComboBox(new DefaultComboBoxModel(new Vector(allItemsInAnArray)));. This generates only one changed event. Perform GUI operations in bulk to minimize the events generated. In The Economic And Social History Of South Yorkshire? When initializing or totally replacing the contents of a model, construct a new one instead of reusing the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed existing one to minimize generated events. Use threads other then the GUI handling thread for long, indeterminate, or repetitive tasks.
VolatileImage allows you to create a hardware-accelerated offscreen image and manage the contents of that image. From 1.4 Swing double-buffers using VolatileImage hardware acceleration to improve performance. Repaint small regions instead of pay someone homework entire sections or screens. For instance, when using tables, repaint a single table cell as needed instead of repainting the entire screen or table. 2nd Ed? EventHandler provides support for dynamically generating event listeners that have a small footprint and can be saved automatically by the persistence scheme. MIDP tips (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Make HTTP requests in a background thread. Use an asynchronous messaging model. Use WBXML to compress XML messages.
Article about question solar system avoiding creating objects where possible. (Page last updated 1996, Added 2000-10-23, Author Chuck McManis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: The mythology surrounding the writer s world slowness of garbage-collected systems is just that, myth. I can show that the number of instructions executed is the same whether I call malloc() and free() or I only call malloc() and ways to end, some other code calls free(). Writer 2nd Ed? Simple designs can easily run through many unnecessary objects, e.g. Good Ways To End? data wrapper objects like Integer. Reuse objects where possible. Use -verbosegc to check the impact of garbage collection on your application. The Eight Fallacies of Distributed Computing (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-03-25, Author Peter Deutsch, Publisher Sun). Tips: The network can fail to the canadian writer s world deliver at any time. Report? Latency is significant. Writer 2nd Ed? Bandwidth is always limited. Article on designing for performance focusing on interfaces (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: Avoid excessive object creation: be wary of object creation inside of tight loops when executing performance-critical code. Performance-conscious programmers avoid excessive use of String. Defining a utility class which is applied to data required by its constructor means that you must create a new object for every piece of service data to run it on. Instead, do not require data in the canadian, the constructor. Do not force methods to provide arguments with input in the form that is convenient rather than efficient. For example, don't require that arguments be passed only as String objects if a byte array or char array would also be functionally equivalent (try to support all formats, especially the efficient ones). Defining a method signature in and social of south yorkshire, terms of an interchange type (the type of the canadian s world essays object passed from a caller method to the callee method as an argument) reduces the interface's complexity while maintaining its flexibility, but sometimes this simplicity comes at the cost of performance. HotSpot FAQ (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Report? Tips: HotSpot has a bunch of startup options that may help you configure your VM to go faster.
HotSpot garbage collection parameters can be tuned with -Xincgc, -XX:NewSize, -XX:MaxNewSize and writer s world essays 2nd ed, -XX:SurvivorRatio(and heap size parameters). Sun recommends you no longer use objects pools [this is rather a sweeping and inappropriate statement. Yorkshire? Object pools are still useful even with HotSpot, but presumably not as often as previously]. Undocumented option -Xconcurrentio may help performance when there are very many threads. It uses a lighter thread synchronization model. If using few threads, using -XX:+UseBoundThreads and the light weight process threads (LWP) library may improve performance. S World Essays? LWP threads are scheduled by the JVM, system threads have kernel scheduling.
Don't call System.gc(). Warming loops is no longer necessary from HotSpot 2.0 (SDK 1.3). HotSpot now supports on-stack-replacement. HotSpot supports -Xrunhprof options and also -Xaprof for object allocation statistics. Integer alignment of generated native code affects its speed [so it is conceivable that adding the odd bytecode could make code faster]. HotSpot can eliminate dead variables and dead code, i.e. variables that are assigned to essays and social history of south but never used [in isolated code segments]. The generational-GC per writer essays object costs varies depending on the length of life of the buy university report object. A different HP tip page on optimizing Java performance, from the HP-UX Programmer's Guide for Java. Gives info on HP system performance monitoring too (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher HP).
Tips: Maximize thread lifetimes and minimize thread creation/destruction cycles. Minimize contention for essays shared resources. Minimize creation of short-lived objects. Use -verbosegc to essay monitor garbage collection. Tune the essays applications to minimize the effects of garbage collections. Disk I/O should be minimized. Dissertation Service? Don't do random I/O to read a file serially (RandomAccessFile class). S World 2nd Ed? You should use buffered I/O. Complex AWT graphics will slow down your performance. Buy University Report? Use the most current version of the canadian essays Java.
Use -mx and -ms to tune the heap size [now -Xms and -Xmx]. To End? Profile the code to find bottlenecks. Bill Venners on the right way to optimize (Page last updated May 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Bill Venners, Publisher Artima). Tips: Don't optimize until you know you have a problem. Measure the program before and after your optimization efforts. Profile the program to isolate the code that really matters to performance (10 to the canadian writer essays 20 percent), and just focus your optimization efforts there. Try to devise a better algorithm Use APIs in institutional thesis, a smarter way Use standard code optimization techniques such as strength reduction, common sub-expression elimination, code motion, and loop unrolling. Writer S World? Only as a last resort should you sacrifice good object-oriented, thread-safe design and maintainable code in the name of performance.
Make methods static wherever possible. Avoid creating lots of short-lived objects. Application performance tuning (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Baya Pavliashvili and Kevin Kline, Publisher informIT). Tips: Application performance problems can be caused and dissertation service, mitigated with any combination of the following areas: Network topology and throughput; Server hardware configuration; client application code; middle-tier components; database communication code; database configuration settings; logical and physical database design; operating system settings; client hardware; overall application architecture. Monitor the application.
Primary statistics worth analyzing are: the number of concurrent users; number of the canadian 2nd ed transactions per unit of time; duration of the thesis longest and shortest transactions; and the average response time. Specify the performance targets. Consider using eye candy to distract attention during acceptable short waits. The Canadian Writer S World Essays? Identify which application tier contains the bottleneck and fix that. It might be hardware or software; low-level or architecture. Prioritize which problems to fix according to the resources available. Object management article (Page last updated November 1999, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Objects have a space overhead in report, addition to the space taken by the data held by the object.
Objects have a space overhead in addition to the canadian essays 2nd ed the space taken by the data held by essays economic history of south the object. The overhead is dependent on the particular JVM, but there is always some. The space overhead is a per object value, so the percentage of the canadian overhead decreases with larger objects. If you work with large numbers of small objects, you can use a huge amount of memory simply for overhead. Different JVMs are optimized for short lived objects or for and social history of south long lived objects. Object creation and the canadian writer essays, garbage collection have significant overheads. Providing you're sensible about creating objects in thesis, heavily used code, it's easy to avoid the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed object churn cycle. The easiest way to reduce object creation in your programs is by using primitive types in place of learning objects.
Avoid using wrapper classes (for primitive data types, e.g. Integer) as they impose extra overheads. If you're working with a large number of writer primitive data types, you can avoid the buy university report excessive object overhead of the canadian writer essays 2nd ed wrappers by storing and passing values of the institutional underlying primitive types, and writer essays 2nd ed, only converting the values into dissertation learning the full objects when necessary for use with methods in the class libraries. Avoid convenience classes like Point if you can manage the the canadian underlying data directly. Reuse objects where possible.
Use object pools where this is helpful in reusing objects, but be careful that the pool implementation does actually give a performance improvement (dedicated pools within the class can be significantly faster than abstract pool implementations). Implement pools so that the pool does not retain a reference to any allocated object, so that if the object is not returned to the pool, it can still be garbage collected when finished with (thus avoiding memory leaks). Website usability metrics (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Sharon Gaudin, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: A website must be easy to navigate and have a quick display and response time. Bad navigation metrics include: abandoned shopping carts; first time visitors look at one or two pages and disappear; dead ends require the dissertation back button; less than 5% buy something; any broken links. Good navigation metrics include: three pages or less from wesbite entry to desired information; no streaming video or Flash introductions; multiple ways to reach the required information; up to date search engines; basic compancy and contact info one click away from the writer s world homepage. Common issues affecting Web performance (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Drew Robb, Publisher EarthWeb).
Tips: Symptoms of network problems include slow response times, excessive database table scans, database deadlocks, pages not available, memory leaks and high CPU usage. Causes of good ways to end an essay performance problems can include the application design, incorrect database tuning, internal and external network bottlenecks, undersized or non-performing hardware or Web and s world, application server configuration errors. Root causes of performance problems come equally from to do homework four main areas: databases, Web servers, application servers and the network, with each area typically causing about a quarter of the s world 2nd ed problems. Buy University Report? The most common database problems are insufficient indexing, fragmented databases, out-of-date statistics and faulty application design. Solutions include tuning the index, compacting the database, updating the database and rewriting the the canadian essays application so that the to end database server controls the query process. The most common network problems are undersized, misconfigured or incompatible routers, switches, firewalls and load balancers, and inadequate bandwidth somewhere along he communication route. The Canadian S World? The most common application server problems are poor cache management, unoptimized database queries, incorrect software configuration and poor concurrent handling of client requests. The most common web server problems are poor design algorithms, incorrect configurations, poorly written code, memory problems and overloaded CPUs. Having a testing environment that mirrors the expected real-world environment is very important in achieving good performance. Buy University Report? The deployed system needs to the canadian s world be tested and dissertation service learning, continually monitored.
The smallest Hello World (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Norman Richards, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: [Brilliantly amusing search to make the smallest Hello World program.] Use the -g:none option to strip debugging bytes from classfiles. Most bytes in Java class files are from the constant pool, then the method declarations. The constant pool includes class and method names as well as strings. The Java compiler will insert a default constructor if you don't specify one, but the constructor is only needed if you will create instances.
You can remove the constructor if you will not be creating instances. Most variables and class references used by the code generate entries in the constant pool. The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Reusing already existing constant pool entries for class/method/variable names reduces the class file size. Article on using smart proxies. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author M. Jeff Wilson, Publisher JavaWorld). Institutional? Tips: Use smart proxies to transparently cache data in the client, thus reducing the number of remote calls. Use smart proxies for writer s world essays caching frequently read, seldom-updated data of to do my calculus homework remote objects. S World 2nd Ed? Use smart proxies to monitor the in the economic history performance of RMI calls. Use smart proxies to prevent returning multiple copies of the same remote object to client code. Paper detailing the Best Practices for Developing High Performance Web and Enterprise Applications using IBM's WebSphere. The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? All the tips are generally applicable to servlet/EJB development, as well as other types of server development. (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Harvey W. Homework? Gunther, Publisher IBM). Tips: Do not store large object graphs in javax.servlet.http.HttpSession.
Servlets may need to serialize and deserialize HttpSession objects for persistent sessions, and making them large produces a large serialization overhead. The Canadian 2nd Ed? Use the in the economic history of south tag %@ page session=false% to avoid creating HttpSessions in JSPs. Minimize synchronization in Servlets to avoid multiple execution threads becoming effectively single-threaded. Do not use javax.servlet.SingleThreadModel. Use JDBC connection pooling, release JDBC resources when done, and reuse datasources for the canadian essays JDBC connections. Use the HttpServlet Init method to perform expensive operations that need only be done once. Minimize use of essays in the and social history of south System.out.println.
Avoid String concatenation +=. Access entity beans from session beans, not from writer client or servlet code. Reuse EJB homes. Essay System? Use Read-Only methods where appropriate in essays, entity-beans to avoid unnecessary invocations to store. Use the pay someone to do my calculus lowest impact transaction level possible for each transaction. The EJB remote programming model always assumes EJB calls are remote, even where this is the canadian writer s world, not so. Where calls are actually local to the same JVM, try to use calling mechanisms that avoid the remote call. Remove stateful session beans (and any other unneeded objects) when finished with, to avoid extra overheads in case the container needs to essay question system be passivated.
Beans.instantiate() incurs a filesystem check to writer s world 2nd ed create new bean instances. Use new to avoid this overhead. Tuning IBM's WebSphere product. White paper: Methodology for Production Performance Tuning. Only non-product specific Java tips have been extracted here. (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Gennaro (Jerry) Cuomo, Publisher IBM). Tips: A size restricted queue (closed queue) allows system resources to institutional be more tightly managed than an open queue.
The network provides a front-end queue. A server should be configured to use the network queue as its bottleneck, i.e. only accept a request from the network when there are sufficient resources to process the request. This reduces the load on an app server. However, sufficient requests should be accepted to ensure that the app server is working at maximum capacity, i.e. try not to let a component sit idle while there are still requests that can be accepted even if other components are fully worked. Try to balance the the canadian writer workload of the various components. [Paper shows a nice throughput curve giving recommended scaling behavior for an server] The desirable target bottleneck is the CPU, i.e. Dissertation Service Learning? a server should be tuned until the CPU is the remaining bottleneck. The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? Adding CPUs is a simple remedy to this. Institutional Thesis? Use connection pools and cached prepared statements for database access. Object memory management is the canadian writer s world, particularly important for server applications.
Typically garbage collection could take between 5% and 20% of the server execution time. Garbage collection statistics provide a useful monitor to determine the server's health. Use the verbosegc flag to collect basic GC statistics. GC statistcs to monitor are: total time spent in GC (target less than 15% of execution time); average time per GC; average memory collected per GC; average objects collected per GC. For long lived server processes it is particularly important to eliminate memory leaks (references retained to objects and pay someone to do my calculus homework, never released). Use -ms and -mx to the canadian writer s world 2nd ed tune the JVM heap. Bigger means more space but GC takes longer. Use the GC statistics to determine the optimal setting, i.e the setting which provides the essay system minimum average overhead from GC. Writer S World Essays? The ability to reload classes is typically achieved by testing a filesystem timestamp. To End? This check should be done at set intermediate periods, and not on every request as the the canadian filesystem check is an expensive operation.
WebSphere V3 Performance Tuning Guide (Page last updated March 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Authors Ken Ueno, Tom Alcott, Jeff Carlson, Andrew Dunshea, Hajo Kitzh?fer, Yuko Hayakawa, Frank Mogus, Colin D. Wordsworth, Publisher IBM). Tips: [The Red book lists and discusses tuning parameters available to Websphere] Run an application server and any database servers on buy university report separate server machines. JVM heap size: -mx, -ms [-Xmx, -Xms]. As a starting point for a server based on a single JVM, consider setting the s world maximum heap size to 1/4 the total physical memory on good ways to end the server and setting the minimum to 1/2 of the maximum heap. Sun recommends that ms be set to somewhere between 1/10 and 1/4 of the mx setting. They do not recommend setting ms and mx to be the same. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Bigger is not always better for heap size. Essay Solar System? In general increasing the the canadian writer essays 2nd ed size of the Java heap improves throughput to the point where the heap no longer resides in physical memory. Once the heap begins swapping to economic and social yorkshire disk, Java performance drastically suffers. The Canadian Writer Essays? Therefore, the mx heap setting should be set small enough to contain the heap within physical memory. Essays Of South? Also, large heaps can take several seconds to fill up, so garbage collection occurs less frequently which means that pause times due to GC will increase.
Use verbosegc to help determine the optimum size that minimizes overall GC. In some cases turning off asynchronous garbage collection (-noasyncgc, not always available to all JVMs) can improve performance. Setting the JVM stack and native thread stack size (-oss and -ss) too large (e.g. greater than 2MB) can significantly degrade performance. When security is enabled (e.g. SSL, password authentication, security contexts and access lists, encryption, etc) performance is degraded by the canadian writer essays significant amounts. One of the most time-consuming procedures of a database application is establishing a connection to the database. Use connection pooling to minimize this overhead. Using a ternary search tree for fast searches of partial text matches (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Wally Flint, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: [Article discusses several efficient algorthms for thesis searching through ternary search trees which provide fast partial match searches of the canadian essays 2nd ed character array keys]. When synchronization is required (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Essay System? Tips: synchronization means mutual exclusion (if the same monitor is used), atomicity of the synchronized block (again with respect to other threads using the same monitor) and synchronization of thread memory to main memory. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Because synchronization synchronizes thread memory with main memory, there is a cost to synchronization beyond simply acquiring a lock. Too little synchronization can lead to corrupt data; too much can lead to reduced performance and deadlock. The costs of synchronization vary with JVMs, with more recent JVMs being more efficient. The costs of synchronization differs depending on whether or not threads are actually contending for buy university report locks (more expensive, slower), or for uncontended synchronization where the thread is basically acting in single-threaded mode (cheaper, faster). You need to synchronize or make volatile variables holding data that will be shared between threads. Composite operations may need synchronizing to make them atomic even if each individual operation is already synchronized. Reducing thread contention (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Tips: Thread contention impairs scalability because it forces the scheduler to serialize operations, even if a free processor is the canadian essays, available.
Analyze your program to determine where contention is in the economic and social of south, likely to occur. Make synchronized blocks as short as possible. Spread synchronizations over more than one lock. [Article provides a thread-safe hashed Map implementation with lower global contention than Hashtable.] If you will be acquiring and releasing the same lock many times (such as in a loop), acquire the the canadian writer 2nd ed lock before the loop: it is faster to acquire a lock that you already hold than one that nobody holds. J2EE worst practices (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Brett McLaughlin, Publisher OnJava). Tips: The choice of data store type (RDB, ODB, XML-DB, directory-server, etc) affects performance, and should not be made without performance considerations. Essays In The Economic History Yorkshire? Directory servers are optimized for frequent reads, with few writes. If you frequently add data to a directory server, performance degrades. Stateless session beans are soooo much faster. The hprof profiler (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Bill Pierce, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use the hprof profiler with the startup command java -Xrunhprof[:help][:suboption=value. ] MyMainClass. [Article describes using hprof and reading the resultant profile files to profile an application for memory leaks, cpu-bottlenecks and thread contention]. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? hprof can be used to profile object allocation (heap option), method bottlnecks (cpu option) and essay, thread contention (monitor option). Weblogic tuning (generally applicable Java tips extracted) (Page last updated June 2000, Added 2001-03-21, Author BEA Systems, Publisher BEA).
Tips: Response time is affected by: contention and wait times, particularly for shared resources; and software and hardware component performance, i.e. the s world amount of time that resources are needed. A well-designed application can increase performance by dissertation simply adding more resources (for instance, an extra server). Use clustered or multi-processing machines; use a JIT-enabled JVM; use Java 2 rather than JDK 1.1; Use -noclassgc. Use the maximum possible heap size that also is small enough to avoid the JVM from s world essays 2nd ed swapping (e.g. 80% of RAM left over service after other required processes). Consider starting with minimum initial heap size so that the garbage collector doesn't suddenly encounter a full heap with lots of garbage. Benchmarkers sometimes like to set the heap as high as possible to essays completely avoid GC for the duration of the benchmark. Distributing the application over dissertation several server JVMs means that GC impact will be spread in time, i.e. the various JVMs will most likely GC at the canadian writer essays different times from each. On Java 1.1 the most effective heap size is that which limits the longest GC incurred pause to the longest acceptable pause in processing time.
This will typically require a reduction in the maximum heap size. Thesis? Too many threads causes too much context switching. S World Essays 2nd Ed? Too few threads may underutilize the system. If n=number of pay someone my calculus homework threads, k=number of the canadian essays CPUs, then: (n k) by a moderate amount of buy university threads is practically ideal; (n k) by many threads can lead to significant performance degradation from context switching. Blocked threads count for less in the previous formulae. Symptoms of too few threads: CPU is waiting to do work, but there is work that could be done; Can not get 100% CPU; All threads are blocked [on i/o] and runnable when you do an execution snapshot. Symptoms of too many threads: An execution snapshot shows that there is a lot of context switching going on in your JVM; Your performance increases as you decrease the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed number of threads. If many client connections are dropped or refused, the TCP listen queue may be too short.
Try to avoid excessive cycling (creation/deletion or activation/passivation) of in the and social of south beans. Weblogic JDBC tuning (Page last updated April 1999, Added 2001-03-21, Author BEA Systems, Publisher BEA). Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: Use connection pools to the database and dissertation, reuse connections rather than repeatedly opening and closing connections. Optimal pool size is when the connection pool is the canadian s world, just large enough to service requests without waits. Cache frequently requested data in buy university report, the JVM and avoid the unnecessary database requests. S World Essays? Speed up applet download and startup using zip/jar files containing just the in the economic and social yorkshire classes needed for the applet. Avoid accessing the database wherever possible. Fetch rows in batches rather than one at a time, using the batch as a read-ahead mechanism (i.e. pre-fetch rows in batches).
Tune the batch size and the number of rows pre-fetched. Avoid pre-fetching BLOBs. Avoid moving data unless absolutely necessary. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Process the buy university data and produce results as close to the canadian its source as possible. Institutional? Use stored procedures.
Streamline data before the essays 2nd ed result crosses the network. Use stored procedures to avoid extra network transfers. Use built-in DBMS set-based processing to operate on multiple rows/tables in one request. Avoid row at a time processing, process multiple rows together wherever possible. Counting entries in buy university, a table (e.g. using SELECT count(*) from myTable, yourTable where . ) is resource intensive. Try first selecting into temporary tables, returning only the count, and then sending a refined second query to return only writer s world, a subset of the rows in the temporary table.
Proper use of SQL can reduce resource requirements. To End? Use queries which return the minimum of the canadian writer essays data needed: avoid SELECT * queries. A complex query that returns a small subset of data is dissertation service learning, more efficient than a simple query that returns more data than is needed. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? Make your queries as smart as possible, i.e. as precise as possible to good ways to end an essay minimize the data transferred to just that subset that is required. Try to batch updates: collect statements together and execute them together in essays, one transaction. Use conditional logic and temporary variables if necessary to achieve statement batching. Never let a DBMS transaction span user input.
Consider using optimistic locking. Good Ways To End? Optimistic locking employs timestamps to essays 2nd ed verify that data has not been changed by another user, otherwise the institutional thesis transaction fails. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Use in-place updates, i.e. Good An Essay? change data in rows/tables that already exist rather than adding or deleting rows/tables. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Try to avoid moving rows or changing their sizes. Essays And Social Of South? Store operational data and historic data separately (or more generally store frequently used data separately from infrequently used data).
Keep your operational data set as small as possible, to writer avoid having to read through data that is irrelevant. Service Learning? DBMSs work well with parallelism. The Canadian S World? Try to essays in the of south yorkshire design the application to do other things while interacting with the s world essays DBMS. Use pipelining and parallelism. Designing applications to support lots of parallel processes working on and social of south easily distinguished subsets of the work makes the application faster. If there are multiple steps to processing, try to the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed design your application so that subsequent steps can start working on the portion of data that any prior process has finished, instead of institutional having to wait until the prior process is writer s world, complete. Choose the right driver for your application, i.e. the fastest JDBC driver. JDBC optimizing for dissertation service learning DB2 (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author John Goodson, Publisher WebSphere Developers Journal).
Tips: Use the same connection to execute multiple statements. Keep connection objects open, and reuse them, rather than repeatedly connecting and disconnecting. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Turn off autocommit, but don't leave transactions open for too long. Avoid distributed transactions (transactions that span mutliple connections). System? Minimize the data retrieved from the database, both columns and rows. Use setMaxRows, setMaxFieldSize, and s world essays 2nd ed, SetFetchSize. Use the most efficiently handled data type: character strings are faster than integers, which are in turn more efficient than floating-point and timestamps. Dissertation Service? Use programmatic updates: updateXXX() calls on updatable resultsets. The resultset is already postioned at a row, so eliminating the usual overhead of the canadian s world 2nd ed finding the row to be updated when using an UPDATE statement. Cache any required metadata and use metadata methods as rarely as possible as they are quite slow.
Avoid using null parameters in metadata queries. Use a dummy query to get the to do my calculus metadata for a column, rather than use the getcolumns() Use parameter markers with stored procedures, rather than embedding data literally in the statement, to minimize parsing overheads. Use prepared statements for the canadian s world 2nd ed repeatedly executing SQL statements Choose the optimal cursor: forward-only for sequential reads; insensitive for good to end two-way scrolling. Avoid insenstive cursors for queries that only return one row. J2EE Performance tuning (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James McGovern, Publisher Java Developers Journal).
Tips: Call HttpSession.invalidate() to clean up a session when you no longer need to use it. For Web pages that don't require session tracking, save resources by turning off automatic session creation using: %@ page session=false% Implement the HttpSessionBindingListener for all beans that are scoped as session interface and explicitly release resources implementing the method valueUnbound(). Timeout sessions more quickly by setting the timeout or using session.setMaxInactiveInterval(). Keep-Alive may be extra overhead for dynamic sites. Use the include directive %@ include file=copyleft.html % where possible, as this is a compile-time directive (include action jsp:include page=copyleft.jsp / is a runtime directive). The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Use cache tagging where possible. Always access entity beans from session beans. If only using an entity bean for data access, use JDBC directly instead. Use read-only in the deployment descriptor. Cache access to thesis EJB homes. Use local entity beans when beans are co-located in the same JVM.
Proprietary stubs can be used for caching and batching data. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Use a dedicated remote object to generate unique primary keys. Follow standard JDBC optimizations: use connection pools; prefer stored procedures or direct SQL; use type 4 drivers; remove extra columns from the result set; use prepared statements when practical; have your DBA tune the query; choose the appropriate transaction levels. Consider storing all database character data in Unicode to eliminate conversion overheads. But beware: this step will cause your database size to grow, as Unicode requires 2 bytes per character.
Use block fetches when the query will give a large ResultSet and all rows are needed. Use the dissertation service Page-by-Page Iterator pattern when only the canadian writer s world essays, some of the rows may be needed. System? Consider using an in-memory database (product) for data that doesn't need to be persisted. Use an algorithm to prune caches to stop them growing too large. Performance is sometimes in perception: try to provide immediate feedback. Optimizing code is one of the last things developers should consider [after optimizing configurations, hardware, etc]. Using nonblocking I/O and memory-mapped buffers in SDK 1.4. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Michael T. Nygard, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Before SDK 1.4, servers had a number of performance problems: i/o could easily be blocked; garbage was easily generated when reading i/o; many threads are needed to scale the server. Many threads each blocked on i/o is an inefficient architecture in comparison to one thread blocked on many i/o calls (multiplexed i/o).
Truly high-performance applications must obsess about garbage collection. The more garbage generated, the lower the application throughput. Writer? A Buffer (java.nio.*Buffer) is a reusable portion of memory. A MappedByteBuffer can map a portion of good an essay a file directly into memory. Direct Buffer objects can be read/written directly from the canadian essays Channels, but nondirect Buffer objects have a data copy performed for good to end read/writes to i/o (and so are slower and may generate garbage). Convert nondirect Buffers to the canadian writer essays 2nd ed direct Buffers if they will be used more than once.
Scatter/gather operations allow i/o to operate to and from several Buffers in one operation, for increased efficiency. Where possible, scatter/gather operation are passed to even more efficient operating system functions. Channels can be configured to operate blocking or non-blocking i/o. Using a MappedByteBuffer is more efficient than using BufferedInputStreams. The operating system can page into memory more efficiently than BufferedInputStream can do a block read. Use Selectors to essay question multiplex i/o and avoid having to block multiple threads waiting on i/o.
Combining apps in one JVM (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Kirk Pepperdine, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Loading multiple applications in the same JVM allows resource sharing and reduce system memory requirements. The Canadian Writer Essays? Classloaders allow multiple applications to run in the same JVM without interfering with each other. Pay Someone To Do? [Article discusses the resource sharing problems of running multiple applications in the same JVM]. JDBC Drivers (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Barrie Sosinsky, Publisher DevX). Tips: Type 1 drivers are JDBC-ODBC bridges, plus an ODBC driver. Recommended only for the canadian s world prototyping, not for production. Pay Someone To Do My Calculus Homework? Not suitable for the canadian s world 2nd ed high-transaction environments. Not well supported, and limited in functionality. Type 2 drivers use a native API, and are part-Java drivers.
Have a binary-code client loading overhead, and may not be fully-featured. Type 3 drivers are a pure Java driver which connects to report database middleware. Can be server-based which is frequently faster than types 1 and writer s world, 2. Type 4 drivers are pure Java drivers for direct-to-database communications. This can minimize overheads, and generally provides the fastest driver. Economic? JDBC 3.0 has additional features to improve performance such as advancements in the canadian essays 2nd ed, connection pooling, statement pooling, RowSet objects. Opening a connection is the most resource-expensive step in database transactions. Creating a connection requires multiple separate network roundtrips. However, once the connection object has been created, there is institutional, little penalty in leaving the connection object in place and reusing it for future connections. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Connection pooling, keeps open a cache of essays in the and social history of south yorkshire database connection objects, making them available for s world 2nd ed immediate use. Instead of performing expensive network roundtrips to the database server to open a connection, a connection attempt results in the re-assignment of service learning a connection from the local cache. RowSet objects are similar to ResultSet objects, but can provide access to database data while being disconnected.
This allows data to be efficiently cached in its simplest form. Prepared statement pooling (available from the canadian writer s world 2nd ed JDBC 3.0) caches SQL queries that have been previously optimized and run so that, should they be needed again, they do not have to go through optimization pre-processing again (avoiding optimization steps, such as checking syntax, validating addresses, and optimizing access paths and execution plans). Statement pooling can be a significant performance booster. Report? Statement pooling and connection pooling in JDBC 3.0 can cooperate to share statement pools, so that connections that can use a cached statement from another connection, thus incurring statement preparation overheads only once on the first execution of some SQL by any connection. Database drivers developed by s world essays 2nd ed vendors other than the the database vendor can be better performing and more feature full. Essays And Social History Of South Yorkshire? (Driver vendors concentrate on essays 2nd ed the driver, database vendors have many other things to learning consider). Type 3 and type 4 third-party drivers can provide better performance than the database vendor's native-API (type 2) driver. Try to use a driver that supports JDBC 3.0 as it includes support for performance enhancing features including DataSource objects, connection pooling, distributed transaction support, RowSets, and prepared statement pooling. Type 3 and Type 4 drivers are the drivers to writer s world essays 2nd ed use when performance is essay solar system, important. Shortened version of the canadian 2nd ed chapter 2, I/O, from essays and social history yorkshire Early Adopter J2SE 1.4 (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James Hart, Publisher Sun). Tips: Non-blocking I/O can improve performance by the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed minimizing the amount of time spent in I/O calls, though they may add complexity to the application. Good Ways To End? The old I/O classes can now be interrupted more reliably from 1.4.
FileChannel.transferFrom() is an efficient way to copy data between files. Shortened version of chapter 5, Utilities: The Logging Architecture, from Early Adopter J2SE 1.4 (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James Hart, Publisher Sun). Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: Logging can take place asynchronously: a call to log can return before the log has been formatted and written. The logging framework provides methods (in Logger) for recording method activity, but this may have a large overhead to use. Coding standards with a small but interesting section (section 7.3) on to do optimizations (Page last updated January 2000, Added 2001-04-20, Author Scott Ambler, Publisher AmbySoft). Tips: Optimizing code is one of the last things that programmers should be thinking about, not one of the first. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Don't optimize code that already runs fast enough. Prioritize where speed comes among the following factors, so that goals are better defined: speed, size, robustness, safety, testability, maintainability, simplicity, reusability, and portability.
The most important factors in solar system, looking for writer essays 2nd ed code to optimize are fixed overhead and performance on good ways an essay large inputs: fixed overhead dominates speed for writer s world small inputs and the algorithm dominates for large inputs (a program that works well for both small and large inputs will likely work well for medium-sized inputs). Operations that take a particular amount of time, such as the way that memory and question system, buffers are handled, often show substantial time variations between platforms. Users are sensitive to the canadian essays 2nd ed particular delays: users will likely be happier with a screen that draws itself immediately and then takes eight seconds to load data than with a screen that draws itself after taking five seconds to load data. Give users immediate feedback: you do not always need to make your code run faster to optimize it in the eyes of your users. Slow software that works is almost always preferable to fast software that does not. Overview of common application servers. (Announced at http://www.theserverside.com/home/thread.jsp?thread_id=9581). Good Ways An Essay? I've extracted the performance related features (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Pieter Van Gorp, Publisher Van Gorp). Tips: Load balancing: random; minimum load; round-robin; weighted round-robin; performance-based; load-based; dynamic algorithm based; dynamic registration. Clustering. Additionally: distributed transaction management; in-memory replication of session state information; no single point of failure. The Canadian Writer S World? Connection pooling.
Caching. JNDI caching. Distributed caching with synchronization. Thread pooling. Pay Someone To Do? Configurable user Quality of s world Service. Analysis tools. Dissertation Service? Low system/memory requirements. Optimized subsystems (RMI, JMS, JDBC drivers, JSP tags cacheable page fragments). Optimistic transaction support. Atomic File Transactions. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher OnJava). The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? Tips: If you don't require powerful search capabilities, using flat files may be faster than dealing with a database.
Basic file operations (deletion, creation, renaming) are atomic. Other operations and combinations of operations are not atomic. Atomicity can be built but comes at a performance cost. You will have to in the economic yorkshire determine whether the increase in robustness is worth the slowdown in your application. Do the writer essays I/O in a background thread to mitigate the performance impact of adding atomicity to file transactions. [Article discusses how to use a free package which provides atomicity for file transactions, and how the atomicity is provided]. Atomic File Transactions, Part 2 (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article continues implementation of a framework for good to end atomic file transactions].
If a transaction creates a file and then performs several other actions on the canadian 2nd ed it, there is no need to undo the actions -- it is enough to delete the essays economic history yorkshire file. If a backup copy of a file is the canadian essays 2nd ed, made, then it is unnecessary to roll back all subsequent actions on the file: recovery can simply restore the backup. MIDP memory tuning (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Jonathan Knudsen, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use an obfuscator to institutional thesis minimize the writer s world size of classes. Minimize resource sizes by history yorkshire using as few images as possible, and using fewer colors in the images you do use.
Use as few objects as possible. Dereference objects (set them to null) when they're no longer useful so they will be garbage-collected. Catch OutOfMemoryErrors on all allocations, or at the canadian writer least the thesis large ones. Don't let an OutOfMemoryError take your application by surprise. MIDlets use three types of memory: program memory, heap, and s world essays 2nd ed, persistent storage. Each of these may be scarce and they should all be treated with respect. Design patterns catalog (Page last updated 2001, Added 2002-01-25, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Page lists some patterns with summaries and links to detailed info.
Patterns are: Data Access Object; Fast-Lane Reader; Front Controller; Page-by-Page Iterator; Session Facade; Value Object]. Use the Data Access Object pattern to decouple business logic from homework data access logic, allowing for optimizations to be made in the canadian, how data is managed. Use the Fast-Lane Reader pattern to accelerate read-only data access by not using enterprise beans. Use the Front Controller pattern to centralize incoming client requests, allowing optimizations to in the yorkshire be made in aggregating the resulting view. The Canadian Writer S World? Use the thesis Page-by-Page Iterator pattern to efficiently access a large, remote list by retrieving its elements one sublist of writer s world 2nd ed value objects at a time. Use the good ways an essay Session Facade pattern to provide a unified, workflow-oriented interface to a set of enterprise beans, thus minimizing client calls to server EJBs. Use the Value Object pattern to s world 2nd ed efficiently transfer remote, fine-grained data by system sending a coarse-grained view of the data. EJB design (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Boris Lublinsky, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Some application server implementations (e.g., WebSphere) automatically convert remote communications to local communications to the canadian writer 2nd ed make them faster. Low granularity (i.e. fine-grained) methods in essay question, an EJB typically leads to poor performance of the writer essays 2nd ed overall system. Local interfaces in EJB 2.0 is to end, one attempt to improve overall performance: local interfaces provide for beans in the same container to the canadian writer s world essays interact locally without involving RMI.
The most effective way to improve the report overall performance of the canadian s world essays 2nd ed EJB-based applications is to minimize the amount of method invocations, making the communications overhead negligible compared with the execution time. Ways An Essay? This can be achieved by s world implementing coarse-grained methods. Pay Someone Homework? Entity beans should not be simply mapped to database tables. Treating entity beans as such fine-grained objects which are effectively wrappers on table rows leads to writer increased network communications and heavier database communications than if entity beans are treated as coarse-grained components. For optimal performance, entity beans should be designed to: have large granularity, which usually means they should contain multiple Java classes and support multiple database tables; be associated with a certain amount of persistent data, typically multiple database tables, one of which should define the primary key for the whole bean; support meaningful business methods and encapsulate business rules to access the data. Report? Don't use client transactions in the EJB environment since long-running transactions that can cause database lockup. Entity beans are transactional resources due to their stateful nature, but application server vendors often rely on the underlying database to lock and resolve access appropriately. The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Although this approach greatly improves performance, it provides the potential for database lockup. Design Patterns (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Vijay Ramachandran, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Article discusses several design patterns: Model-View-Controller, Front Controller, Session Facade, Data Access Object].
Use the Front Controller pattern to channel all client requests through a single decision point, which allows the application to be balanced at runtime. Use a Session Facade to provide a simple interface to a complex subsystem of enterprise beans, and to reduce network communication requirements. Use Data Access Objects to decouple the business logic from the economic of south data access logic, allowing data access optimizations to be decoupled from other types of optimizations. J2EE Design Patterns for the presentation tier (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Sue Spielman, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article discusses several design patterns: Intercepting Filter, Front Controller, View Helper, Composite View, Service To Worker, Dispatch View. Performance is the canadian writer, not explicitly covered, but at least a couple are relevant to getting good performance]. Thread programming (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Karthik Rangaraju, Publisher DevX).
Tips: Use Djikstra semaphores (synchronized acquire()/release()) to control access to a finite pool of essay question solar system resources. Conditional events provide a more sophisticated version of the wait()/notify() mechanism which avoids some potential problems of that mechanism. The Canadian Writer Essays? Blocking queues provides a mechanism for reliably distributing requests to multiple server threads. Dissertation Service Learning? A dispatcher-worker model consists of a dispatcher which hands requests of to multiple worker threads. A pipeline model consists of a dispatcher which iteratively hands a particular request to one worker thread after another, with each worker thread completing part of the overall request. Some (Intel chip) optimization myths debunked. The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author George Walsh, Publisher DevX). Tips: If optimization and good to end, performance tools are used throughout development rather than tacked on at the end as a final optimization phase, time to writer essays 2nd ed market and dissertation learning, costs can actually be decreased by the canadian 2nd ed speeding up the process of locating problems and bottlenecks in code.
Not taking advantage of dissertation service new optimized interfaces will ultimately put you at a competitive disadvantage. Double-checked locking revisited. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Double-checked locking is not guaranteed to produce consistent results. Using a ThreadLocal in the double-checked locking test is guaranteed to produce consistent results, but is slower than avoiding double-checked locking altogether. ThreadLocal is essays 2nd ed, faster in in the and social history, each SDK release through 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4.
1.4 ThreadLocal may be fast enough to provide an efficient double-checked locking test. Command objects for RMI. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Use Command objects to the canadian s world essays automatically queue or retry RMI calls. Caching RMI stubs. Question System? (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Remote method calls are much slower than local calls, at least 1000 times slower. Reduce the number of remote calls made by an application to writer improve performance. Pay Someone? Cache remote objects locally where possible, rather than repeatedly fetching them. Use Command objects to transparently add a remote stub cache to an RMI application. Caching stubs keeps them from being garbage collected, and may prevent an RMI server from closing. Use a policy to expire stubs and delete them from the cache. Website performance. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Gordon Benett, Publisher Intranet Journal).
Tips: Some e-commerce consultants cite an the canadian writer s world attention span on the order of eight seconds as the an essay threshold for abandoning a slow retail site. Where broadband connections are the norm, pages that don't appear instantly stand a good chance of writer 2nd ed never being seen: slow pages might as well be no pages. Systems can only be designed to meet performance goals if those goals have been identified. Determine what range of response times will be acceptable. Try to understand the performance impacts of your design decisions. However the performance of essay question some design choices can be hard to predict and may remain unclear before testing. Writer S World Essays? Test the institutional thesis system under conditions that simulate real patterns of use. Writer? Intermittent hard to repeat performance problems are not worth addressing unless they are in a business critical part of the website which provides corporate revenue.
Use a rapid, iterative development process in combination with frequent performance testing. Pay Someone To Do Homework? Try to the canadian s world essays plan up-front rather than have to rely on essay question system late-phase tuning. High performance graphics (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: The large number extra features and increased cross-platform compatibility added to the Java Graphics framework in the canadian essays 2nd ed, SDK 1.2 made the report graphics slower than the the canadian s world 1.1 Graphics. SDK 1.4 targeted these performance issues head on. VolatileImage allows you to create hardware-accelerated offscreen images, resulting in better performance of Swing and gaming applications in particular and faster offscreen rendering. When filling a shape with a complex paint, Java 2D must query the Paint object every time it needs to assign a color to a pixel whereas a simple color fill only requires iterating through the pixels and assigning the same color to all of them. The graphics pipeline (from SDK 1.4) only gets invalidated when an attribute is changed to a different type of value, rather than when an attribute is changed to a different value of the same type. Pay Someone My Calculus? For example rendering one opaque color is the same rendering another opaque color, so this would not invalidate the pipeline. S World Essays 2nd Ed? But changing an opaque color to a transparent color would invalidate the pipeline.
Smaller font is rendered faster than larger font. Hardware-accelerated scaling is essay question, currently (1.4.0 release) disabled on Win32 because of quality problems, but you can enable it with a runtime flag, -Dsun.java2d.ddscale=true. The Canadian Writer? From SDK 1.4 many operations that were previously slow have been accelerated, and produce fewer intermediate temporary objects (garbage). Alpha blending and anti aliasing adversely affect performance. Only opaque images or images with 1-bit transparency can be hardware accelerated currently (1.4.0). Essay? Use 1-bit transparency to make the background color of a sprite rectangle transparent so that the the canadian writer s world essays character rendered in the sprite appears to move through the landscape of your game, rather than within the sprite box. Create images with the same depth and type of the screen to avoid pixel format conversions. Use either Component.createImage() or GraphicsConfiguration.createCompatibleImage(), or use a BufferedImage created with the ColorModel of the institutional screen.
Rectangular fills--including horizontal and vertical lines--tend to the canadian essays 2nd ed perform better than arbitrary or non-rectangular shapes whether they are rendered in solar, software or with hardware acceleration. If your application must repeatedly render non-rectangular shapes, draw the shapes into 1-bit transparency images and copy the images as needed. If you experience low frame rates, try commenting out pieces of your code to find the particular operations that are causing problems, and replace these problem operations with something that might perform better. Various flags are available that affect performance, but may affect quality in writer s world, some environments. These include: NO_J2D_DGA (no Solaris hardware acceleration); USE_DGA_PIXMAPS (use Solaris DGA acceleration of pixmaps); -Dsun.java2d.noddraw=true (turn off DirectDraw); -Dsun.java2d.ddoffscreen=false (disable DirectDraw offscreen acceleration); -Dsun.java2d.ddscale=true (enable hardware acceleration in Win32); -Dsun.java2d.pmoffscreen=true/false (store images in pixmaps under Unix); You can trace graphics performance using the flag -Dsun.java2d.trace=optionname,optionname. Report? where the options are log (print primitives on the canadian s world 2nd ed execution); timestamp (timestamp log entries); count (print total calls of each primitive used); out:filename (send logs to filename); verbose (whatever); help (help); Assertions (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Learning? Tips: Disabled assertions add a cost of one check of a global state flag Enabled assertions add a cost of writer essays 2nd ed a check of service a global state flag and evaluating the boolean expression. The Canadian Writer Essays? Also the cost of to do my calculus throwing a new exception is added if the the canadian s world 2nd ed assertion fails. Use the conditional compilation idiom applied to essays in the and social history of south yorkshire assertions to remove assertions completely from the bytecode.
GC performance tuning (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Alka Gupta and s world essays 2nd ed, Michael Doyle, Publisher Sun). Tips: The point when garbage collection kicks in is out of the control of the in the and social yorkshire application. Writer Essays 2nd Ed? This can cause a sequential overhead on the application, as the garbage collector suspends all application threads when it runs, causing inconsistent and unacceptable application pauses, leading to high latency and decreased application efficiency. verbosegc provides detailed logs of the garbage collector activities The live transient memory footprint of an application is the (Garbage generated per call) * (duration of the call) * (number of calls per buy university second) . GC pause time caused by two-space collection of short-lived objects is directly proportional to the size of the writer essays memory space allocated to holding short-lived objects. But smaller available space can mean more frequent GCs. Higher frequency GC of short-lived objects can inadvertently promote short-lived objects to old space where longer lived objects reside [because if the dissertation service the object is in short-lived object area for several GCs, then GC decides it's long-lived.] The promoteAll option will force the GC to writer essays 2nd ed assume that any object surviving GC of young space is essay, long-lived, and is immediately promoted to old space.. The short-lived object space needs to be configured so that GC pause time is not too high, but GCs are not run so often that many short-lived objects are considered long-lived and so promoted to the more expensively GCed long-lived object space.
The long-lived object space needs to be large enough to essays 2nd ed avoid an out-of-memory error, but not so high that a full GC of old space pauses the report JVM for too long. [Article covers 1.2 and 1.3 GC memory space models]. A significant GC value to the canadian writer s world focus on to do homework is the GC sequential overhead, which is the writer the percentage of the system time during which GC is to do homework, running and application threads are suspended: (Sequential GC pause time added together) * (100) / (Total Application run time) . The concurrent garbage collector runs only most of the old space GC concurrently. Some of the old space GC and all the young space GC is sequential. GC activity can take hours to settle down to the canadian essays 2nd ed its final pattern. Fragmentation of buy university old space can cause GC times to degrade, and it may take a long time for the old space to become sufficiently fragmented to show this behavior. GC options can reduce fragmentation (such as bestFitFirst). Essays 2nd Ed? The promoteAll option produced a significant improvement in performance [which I find curious]. Minimizing bytecode size for J2ME (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Eliminate unnecessary features. Avoid inner classes: make the main class implement the required Listener interfaces and handle the callbacks there.
Use built-in classes if functionality is close enough, and work around their limitations. Collapse inheritence hierarchies, even if this means duplicating code. Shorten all names (packages, classes, methods, data variables). Some obfuscators can do this automatically. MIDP applications are completely self-contained, so you can use the default package with no possible name-clash. Convert array initialization from code to extract data from a binary string or data file. Array initialization generates many bytecodes as each element is separately initialized.
Sun engineering report on performance tests of various configurations of the 1.2.2 and 1.3 JVM (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Ed Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Different versions of the Sun JVM support different optimization flags. Some flags may allow you to configure the garbage collector generational spaces. Configure heap space using -Xms and -Xmx [-ms and -mx for 1.1.x JVMs] to optimize the thesis JVM heap memory for improved performance. The Canadian? If the JVM supports configuring the garbage collector generational spaces (-Xgenconfig in 1.2.2; -XX:newSize, -XX:MaxNewSize, -XX:SurvivorRatio in essays economic and social of south, 1.3), then you can improve performance by specifying generation spaces more appropriate for your application [you can start with some appropriate configuration depending on the ratios of short-lived to medium-lived to long-lived objects, then test multiple configurations to determine the optimal config]. The 1.3 JVM appears to writer s world essays be faster when run with the -server flag. The -Xoptimize flag seems to essay question improve performance on those 1.2.x JVMs that support it. Discussion on JDBC performance (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author , Publisher JGuru). Tips: Use a connection pool mechanism whenever possible. Use prepared statements.
Use stored procedures. Select only required columns rather than using select * from Table xyz. Always close Statement and ResultSet objects as soon as possible. Work with DatabaseMetaData to get information about database functionality. Always catch and handle database warnings and the canadian writer essays 2nd ed, exceptions.
Time DB queries. Use the most appropriate datatype specific kinds of report data, e.g. store dates as a date type rather than varchar. Use scrollable ResultSet (JDBC 2.0). Stay away from the JDBC-ODBC and the canadian writer 2nd ed, other Type 1 drivers where possible. Improving J2EE performance (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Scott Marlow, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Set performance goals before development starts. If supporting clients with slow connections, consider compressing data for network communication. Essay System? Minimize the number of network round trips required by the application.
For applications to scale to many users, minimize the amount of shared memory that requires updating. Cache data to minimize lookup time, though this can reduce scalability if locks are required to access the cache. If there are more accesses than updates to a cache, share the access lock amongst all the accessors, though be aware that this reduces the the canadian writer essays 2nd ed window for updators to lock the cache. Institutional? For optimum performance, zero shared memory provides a cache per user. Be methodical to ensure that changes for performance do actually improve performance. Eliminate memory leaks before tuning execution speed. Use a test environment that correctly simulates the expected deployment environment.
Simulate the expected client activity, and compare the writer 2nd ed performance against your expected goals. My Calculus Homework? Consider which metrics to measure, such as: Max response time under heavy load; CPU utilization under heavy load; How the application scales as additional users are added. Profile the application to find the the canadian 2nd ed bottlenecks. Correct bottlenecks by making one change at a time and testing for question solar improvement. Generate stack traces to look for bottlenecks which are multi-thread conflicts (waiting for locks). Improving the performance of a method that is called 1000 times and takes a tenth of the canadian s world a second on average each call, is better than improving the performance of a method that is essay question, only called 10 times but takes 1 second each call.
Don?t cache data unless you know how and writer s world 2nd ed, when to invalidate the cached entries. An assortment of tips (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Curt Smith, Publisher Smith). Tips: Use the Java compiler?s optimization flag (javac -O) Profile the good ways to end application (using -prof) re-code the methods that are taking the longest. Avoid repeatedly instantiating exceptions. Reuse exceptions in the canadian 2nd ed, preference. Good An Essay? Move common subexpressions to one execution. Eliminate casts, or reduce the number of casts being made.
Method local variables are faster than Class variables Declare method arguments final if they are not modified in the method. In general declare all variables final if they are not modified after being initialized or set to some value. Declare methods private and/or final whenever that makes sense. This can help the compiler inline methods. [final methods are of dubious value] Buffer i/o. Use BufferedReaders.
DON?T create static strings via new(). The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Use String.intern() to reduce the number of strings in your runtime. [but this is an to do expensive operation] Use char arrays for all character processing in writer s world essays, loops, rather than using the String or StringBuffer classes. StringBuffer default size is 16 chars. Set this to the maximum expected string length. StringTokenizer is inefficient. Good To End An Essay? It can be optimized by storing the writer string and delimiter in a character array instead of in a String, or by storing the highest delimiter character to allow a quicker check. Accessing arrays is much faster than accessing vectors, String, and StringBuffer. Use System.arraycopy() to improve performance.
Initialize expensive arrays in class static initializers, and create a per instance copy of this array initialized with System.arrarycopy(). Vector is convenient to use, but inefficient. For best performance, use it only thesis, when the structure size is unknown, and the canadian essays, efficiency is not a concern. When using Vector, ensure that elementAt() is institutional thesis, not used inside a loop. Vector element access is faster using a subclassed non-synchronized accessor. S World Essays 2nd Ed? Re-use Vectors by dissertation service learning using Vector.removeAllElements().
Initialize Vector to the maximum expected size. Re-use Hashtables by using Hashtable.clear(). The Canadian? Set the Hashtable size to be large enough to hold the expected elements. Solar? Use a prime number for writer s world essays 2nd ed table size. Override hashcode() methods of Hashtable keys to improve hashing efficiency. Good To End An Essay? Use non-synchronized hash table classes. Increase heap size to reduce garbage collection [actally to defer it - this is a balancing act]. Use the -verbosegc option to the canadian monitor garbage collection.
Use arrays of smaller datatypes (short rather than int) is history of south yorkshire, possible. Avoid allocating objects in loops (readLine() is the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed, a common example). Minimizing synchronization may take work, but can pay off well. Polling is essay question system, only acceptable when waiting for outside events and should be performed in a side thread. Use wait/notify instead. Eliminate calls to the canadian writer essays 2nd ed synchronized methods (but be careful of being overly ambitious in this).
It is slightly faster to call a synchronized method than to enter a synchronized block. Calling a synchronized method when the monitor is already owned by the thread executes somewhat faster than calling a synchronized method when the monitor isn't already owned by the thread. Creating objects is expensive. Buy University Report? Consider reusing objects in reuse pools. Move new(), invariants and constant conditionals outside of loops. Unroll loops.
Make tests in loops as simple as possible. Writer 2nd Ed? Loop tests run backwards are slightly faster [actually the test comparing to 0 is what is faster]. Use local variables, rather than any other type of variable, in loops. Combine similar loops. Nest the buy university busiest loop, if loops are interchangeable. Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Convert expressions to table lookups [doesn't always work]. Pay Someone? Cache values that are expensive to fetch or compute. Pre-compute results. Delay computation of results until they are needed [if the computation comes at a bad time] Put all one-time initializations into a class initializer. Various performance tips (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Asha Balasubramanyan, Publisher Nandighosha). Tips: Use buffered I/O.
Use stream I/O rather than character I/O (Readers/Writers) if you are dealing with only ASCII characters. Avoid premature flushing of buffers. Writer Essays? Recycle objects. try to minimize the solar number of objects you create in the canadian writer 2nd ed, your java programs. Factor out pay someone homework, constant computations from loops. Push one-time computations into methods called once only.
Use StringBuffer when dealing with mutable strings. Initialize the StringBuffer with the proper size. Comparison of the canadian essays two string objects is faster if they differ in good ways to end, length. The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? Avoid converting Strings to bytes and essays economic and social history yorkshire, back. The Canadian? StringTokenizer is slow.
Write your own tokenizer. Use charAt() instead of StartsWith() in essay solar, case you are looking for a single character within a String. Avoid premature object creation. The Canadian S World Essays? Creation should be as close to the actual place of use as possible. Avoid initializing twice. Zeroing buffer contents is essays in the economic and social history of south yorkshire, not usually required. Be careful about the writer essays order of good ways an essay evaluation of expressions with OR and AND conditions. Use ArrayList for non-synchronized Vectors.
Minimize JNI calls in your code. Minimize calls to Date and related classes. Avoiding synchronization deadlocks (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brain Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Deadlocks are difficult to identify from code analysis, and the canadian, can occur unexpectedly. Always acquire locks in the same order to avoid one common cause of deadlocking. If you can guarantee that all locks will always be acquired in a consistent order, then your program will not deadlock. Try to avoid acquiring more than one lock at thesis a time (though this is usually impractical). Keep synchronized blocks of code as short as possible.
Counting object creation (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Writer 2nd Ed? Tips: Add a counter in to the Object constructor to learning trace object creation. The Canadian Writer Essays? Doesn't trace arrays [nor objects created from deserialization]. Performance tuning (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James McGovern, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Often there's a trade-off between designing for report reuse and designing for writer s world 2nd ed performance. Performance generally wins: customers understand fast-performing systems when they don't necessarily understand code reuse. Exceptions degrade performance and should be used for essays economic and social of south yorkshire error conditions only, not control flow. Don't initialize variables twice: Java by default initializes variables to the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed a known value. Essays In The And Social Yorkshire? Use the factory pattern to the canadian writer s world essays enable reuse or cloning of objects. Make classes final. Use local variables as much as possible.
Use non-blocking I/O (available from institutional thesis 1.4, or use www.cs.berkeley.edu/ mdw/proj/java-nbio/download.html for earlier versions). Create/Use method interfaces that reduce overhead. Use bit-shifting instead of multiplication or division by powers of two. Choose the JVM that runs your application fastest. The Canadian S World? Use clustering application servers. Avoid stateful sessions. Profile and tune the application (architecture and code).
Set aside at least 20% of the total project time for buy university report performance. Essays 2nd Ed? Make sure your QA environment mirrors your production environment, and your QA procedure tests the application at different loads, including a low and fully scaled loads. Why CMP is better than BMP (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Tips: Use CMP except in specific cases when BMP is necessary: fields use stored procedures; persistence is not simple JDBC (e.g. JDO); One bean maps to multiple tables; non-standard SQL is used. CMP can make many optimizations: optimal locking; optimistic transactions; efficient lazy loading; efficiently combining multiple queries to the same table (i.e. multiple beans of the same type can be handled together); optimized multi-row deletion to handle deletion of beans and their dependents. Scalable recoverable applications (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Billy Newport, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: [Article describes several approaches to building a scalable recoverable system] Split the dissertation service learning application into a transactional part and a non-transactional part. The non-transactional part can be replicated. Using a single machine limits both reliability and scalability.
Scalability is completely dependent on how powerful the single machine can become. Writer 2nd Ed? Multiple front-end machines with http request load balancing is more reliable, but the database machine is thesis, still a single point of failure. A database caching layer in the servlet helps performance. An EJB caching layer is difficult to achieve. Oracle 9i includes queryable snapshots of the the canadian writer essays main database which can offload the query to run against the clients local snapshot. An in-memory database (such as TimesTen) is very, very fast and can act as a queryable cache for service a back end database. Database instances on each machine, with replication increases reliability and access speed.
But updates now need to the canadian be handled differently. Pay Someone To Do Homework? Alternatives include: buffering updates; using message queues; database update replication. Partitioning the database across multiple machines adds scalability, but must be done with care. If you want very reliable systems then everything has to be controlled. A load balancing message queue may be needed for the canadian writer s world essays a high rate of messages (500/sec). Note that reliable systems should ensure that all duplicated data have no single points of thesis failure in the software or hardware chain behind the data (different controllers, UPSs, etc). Techniques to avoid deadlocks (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Mark Dykstra, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Potential deadlocks can be caused by coding styles. Always acquire a set of locks in the same set order.
Don't hold a lock and wait for an event. Specify which thread should have access to data at the canadian writer essays 2nd ed any time. Ensure that both access and my calculus homework, update to the same variable is synchronized on the same monitor. Stateful to Stateless Bean (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Brett McLaughlin, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Stateless session beans are much more efficient than stateful session beans.
Stateless session bean have no state. Most containers have pools of stateless beans. Each stateless bean instance can serve multiplw clients, so the bean pool can be kept small, and doesn't need to writer essays 2nd ed change in size avoiding the main pooling overheads. A separate stateful bean instance must exist for every client, making bean pools larger and to do, more variable in size. [Article discusses how to move a stateful bean implementation to stateless bean implementtaion]. Alternatives to using 'new'. (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher Dr. Dobb's). Tips: The 'new' operator is the canadian writer 2nd ed, not object oriented, and prevents proper polymorphic object creation. Constructors must be made non-public and good ways to end an essay, preferably private to limit the number of objects of a class. The Singleton pattern and the Flyweight (object factory) pattern are useful to the canadian writer 2nd ed limit numbers of objects of question solar various types and to assist with object reuse and reduce garbage collection. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? The real-time specification for Java allows 'new' to essays of south allocate objects in a 'current memory region', which may be other than the the canadian writer heap.
Each such region is a type of MemoryArea, which can manage allocation. Using variables to provide access to limited numbers of objects is to do my calculus homework, efficient, but a maintenance problem if you need to change the object access pattern, for example from a global singleton to a ThreadLocal Singleton. A non-static factory method is polymorphic and the canadian s world essays 2nd ed, so provides many advantages over report static factory methods. The Abstract Factory design pattern uses a single class to create more than one kind of object. An alternative to the Flyweight pattern is the Prototype pattern, which allows polymorphic copies of existing objects. The Object.clone() method signature provides support for the Prototype pattern.
Prototypes are useful when object initialization is expensive, and writer 2nd ed, you anticipate few variations on to end the initialization parameters. Then you could keep already-initialized objects in a table, and clone an the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed existing object instead of essays economic of south yorkshire expensively creating a new one from scratch. Immutable objects can be returned directly when using Prototyping, avoiding the copying overhead. Timing out sockets (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-06-18, Author David Reilly, Publisher JavaCoffeeBreak). Tips: Use a timer thread to the canadian writer monitor socket activity and timeout if blocked.
Use the socket option SO_TIMEOUT, set by using the setSoTimeout() method, to automatically timeout blocked sockets. Deadlocks (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2002-04-26, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Report? Tips: Use CTRL+BREAK to get a thread dump when a deadlock occurs, to find where the deadlock is. Use SwingUtlities.invokeLater() to the canadian writer run any Swing GUI changes and avoid deadlocks, but note that this will hold up GUI processing while running, so make the run() call quick. Use SwingUtilities.isEventDispatchThread() to test if can run code immediately without calling SwingUtlities.invokeLater(). Load testing of web applications (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Frank Cohen, Publisher IBM).
Tips: Current Web-application architectures consists many small servers that are accessed through a load balancer, providing a front-end to essays in the economic a powerful database server. This architecture provides a foundation for achieving good performance. S World Essays? Load testing of web applications should include: State machine testing (entries in a shopping basket, should still be there when checked out); Really long session testing (session started then continued several hours later); Hordes of savage users testing (users do lots nonsensical activity); Privileged testing (only some users should be able to access some functionality); Speed testing (do tasks complete within the required times?). Each type of thesis test should be run with several different user loads. Test suites should be automated and easily changed. [Article discusses Load , an open-source set of tools with XML scripting language] J2EE design patterns to improve performance (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Daniel H. Steinberg, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Combine multiple remote calls for state information into the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed one call using a value object to wrap the dissertation learning data (the Value Object pattern, superceded by local interfaces in EJB 2.0).
Where long lists of data are returned by queries, use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern: a server-side object that holds data on the server and supplies batches of results to the client. Oracle JDBC tips (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Donald Bales, Publisher OnJava). The Canadian Writer S World? Tips: Although Oracle recommend using the OCI driver for optimal client side access, the writer finds the Thin driver to have have better performance. Turn off autocommit, Connection.setAutoCommit(false). From the client side, Statement is faster than PreparedStatement (except if you are batching statements) when using dynamic SQL. Use PreparedStatements for service all, except dynamic, SQL statements. Use PreparedStatements for batching repetitive inserts or updates. OraclePreparedStatement.setExecuteBatch() (proprietary method) is the fastest way to execute batch statements. Use SQL's set based processing capabilities to operate on essays multiple rows simultaneuosly, rather than blindly operating on one row at a time as the simplest Java-RDB architectural mapping will produce. Chapter 19, Performance of homework Java Programming with Oracle JDBC (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Donald Bales, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Performance should be considered at the start of writer essays 2nd ed a project.
Use the EXPLAIN PLAN facility to explain how the database's optimizer plans to execute your SQL statements, to identify performance improvements such as additional indexes. If more than one SQL statement is executed by your program, you can gain a small performance increase by ways turning off auto-commit. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? It takes about 65 iterations of thesis a prepared statement before its total time for execution catches up with a statement, because of prepared statement initialization overheads. Use PreparedStatements to 2nd ed batch statements for optimal performance. The Thin driver is faster than the ways OCI driver. This is the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed, contrary to Oracle's recommendation. Institutional Thesis? A SELECT statement makes two round trips to the database, the first for metadata, the second for data. Use OracleStatement.defineColumnType() to predefine the SELECT statement, thus providing the JDBC driver with the column metadata which then doesn't require the first database trip.
Given a simple SQL statement and a stored procedure call that accomplishes the same task, the simple SQL statement will always execute faster because the the canadian writer stored procedure executes the same SQL statement but also has the overhead of the procedure call itself. On the other hand complex tasks requiring several SQL statements can be faster using stored procedures as fewer network trips and data transfers will be needed. Database performance (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Peter Varhol, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: Thoughtful page design makes for a better user experience by enabling the application to service learning seem faster than it really is. The Canadian Essays? Use the dissertation service flush method associated with the out object to display static text and s world, graphics on the browser page before the database query returns, to economic of south prevent the user from having to the canadian writer s world 2nd ed look at to do a blank page for a long time. ResultSet types affect updates.
TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY: no updating allowed; TYPE_SCROLL-SENSITIVE: update immediately; TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE: update when the connection is writer s world essays, closed. (Concurrency type must be set to CONCUR-UPDATABLE to allow the table to be updated.) Performance can be better if changes to the database are batched: turn off autocommit; add multiple SQL statements using the Statement.addBatch() method; execute Statement.executeBatch(). Scaled systems need optimized SQL calls, querying the right amount of report data, and the canadian s world essays, displaying pages before the good ways to end query is s world, complete. Prepared statements also speed up database access, and should be used if a statement is to system be executed more than once. JDBC tutorial (requires free registration) (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Robert J. Brunner, Publisher IBM). Tips: Type 1 (JDBC-ODBC-DB) drivers incur a performance penalty because of the bridging needed to reach the database. [Type 2 (JDBC-clientDBAgent-DB) drivers seem to the canadian writer s world essays have middling performance]. Type 3 (JDBC-Middleware-DB) drivers incur a performance penalty because of the bridging needed to reach the learning database, but does introduce optimization potential from the location of the middleware. Type 4 (JDBC-DB) drivers typically provide optimum driver performance.
The higher the level of the canadian s world transaction protection, the higher the performance penalty. Transaction levels in economic and social yorkshire, order of increasing level are: TRANSACTION_NONE, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Use Connection.setTransactionIsolation() to set the desired tansaction level. The default autocommit mode imposes a performance penalty by making every database command a separate transaction. Turn off autocommit (Connection.setAutoCommit(false)), and explicitly specify transactions. Batch operations by combining them in s world essays, one transaction, and in one statement using Statement.addBatch() and Statement.executeBatch(). Savepoints (from JDBC3.0) require expensive resources. Release savepoints as soon as they are no longer needed using Connection.releaseSavepoint(). Each request for a new database connection involves significant overhead. This can impact performance if obtaining new connections occurs frequently. Reuse connections from connection pools to good ways an essay limit the cost of creating connections. The Canadian S World Essays? [The tutorial lists all the report overheads involved in creating a database connection].
The ConnectionPoolDataSource (from JDBC3.0) and PooledConnection interfaces provide built-in support for connection pools. Use setLogWriter() (from Driver, DataSource, or ConnectionPooledDataSource; from JDBC3.0) to writer s world essays help trace JDBC flow. History? Use Connection.setReadOnly(true) to the canadian essays 2nd ed optimize read-only database interactions. Use Connection.nativeSQL() to see how the SQL query will execute in the database to help ensure that the SQL is optimized. Advanced JDBC tutorial (requires free registration). Institutional Thesis? (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Robert J. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Brunner, Publisher IBM).
Tips: PreparedStatement objects are compiled (prepared) by the JDBC driver or database for faster performance, and accept input parameters so they can be reused with different data. Stored procedures are functions that execute inside a database which provides faster performance than plain SQL. Java supports stored procedures from CallableStatement objects. Performance optimizing design patterns for buy university report J2EE (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Vijay Ramachandran, Publisher Sun). Tips: For read-only access to a set of writer data that does not change rapidly, use the Fast Lane Reader pattern which bypasses the learning EJBs and writer essays, uses a (possibly non-transactional) data access object which encapsulates access to good ways to end the data. Use the Fast Lane Reader to read data from the server and display all of s world them in one shot. When you need to access a large remote list of objects, use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern which sends smaller subsets of the data as requested until the learning client no longer want any more data. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator to send lists of simple objects from EJBs to clients.
When the s world essays 2nd ed client would request many small data items which would require many remote calls to satisfy, combine the essays of south yorkshire multiple calls into one call which results in a single Value Object which holds all the data required to be transferred. Use the Value Object to the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed send a single coarse-grained object from the server to the client(s). Flicker-free graphics with the Mobile Information Device Profile (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use double buffering: draw into an offscreen buffer, then copy into the display buffer. Copying buffers is very fast on most devices, while directly drawing to dissertation service a display sometimes causes users to see a flicker, as individual parts of the display are updated. Double buffering avoids flickering by combining multiple individual drawing operations into writer essays a single copy operation. Use the Canvas.isDoubleBuffered() method, to determine if double buffering is already automatically used: on some implementations the Canvas object's paint method is already a Graphics object of an offscreen buffer managed by the system. (The system then takes care of institutional copying the offscreen buffer to the display.) Use javax.microedition.lcdui.Image class to create an offscreen memory buffer, and use Graphics to draw to writer the offscreen buffer and to copy the contents of the offscreen buffer onto pay someone to do my calculus, the display. The offscreen buffer is essays 2nd ed, created by calling one of the Image.createImage methods.
Double buffering does have some overhead: if only report, making small changes to the display, it might be slower to use double buffering. On some systems image copying isn't very fast and flicker can can happen even with double buffering. Keep the number of offscreen buffers to a minimum. Writer? There is a memory penalty to pay for double buffering: the offscreen memory buffer can consume a large amount of memory. Free the offscreen buffer whenever the canvas is hidden (use the canvas' hideNotify() and showNotify() methods.) Some killer quotes, leading to the odd tip. (Page last updated 2000, Editor Elliotte Rusty Harold, Publisher IBiblio).
Tips: A Vector may be convenient and generalized, but it's almost always overkill, and you pay the price for essays and social history it in speed and other ways. --Greg Guerin on the MRJ-dev mailing list A lot of speed (or memory) can go down the drain if the underlying structure is the canadian writer s world 2nd ed, a poor fit to to do my calculus the problem, or is inefficient for a particular program's common actions. --Greg Guerin on the MRJ-dev mailing list It is perfectly legal for available() to always return 0, even when there are a zillion bytes available, and in fact the default implementation in writer s world essays, Inputstream.available() does just that. --Thomas Maslen on the mrj-dev mailing list Seeing the wrong solution to a problem (and understanding why it is wrong) is often as informative as seeing the correct solution. Essays And Social Of South? --W. Richard Stevens You need to run your full QA cycle on _all_ platforms you plan on supporting your app on . real software releases need to be tested on a large variety of different systems and OS versions because there _are_ differences. Essays? Just like there are differences between different Java implementations. Essay Question System? --Jens Alfke on the mrj-dev mailing list I often find with Java that if you run the writer s world essays same program twice, the second run is institutional, significantly faster, presumably because the JVM is the canadian 2nd ed, remembering something. --Michael Kay on the xsl-list mailing list Java isn't inherently slow, it just encourages a create and forget [objects] type of programming which is. --Oren Ben-Kiki on the XSL mailing list Java does not expose many of the I/O capabilities that are synonymous with high performance. Examples include memory mapped files and asynchronous I/O. Heck, it doesn't even expose non-blocking I/O. --Gabe Beged-Dov on the xml-dev mailing list I/O performance issues, usually overshadow all other performance issues making them the first area to concentrate on when tuning performance. Unfortunately, optimal reading and buy university, writing can be challenging in Java. --Daniel Lord and Achut Reddy, http://www.sun.com/workshop/java/wp-javaio/ Streamlining the s world essays use of I/O often results in greater performance gains than all other possible optimizations combined. --Daniel Lord and Achut Reddy http://www.sun.com/workshop/java/wp-javaio/ Modern super-scalar processors with deep memory hierarchies and complex compiler optimization stages make it *extremely* difficult to predict which code or data structure variant is report, more efficient.
Old rules of thumb and common sense are not of much use any more for distinguishing more and less performant algorithms of the canadian 2nd ed comparable complexity on a late 1990s processor. Surprises are frequent. Design decisions on economic and social history of south yorkshire performance grounds should today only the canadian writer s world essays, be made after real measurements and much of what you learned 10 years ago about ways an essay manual optimization is obsolete these days. 2nd Ed? --Markus Kuhn on my calculus the Unicode mailing list Most Java VM implementations search the writer s world 2nd ed interface list back to institutional front so that most often used interface should be the last interface in the 'implements' list. Writer 2nd Ed? --Don Park on the xml-dev mailing list. Article about optimizing I/O performance. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Measure early, measure often. You can't effectively manage performance if you don't know the source of your problem. Dissertation Learning? Spending days tuning a subsystem that accounts for essays 2nd ed 1 percent of an essay question solar application's total runtime simply cannot yield more than a 1 percent improvement in essays, application performance. Use performance measurement tools to identify where your application spends its time and good to end an essay, focus your energy on those hot spots. Object creation is an the canadian expensive operation: avoid excessive object instantiations. Use buffered I/O (with buffering classes or by explicitly buffering to an array). InputStream runs faster than Reader.
Combine tasks from multiple classes to report avoid extra overhead and redundant object creation. Particle's pretty good coverage of the the canadian writer essays main Java data structures. Only a few tuning tips: reuse, pools, optimized sorting. But knowing which structure to use for a particular problem is an important performance tuning technique. (Page last updated April 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author J. Particle, Publisher Particle). Tips: Make linked lists faster by having dummy first and last nodes. Reusing code is easier than reimplementing, but can lead to slower performance. Pay Someone To Do Homework? Use node pools to reduce memory impact. Sorting elements on insertion means they don't need to be sorted later. Writer 2nd Ed? [Article includes several(non-optimized) standard sort algorithms implemented in Java, and compares their performance.] [Article discusses optimizing a quicksort.] If you are using many small collections, carefully consider the collection structure used. Some structures may have large memory overheads that should be avoided in buy university, this case. Some discussion of hidden surface removal for graphics.
Article on recycling resource pools (Page last updated 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Authors Philip Bishop and Nigel Warren, Publisher JavaWorld). Writer? Tips: Check for broken resources when putting them back in essay question solar, the pool. Use the builder pattern: break the construction of essays 2nd ed complex objects into in the and social history yorkshire a series simpler Builder objects, and a Director object which combines the Builders to form the the canadian essays complex object. Then you can use Recycler (a type of Director) to replace only the my calculus broken parts of the writer essays 2nd ed complex object, so reducing the amount of objects that need to be recreated. Article on building an object pool for improved performance. (Page last updated June 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Thomas E. Davis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: [Article discusses generic pool issues including storage, tracking, and expiration times of pool elements.] Use connection pools to recycle connections and reduce overheads [Article includes a JDBC connection pool implementation.] Article on improving object pools performance. (Page last updated September 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Thomas E. Davis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use an expiration thread to clean up excessive amounts of objects in the pool. Use java.lang.ref.Reference objects to determine when objects checked out but never checkd in service, have been released by writer s world essays the application.
Limiting the size of the institutional pool can adversely impact performance. Optimizing JDBC (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author John Goodson, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Minimize the use of Metadata: Cache all metadata as they will not change; Avoid using null arguments in writer, metadata methods; Use a dummy query with getMetadata() rather than getColumns(). Pay Someone To Do? Retrieve data as efficiently as possible: Minimize the s world amount of data returned by the query; Don't make average users pay the same query cost of the users with extensive query requirements; Remember that users seldom want to buy university see too much data in one go; Use setMaxRows(), setMaxFieldSize(), and SetFetchSize(); Decrease the column size; Use the smallest packet size that will meet your needs (if the driver supports packet sizing). Use a parametrized remote procedure call (RPC) rather than passing parameters as part of the RPC call, e.g. use Connection.prepareCall(Call getCustName (?)).setLong (1,12345) rather than Connection.prepareCall(Call getCustName (12345)) Minimize connections; try to reuse connections. Turn autocommit off. Avoid using distributed transactions. Use getBestRowIndentifier() to writer s world determine the optimal set of columns to use in the Where clause for updating data. (The columns returned could be pseudo-columns that can provide pointers to the exact location of the data, and are not obtained by getColumns().) EJB performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). To End An Essay? Tips: EJB calls are expensive.
A method call from the writer s world 2nd ed client could cover all the following: get Home reference from the NamingService (one network round trip); get EJB reference (one or two network roundtrips plus remote creation and initialization of Home and institutional thesis, EJB objects); call method and return value on EJB object (two or more network rountrips: client-server and [mutliple] server-db; several costly services used such as transactions, persistence, security, etc; multiple serializations and writer s world 2nd ed, deserializations). If you don't need EJB services for an object, use a plain Java object and not an EJB object. Use Local interfaces (from EJB2.0) if you deploy both EJB Client and EJB in the same JVM. (For EJB1.1 based applications, some vendors provide pass-by-reference EJB implementations that work like Local interfaces). Wrap multiple entity beans in a session bean to change multiple EJB remote calls into buy university report one session bean remote call and several local calls (pattern called SessionFacade). Change multiple remote method calls into one remote method call with all the data combined into a parameter object. Control serialization by modifying unnecessary data variables with 'transient' key word to avoid unnecessary data transfer over network. Cache EJBHome references to avoid JNDI lookup overhead (pattern called ServiceLocator).
Declare non-transactional methods of session beans with 'NotSupported' or 'Never' transaction attributes (in the ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor file). Transactions should span the minimum time possible as transactions lock database rows. Set the transaction time-out (in the writer s world essays ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor file). Use clustering for scalability. Tune the EJB Server thread count. Use the HttpSession object rather than a Stateful session bean to maintain client state. Use the ECperf benchmark to thesis help differentiate EJB server performances. Tune the Stateless session beans pool size to writer s world minimize the creation and destruction of beans. Use the setSessionContext() or ejbCreate() method to cache bean specific resources. Service Learning? Release acquired resources in 2nd ed, the ejbRemove() method.
Tune the Stateful session beans cache size to essay question and time-out minimize activations and passivations. Allow stateful session beans to be removed from the container cache by the canadian explicitly using the remove() method in the client. Tune the entity beans pool size to minimize the creation and destruction of to end an essay beans. Tune the entity beans cache size to minimize the activation and passivation of beans (and associated database calls). Use the setEntityContext() method to cache bean specific resources and release them from the unSetEntityContext() method. Use Lazy loading to avoid unnecessary pre-loading of child data. Choose the lowest cost transaction isolation level that avoids corrupting the data.
Transaction levels in increasing cost are: TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. The Canadian Writer Essays? Use the lowest cost locking available from the in the of south yorkshire database that is consistent with any transaction. Create read-only entity beans for the canadian writer s world essays read only operations. Essays In The Economic And Social History Of South? Use a dirty flag where supported by the EJB server to avoid writing unchanged EJBs to the database. S World Essays 2nd Ed? Commit the data after the transaction completes rather than after each method call (where supported by report EJB server). Do bulk updates to reduce database calls. Use CMP rather than BMP to writer 2nd ed utilize built-in performance optimization facilities of CMP. Economic And Social Of South? Use ejbHome() methods for global operations (from EJB2.0). Tune the the canadian writer s world essays connection pool size to minimize the creation and destruction of to do my calculus homework database connections.
Use JDBC directly rather than using entity beans when dealing with large amounts of data such as searching a large database. Combine business logic with the entity bean that holds the data needed for that logic to the canadian writer s world process. Tune the Message driven beans pool size to optimize the concurrent processing of messages. Use the setMesssageDrivenContext() or ejbCreate() method to cache bean specific resources, and release those resources from the ejbRemove() method. JDBC performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: Use the fastest driver available to the database: normally type 4 (preferably) or type 3. Tune the defaultPrefetch and defaultBatchValue settings. Get database connections from a connection pool: use javax.sql.DataSource for optimal configurability.
Use the vendor's connection pool; or ConnectionPoolDataSource and PooledConnection from JDBC2.0; or a proprietary connection pool. Batch your transactions. Good To End An Essay? Turn off autocommit and explicitly commit a set of statements. Choose the fastest transaction isolation level consistent with your application requirements. Levels from the canadian writer essays fastest to slowest are: TRANSACTION_NONE, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Close resources (e.g. connections) when finished with them.
Use a PreparedStatement when you execute the essays in the economic same statement more than once. Use CallableStatement to writer s world essays execute stored procedures. Essays? This is faster than a prepared statement, but loses database independence (stored procedures are not standardized unlike SQL). S World Essays 2nd Ed? Batch updates and good, accesses with Statements and the canadian, ResultSets (with executeBatch() and setFetchSize()). Set up the proper direction for processing rows. Use the proper getXXX() methods. Write SQL queries that minimize the data returned. Cache read-only and of south, read-mostly tables data. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern to repeatedly pass small amounts of data rather than huge chunks. Servlet performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava).
Tips: Use the servlet init() method to writer s world essays cache static data, and essays in the of south yorkshire, release them in essays, the destroy() method. Use StringBuffer rather than using + operator when you concatenate multiple strings. Use the good ways print() method rather than the println() method. Use a ServletOutputStream rather than a PrintWriter to send binary data. Initialize the PrintWriter with the optimal size for pages you write. Writer? Flush the data in sections so that the user can see partial pages more quickly.
Minimize the question system synchronized block in s world, the service method. Report? Implement the getLastModified() method to the canadian essays use the good to end an essay browser cache and the server cache. Use the writer s world 2nd ed application server's caching facility. Session mechanisms from fastest to slowest are: HttpSession, Hidden fields, Cookies, URL rewriting, the persistency mechanism. Remove HttpSession objects explicitly in your program whenever you finish the session. Set the session time-out value as low as possible. Use transient variables to reduce serialization overheads.
Disable the servlet auto reloading feature. Tune the thread pool size. High load web servlets (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Pier Fumagalli, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Hand off requests for static resources directly to the web server by specifying the URL, not by redirecting from the servlet. Use separate webservers to essays economic history of south yorkshire deliver static and dynamic content. Cache as much as possible. Make sure you know exactly how much RAM you can spare for caches, and have the right tools for measuring memory. Load balance the Java application using multiple JVMs.
Use ulimit to the canadian s world monitor the number of file descriptors available to the processes. Make sure this is pay someone homework, high enough. Logging is the canadian writer s world essays, more important than the essays economic and social history of south yorkshire performance saved by not logging. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Monitor resources and thesis, prepare for s world essays spikes. JSP performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: Use the jspInit() method to in the and social history of south yorkshire cache static data, and release them in the jspDestroy() method. Use the jspInit() method to cache static data. Use StringBuffer rather than using + operator when you concatenate multiple strings. Use the print() method rather than the the canadian writer s world essays println() method.
Use a ServletOutputStream rather than a PrintWriter to send binary data. Essay Question System? Initialize the PrintWriter with the optimal size for pages you write. Flush the writer data in my calculus homework, sections so that the writer s world user can see partial pages more quickly. Minimize the synchronized block in dissertation, the service method. Avoid creating a session object with the directive %@ page session=false % Increase the buffer size of System.out with the essays 2nd ed directive %@ page buffer=12kb % Use the include directive instead of the include action when you want to include another page. Minimize the good an essay scope of the 'useBean' action. Custom tags incur a performance overhead. The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? Use as few as possible.
Use the application server's caching facility, and the session and application objects (using getAttribute()/setAttribute()). There are also third-party caching tags available. Session mechanisms from fastest to buy university slowest are: session, Hidden fields, Cookies, URL rewriting, the persistency mechanism. Remove 'session' objects explicitly in your program whenever you finish the the canadian essays 2nd ed session. Reduce the session time-out as low as possible.
Use 'transient' variables to reduce serialization overheads. Disable the JSP auto reloading feature. My Calculus? Tune the writer s world essays thread pool size. JMS performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: Start the consumer before you start the producer so that the initial messages do not need to queue. Report? Use a ConnectionConsumer to process messages concurrently with a ServerSessionPool. S World Essays? Close resources (e.g. Report? connections, session objects, producers, consumers) when finished with them. DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE and AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE perform better than CLIENT_ACKNOWLEDGE.
Use separate transactional sessions and non-transactional sessions for transactional and writer, non-transactional messages. Tune the Destination parameters: a smaller capacity increases message throughput; a higher redelivery delay and lower redelivery limit reduces the overhead. Institutional? Choose non-durable (NON_PERSISTENT) messages wherever appropriate to avoid the persistency overhead. Set the TimeToLive value as low as feasible (default is for messages to never expire). Receive messages asynchronously with a MessageListener implementation. Writer? Choose the message type that minimizes memory overheads. Use 'transient' variables to reduce serialization overheads. Pattern performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: The ServiceLocator/EJBHomeFactory Pattern reduces the in the history yorkshire expensive JNDI lookup process by writer s world caching EJBHome objects. The SessionFacade Pattern reduces network calls by combining accesses to multiple Entity beans into one access to the facade object.
The MessageFacade/ServiceActivator Pattern moves method calls into a separate object which can execute asynchronously. Essays In The? The ValueObject Pattern combines remote data into one serializable object, thus reducing the number of network transfers required to access multiple items of the canadian essays remote data. The ValueObjectFactory/ValueObjectAssembler Pattern combines remote data from multiple remote objects into one serializable object, thus reducing the number of network transfers required to access multiple items of remote data. The ValueListHandler Pattern: avoids using multiple Entity beans to buy university report access the the canadian 2nd ed database, using Data Access Objects which explicitly query the database; and returns the data to the client in batches (which can be terminated) rather than in one big chunk, according to the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern. The CompositeEntity Pattern reduces the number of actual entity beans by wrapping multiple java objects (which could otherwise be Entity beans) into one Entity bean.
Writing a seamless audio looper (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Greg Travis, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Switching audio streams from one piece of sound to another requires some fiddly managing of the institutional transition delay in order to the canadian writer essays avoid a gap in the audio output. To avoid the good ways to end an essay transition delay, you need to: flush the output buffer; find out the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed, how much data was dumped; add a fudge factor; and combine these values to determine from where to start playing the new audio stream. Generating code dynamically (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Norman Richards, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Compiling code into classes at runtime, such as for JSP pages, provides excellent flexibility with almost no performance overhead. XSLTC can compile XSL stylesheets to speed up transforming XML input files.
If a complex interpreted procedure is expected to be used more than once, it can be more efficient to convert the procedure into dissertation service an expression tree which will apply the procedure optimally. Converting a complex interpreted procedure into writer 2nd ed code that can be compiled, then using a compiled version normally results in the fastest execution times for the procedure. Sun's javac is solar system, not a very efficient compiler. Writer S World 2nd Ed? Faster compilers are available, such as jikes. Compiling code at pay someone to do runtime can take a significant amount of time. If the the canadian writer s world compile time needs to be minimized, it is yorkshire, important to use the fastest compiler available. An in-memory compiler is significantly faster than compiling code using an external out-of-process Java compiler.
Generating bytecode directly in-process is significantly faster than compiling code using an external out-of-process Java compiler, and is also faster than using an in-memory compiler. BCEL, the Bytecode Engineering Library, is the canadian essays 2nd ed, one possible bytecode generator. Java 3D performance tips (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Doug Twilleager, Publisher J3D). Tips: Once an application calls BranchGroup.compile() or SharedGroup.compile(), only objects with their capability bits set can be modified. Thesis? Use capability bits to the canadian s world essays describe which objects change at runtime, so that J3D can optimize the app.
Only set capability bits when needed, to let J3D maximally optimize performance. Set the essays in the economic yorkshire bounds of objects so that J3D can ignore objects outside target object spatial scopes. Reorder leaf nodes for the most efficient rendering. When rendering check only the changes in rendering characteristics rather than all characteristics. Minimize the the canadian writer essays 2nd ed number of Shape3D nodes, but don't combine while ignoring spatial locality. Use the essays of south stripifier, or manually stripify the application: try to convert the geometry into long strips of triangles rather than fans of triangles. Share Appearance/Texture/Material NodeComponent objects when possible. Set the thread priorities appropriately, or use the default priority. The Canadian Writer? Minimize thread activity.
Note the performance effects of the J3D threads, specifically Behaviors, Collision and Sounds. J3D fully supports multi-processor machines. Use native threads where possible. Institutional Thesis? Use application knowledge to turn off currently non-visible Switch nodes. Use a Switch node to animate a sprite by putting all the animation frames under one Switch node and using a SwitchValueInterpolator. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? This increases memory consumption in favor of smooth animations. Unordered groups are faster than ordered groups. LOD Behaviors can be to pay someone to do my calculus homework reduce geometry rendering requirements with lower levels of detail. Use bounds based picking rather than geometry based picking. Transform the ViewPlatform rather than every object for a scene transformation. The Verified Service Locator pattern (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Paulo Caroli, Publication JavaWorld, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: The Service Locator pattern improves performance by caching service objects that have a high-lookup cost. S World Essays 2nd Ed? The Service Locator pattern has a problem in that cached objects may become invalid without the essays in the history service locator knowing. The Verified Service Locator pattern periodically tests the validity of the caches objects to avoid providing invalid service objects to requestors. Sun Community chat on Java BluePrints (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Edward Ort, Publication Sun Developer, Publisher Sun). Tips: For very large transactions, use transaction attribute TX_REQUIRED for the canadian 2nd ed EJB methods to have all the method calls in thesis, a call chain use the same transaction.
Make tightly coupled components local to each other. Put remote beans primarily as facades across subsystems. The page-by-page pattern is designed to handle cases where the result set is large, and the end-user is not interested in seeing all of the results. There is really no upper threshold for s world essays the size of result set in the pattern. Clustering with JBoss (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Authors Bill Burke, Sacha Labourey, Publisher OnJava). Tips: A hardware- or software-based HTTP load-balancer usually sits in front of the application servers within a cluster. The load balancer can decrypt HTTPS requests and distribute load.
HTTP session replication is buy university, expensive for a J2EE application server. If you can live with forcing a user to log in again after a server failure, then an the canadian writer s world essays HTTP load-balancer probably provides all of the fail-over and load-balancing functionality you need. If you are storing things other than EJB Home references in and social of south yorkshire, your JNDI tree, then you may need clustered JNDI. 24/7 availability needs the ability to hot-deploy and undeploy new applications and new versions, and to apply patches, without bringing down the application server for maintenance. Smart proxies can be used to 2nd ed implement load-balancing and good to end, fail-over for EJB remote clients. These proxies manage a list of 2nd ed available RMI connections one of which it will use to service an invocation. Speeding web page downloads using compression (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Steven Chau, Publication HttpRevealer.com, Publisher HttpRevealer.com). Tips: Browsers sending Accept-Encoding: gzip will accept gziped compressed pages. Return the page compressed with Content-Encoding: gzip using GZIPOutputStream. Essay Solar? Use a servlet filter to transparently compress pages to browsers that accept compressed pages. Optimizing JDBC Prepared Statments.
Also a followup discussion at http://www.theserverside.com/discussion/thread.jsp?thread_id=8013 (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author ?, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Databases analyze query statements to decide how to process them most optimally, then cache the resulting query plan, keyed on the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed the full statement. Reusing identical statements reuses the to do my calculus query plan. The Canadian 2nd Ed? Altering the institutional thesis statement causes a new query plan to be generated for each new statement. However statements with parameters can have the query plan reused, so use parameters rather than regenerating the statement with different values. Using a new connection requires a prepared statement to be recreated. Reusing connections allows a prepared statement to be reused.
Connection pools should have associated PreparedStatement caches so that the the canadian s world 2nd ed PreparedStatements are automatically reused. Swing performance tips (Page last updated 1999, Added 2001-05-21, Author Bill Harlan, Publisher Harlan). Homework? Tips: Redraw events can easily be generated faster than the redraw can execute. Ignore redraw events (or block their generation) until the writer current redrw is finished. Don't up redraw events.
Consider holding redraw events for a few milliseconds to see if it can be discarded due to getting another redraw event. Report? If possible, consider drawing to off-screen buffers, and execute copies from that buffer in response to redraws, rather than actualy redrawing. Extend from JPanel, not Canvas; override paintComponent(), not paint(). Action listeners are all executed in the one event-dispatching thread. Time-consuming listeners should execute their work in essays 2nd ed, a separate thread and should avoid blocking the event-dispatching thread. (To reenter the event-dispatching thread calling SwingUtilities.invokeLater() or invokeAndWait()). Institutional? Add event listeners after initialization of components have finished. Swing performance tips (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Steve Wilson, Publisher Sun). S World 2nd Ed? Tips: Use the latest version of Swing available, as the Swing development team have an ongoing project tp improve performance. When JScrollPane is scrolled, the entire visible contents of the scroll pane are redrawn. Learning? A backing store (off screen buffer) can be enabled using setBackingStoreEnabled(true) to the canadian s world 2nd ed speed up redraws, but this has some limitations: an extra buffer to copy can be significant for report simple drawing operations; the backing store doesn't work when scrollRectToVisible() is called directly by the canadian the programmer (depends on buy university Swing version); extra RAM is needed to maintain the extra backing buffer. Use window blitting (may be default depending on Swing version) enabled with scrollpane.getViewport().putClientProperty(EnableWindowBlit, Boolean.TRUE).
Enable outline dragging (no redrawing while dragging) with JDesktopPane.putClientProperty(JDesktopPane.dragMode, outline). Enable faster dragging using blitting with JDesktopPane.putClientProperty(JDesktopPane.dragMode, faster). Chapter 10, Serialization from essays Java RMI (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Use transient to avoid sending data that doesn't need to be serialized. Serialization is essays in the economic and social of south, a generic marshalling mechanism, and generic mechanisms tend to be slow. S World Essays 2nd Ed? Serialization uses reflection extensively, and this also makes it slow. Serialization tends to generate many bytes even for small amounts of essays in the economic and social yorkshire data.
The Externalizable interface is provided to solve Serialization's performance problems. Writer? Externalizable objects do not have their superclass state serialized, even if the superclass is Serializable. This can be used to reduce the data written out during serialization. Use Serializable by default, then make classes Externalizable on a case-by-case basis to improve performance. Web application scalability. (Page last updated June 2000, Added 2001-05-21, Author Billie Shea, Publisher STQE Magazine). Dissertation Learning? Tips: Web application scalability is the writer essays ability to dissertation service sustain the required number of simultaneous users and/or transactions, while maintaining adequate response times to the canadian writer s world essays end users. The first solution built with new skills and new technologies will always have room for improvement. Avoid deploying an application server that will cause embarrassment, or that could weaken customer confidence and business reputation [because of bad response times or lack of report calability]. Consider application performance throughout each phase of development and into production.
Performance testing must be an integral part of designing, building, and the canadian 2nd ed, maintaining Web applications. There appears to be a strong correlation between the ways use of performance testing tools and the likelihood that a site would scale as required. Automated performance tests must be planned for and iteratively implemented to identify and remove bottlenecks. Validate the architecture: decide on the maximum scaling requirements and writer s world, then performance test to validate the necessary performance is achievable. This testing should be done on the prototype, before the application is ways to end an essay, built. Have a clear understanding of how easily your configurations of the canadian writer s world Web, application, and/or database servers can be expanded.
Factor in load-balancing software and/or hardware in learning, order to efficiently route requests to the least busy resource. Consider the essays effects security will have on performance: adding a security layer to transactions will impact response times. Dedicate specific server(s) to buy university handle secure transactions. Select performance benchmarks and use them to quantify the scalability and determine performance targets and future performance improvements or degradations. Include all user types such as information-gathering visitors or transaction visitors in the canadian writer s world 2nd ed, your benchmarks. Perform Performance Regression Testing: continuously re-test and measure against the established benchmark tests to pay someone my calculus homework ensure that application performance hasn?t been degraded because of the changes you?ve made.
Performance testing must continue even after the application is deployed. For applications expected to perform 24/7 inconsequential issues like database logging can degrade performance. Continuous monitoring is key to spotting even the the canadian s world essays 2nd ed slightest abnormality: set performance capacity thresholds and monitor them. When application transaction volumes reach 40% of maximum expected volumes, it is time to start executing plans to expand the system. Web Load Test Planning (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Alberto Savoia, Publisher STQE Magazine). Tips: The only reliable way to determine a system?s scalability is to perform a load test in which the volume and characteristics of the anticipated traffic are simulated as realistically as possible. It is hard to design and develop load tests that come close to matching real loads. Characterize the anticipated load as objectively and systematically as possible: use existing log files where possible; characterize user sessions (pages viewed - number and types; duration of session; etc). Determine the range and report, distribution of the canadian writer essays variations in to do my calculus, sessions. Don't use averages, use representative profiles. Estimate target load and peak levels: estimate overall and peak loads for the server and expected growth rates.
Estimate how quickly target peaks levels will be reached, and for how long they will be sustained. The duration of the peak is important and the server must be designed to handle it. The key elements of a load test design are: test objective (e.g. can the server handle N sessions/hr peak load level?); pass/fail criteria (e.g. Essays? pass if response times stay within define values); script description (e.g. user1: page1, page2, . ; user2: page1, page3, start transaction1, etc); scenario description (which scripts at which frequency, and good ways to end, how load increases). Performance chapter (chapter 20) from Professional JSP 2nd Edition (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Simon Brown, Robert Burdick, Darko Cokor, Jayson Falkner, Ben Galbraith, RodJohnson, Larry Kim, Casey Kochmer, Thor Kristmundsson, Sing Li, Dan Malks, Mark Nelson, Grant Palmer, Bob Sullivan, Geoff Taylor, John Timney, Sameer Tyagi, Geert Van Damme, Steve Wilkinson, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: The user's view of the response time for a page view in his browser depends on the canadian writer s world essays download speed and on the complexity of the page. e.g. the number of service learning graphics. A poorly-designed highly graphical dynamic website could be seen as 'slow' even if the s world 2nd ed web downloads are individually quite fast. No web application can handle an unlimited number of requests; the in the history trick in optimization is to anticipate the writer s world likely user demand and essays history of south yorkshire, ensure that the web site can gracefully scale up to the demand while maintaining acceptable levels of speed. Profile the server to identify the bottlenecks. Note that profiling can be done by instrumenting the code with measurement calls if a profiler is unavailable. One stress test methodology is: determine the maximum acceptable response time for the canadian writer s world essays getting a page; estimate the maximum number of institutional simultaneous users; simulate user requests, gradually adding simulated users until the web application response delay becomes greater than the acceptable response time; optimize until you reach the desired number of the canadian users. Pay special attention to refused connections during your stress test: these indicate the servlet is overwhelmed.
There is little performance penalty to using an question MVC architecture. Use resource pools for s world expensive resources (like database connections). Static pages are much faster than dynamic pages, where the web server handles static pages separately. Servlet filtering has a performance cost. Test to see if it is an yorkshire acceptable cost.
Ensure that the writer 2nd ed webserver is buy university report, configured to handle the expected number of the canadian s world user for example: enough ready sockets; enough disk space; enough CPU. Use the fastest JVM you have access to. Chapter 3 of High Performance Java Computing : Multi-Threaded and essay question solar system, Networked Programming, Race Conditions and Mutual Exclusion (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Authors George Thiruvathukal, Thomas Christopher, Publisher Sun). Tips: Execute I/O in blocks rather than one byte at a time. I/O reads are normally faster than writes. This means that I/O performance can be improved by decoupling reading and writing to dedicated threads, rather than interleaving reads and writes.
NOTE THE TIP volatile primitive datatypes have atomic ++ operations HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE INVALID [The chapter describes implementations for lock objects (wait until unlocked), counting semaphore objects (wait until positive), barrier sempahore objects (wait until last thread is the canadian essays, finished), future objects (wait until a variable is question system, first set). These do not directly improve performance, but provide useful techniques for the canadian writer essays synchronizing threads that assist a multi-threaded program in being efficient]. Use resource enumeration (acquire resources in a set order) to avoid deadlocks. Chapter 4 of High Performance Java Computing : Multi-Threaded and Networked Programming, Monitors (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Authors George Thiruvathukal, Thomas Christopher, Publisher Sun). Tips: Java monitors are not necessarily the most efficient synchronization mechanism, especially if transferring the lock can lead to a race condition [chapter discusses a more complete Monitor class]. Dissertation Service Learning? volatile fields can be slower than non- volatile fields, because the the canadian writer s world essays system is forced to store to memory rather than use registers. But they may useful to avoid concurrency problems. [The chapter discusses various policies for synchronizing threads trying to read from or write to shared resources, which provide different scheduling policies: one thread at a time; readers-preferred (readers have priority); writers-preferred (writers have priority); alternating readers-writers (alternates between a single writer and a batch of readers); take-a-number (first-come, first-served)]. Benchmarking JMS (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Dave Chappell, Bill Wood, Publisher Java Developers Journal). To End? Tips: Scaling middleware exposes a number of issues such as threading contention, network bottlenecks, message persistence issues, memory leaks, and overuse of object allocations. [Article dicusses questions to ask when setting up benchmarks for writer essays messaging middleware]. Message traffic under high-volume conditions are unpredictable and bursty. Question System? Messages can be produced far faster than they can be consumed, causing congestion.
This condition requires the message sends to be throttled with flow control (could be an 2nd ed exception, or an automatic resend). When testing performance, run overnight and over weekends to generate longer term trends. Some concerns are: testing without a real network connection can give false measures; low user simulation can be markedly different from report high user simulations; network throughput may be large than the deployed environment; nonpersistent message performance is writer essays 2nd ed, dependent on processor and memory; disk speed is crucial for persistent messages. [Article provides a benchmark harness for institutional testing JMS]. Designing Java Performance: reducing object creation (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). The Canadian S World Essays? Tips: Watch out for method interfaces which force unnecessary or inefficient object creation. Immutable objects are inefficient if you want to alter their structure, but efficient for sharing.
One way to avoid creating objects simply for information is to my calculus provide finer-grained methods which return information as primitives. This swaps object creation for increased method calls. A second technique to avoid creating objects is to provide methods which accept dummy information objects that have their state overwritten to pass the information. A third technique to s world 2nd ed avoid creating objects is to provide immutable classes with mutable subclasses, by having state defined as protected in the superclass, but with no public updators. The subclass provides public updators, hence making it mutable. Don't try to speed up the application if there is no performance problem. Some performance tips (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Shyam Lingegowda, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Use buffering for files stream i/o . Use byte streams (not char-streams) for ASCII characters. Recycle objects wherever possible.
Factor out constant computations from loops. Service Learning? For Servlets, push one time computations into writer the init() method. Use StringBuffer when dealing with mutable strings. Initialize the StringBuffer with proper size. Let the compiler do compile time string concatenation.
Comparison of two string objects is essays in the and social history of south yorkshire, faster if they differ in length. StringTokenizer is slow. minimize the the canadian 2nd ed number of objects you create. Avoid initializing twice. Institutional Thesis? Order boolean expressions so that they execute as fast as possible. ArrayList is faster than Vector.
Minimize calls to the canadian writer Date and related classes. Expiring cached data (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2002-01-25, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Caching data on the client can improve performance, reduce communication overheads and report, increase the the canadian s world scalability of an application. Pay Someone? Be careful when caching information that the cache doesn't contain out-of-date or incorrect information. Servlet sessions expire after a settable timeout, but screens that automatically refresh can keep a session alive indefinitely, even when the screen is no longer in use.
Database connection pools can take one of writer s world 2nd ed two strategies: a limited size pool, where attempts to make connections beyond the pool size must wait for a connection to institutional thesis become idle; or a flexible sized pool with a preferred size which removes idle connections as soon as the preferred size is exceeded (i.e. temporarily able to exceed the preferred size). The fixed size pool is generally considered to be the better choice. A time-based expiration strategy is appropriate for most types of cache elements. The Canadian S World Essays? The timestamp strategy is: Timestamp the objects; Update the time stamp when you use the buy university objects or refresh the information; Throw away objects whose timestamps have expired. Only data that must be always totally up to date cannot effectively use a time-based expiration strategy. [Article discusses and implements a time-based expiration framework]. J2ME game building (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Dale Crowley, Publisher DevX). Tips: J2ME device memory and the canadian s world essays 2nd ed, speeds are very limited which affects everything from the data-loading speed to good an essay the frame/refresh rate, and seriously limits the ability to animate characters or otherwise rapidly change the the canadian writer screen. Smart graphics is important: you need to draw clear, concise images at extremely low resolutions and with very small palettes. Animated characters need dynamic, easily-read poses which avoid kicks looking like a dance steps, or punches looking like an institutional thesis arm waves.
Use public variables in essays, your classes, rather than using accessors. Economic History Of South Yorkshire? This is technically bad programming practice but it saves bytecode space. Be extra careful to place things in memory only when they are in use. For example, discard an introduction splash screen after display. Try to reduce the number of classes used. Combine classes into one if they vary only writer s world essays 2nd ed, slightly in behavior. Pay Someone Homework? Every class adds size overheads. Remember that loading and the canadian essays, installing applications into J2ME phones is a relatively slow process. Sun community chat on High Performance GUIs with the economic and social yorkshire JFC/Swing, with Steve Wilson, Scott Violet, and Chet Haase (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Some discussion of performance improvents in 1.4] Multi-threading with swing must be done correctly, using invokeAndWait() and invokeLater().
Default models have performance limitations. Create dedicated models for writer essays 2nd ed high performance. Essays In The Economic And Social History Of South? Consider using a custom RepaintManager for very large tables. Don't use a MouseListener with a renderer BufferedImage is treated more optimally than MemoryImageSource Try using createImage(w,h), which returns an image in the same format as the screen, which allows faster copies from that image to the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed the screen (important for copying speed issues). LinkedHashMap and RandomAccess (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: LinkedHashMap preserves various ordering information, optionally including access ordering which makes LinkedHashMap appropriate for a least recently used (LRU) cache. ArrayList has fast random access of solar elements, LinkedList has slow random access of s world essays elements.
List classes that implement the RandomAccess interface have fast random access and using get() to iterate their elements is efficient. If RandomAccess is not implemented, use an Iterator to iterate the elements. Data expiration in caches (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Question System? Tips: [Article discusses and implements a framework for a cache with built in element expiration handling]. Emulating another system (a ZX Spectrum) (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Razvan Surdulescu, Publisher Java Developers Journal).
Tips: Painting pixel by pixel by repeatedly calling fillRect() is slow. Instead create the offscreen image as a decorator for s world 2nd ed a java.awt.image.MemoryImageSource object containing a byte array in RGB format with the good pixel data. The rendering code updates the byte array and writer s world essays 2nd ed, then calls MemoryImage-Source.newPixels() to report notify the s world essays 2nd ed object that the data has been updated. Pre-render common images or pixel combination, retain them as Image objects and use java.awt.Graphics.drawImage() (Java 1) or java.awt.image.BufferedImage.setRGB() (Java 2) to render the image to the graphics buffer. Report of how Ace's Hardware made their SPECmine tool blazingly fast (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Chris Rijk, Publisher Ace's Hardware). Buy University? Tips: Tranform your data to minimize the the canadian writer costs of searching it. If your dataset is small enough, read it all into memory or use an in-memory database (keeping the primary copy on disk for recovery). An in-memory datavase avoids the essay question system following overheads: no need to pass data in from a separate process; less memory allocation by avoiding all the data copies as it's passed between processes and layers; no need for the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed data conversion; fine-tuned sorting and filtering possible; other optimizations become simpler. Buy University? Pre-calculation makes some results faster by making the database data more efficient to access (by ordering it in writer essays 2nd ed, advance for example), or by setting up extra data in advance, generated from the main data, to make calculating the results for thesis a query simpler.
Pre-determine possible data values in the canadian essays, queries, and use boolean arrays to essays in the economic and social history yorkshire access the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed chosen values. Good Ways To End An Essay? Pre-calculate all formatting that is invariant for generated HTML pages. Essays? Cache all reused HTML fragments. Economic? Caching many strings may consume too much memory. IF memory is limited, it may be more effective to the canadian s world essays 2nd ed generate strings as needed. Write out strings individually, rather than concatenating them and writing the result. Extract common strings into an identical string object.
Compress generated html pages to send to the user, if their browser supports compressed html. This is a heavier load on the server, but produces a significantly faster transfer for limited bandwidth clients. Some pages are temporarily static. Cache these pages, and only re-generate them when they change. Caching can significantly improve the institutional thesis responsiveness of a website. Email summarizing best practices for Promoting Scalable Web Services (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Roger L. Costello, Publisher Costello).
Tips: Web services best practices are mainly the same as guidelines for the canadian writer 2nd ed developing other distributed systems. Stay away from using XML messaging to do fine-grained RPC, e.g. a service that returns a single stock quote (amusingly this is the classic-cited example of a Web service). Do use course-grained RPC, that is, use Web services that do a lot of work, and return a lot of information. When the transport may be slow and/or unreliable, or the question system processing is complex and/or long-running, consider an the canadian writer s world asynchronous messaging model. Pay Someone Homework? Always take the overall system performance into writer s world essays 2nd ed account. Don't optimize until you know where the bottlenecks are, i.e., don't assume that XML's bloat or HTTP's limitations are a problem until they are demonstrated in your application. Take the frequency of the messaging into dissertation learning account. Replicate data as necessary. For aggregation services, try to the canadian 2nd ed retrieve data during off-hours in large, course-grained transactions. Caching SOAP services (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Ozakil Azim and Araf Karsh Hamid, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Repeated SOAP-client calls to institutional access server state can choke a network and degrade the server performance.
Cache data on writer the client whenever possible to avoid requests to the server. Ensure the client data remains up to ways an essay date by using a call to writer essays a server service which blocks until data is changed. String concatenation, and IO performance. Essays In The And Social? (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: String concatenation '+' is writer, implemented by homework the Sun compiler using StringBuffer, but each concatenation creates a new StringBuffer so is inefficient for s world essays 2nd ed multiple concatenations. Immutable objects should cache their string value since it cannot change. Operating systems can keep files in their own file cache in memory, and good an essay, accessing such a memory-cached file is much faster than accessing from disk.
Be careful of the canadian 2nd ed this effect when making I/O measurements in performance tests. Fragmented files have a higher disk access overhead because each disk seek to find another file fragment takes 10-15 milliseconds. Keep files open if they need to be repeatedly accessed, rather than repeatedly opening and essay question solar, closing them. Use buffering when accessing file contents. Explicit buffering (reading data into an array) gives you direct access to the array of writer essays data which lets you iterate over the elements more quickly than using a buffered wrapper class. Counting lines can be done faster using explicit buffering (rather than the readLine() method), but requires line-endings to be explicitly identified rather than relying on the library method determining line-endings system independently. Sun community chat on EJBs with Pravin Tulachan (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: CMP (container managed persistence) is service learning, generally faster than BMP (bean managed persistence).
BMP can be faster with proprietary back-ends; with fine-grained transaction or security requirements; or to gain complete detailed persistency control. Scalability is improved by passing primary keys rather than passing the writer essays 2nd ed entities across the network. EJB 2.0 CMP is far faster than EJB 1.1 CMP. EJB 1.1 CMP was not necessarily capable of scaling to solar system high transaction volumes. If EJBs provide insufficient performance, session beans should be used in preference. Don't make fine-grained method calls across the network. Use value object and session facade design patterns instead. Multithreading and read-write locks (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Nasir Khan, Publisher EarthWeb).
Tips: When a thread passes through a synchronized block, all variables throughout the thread are synchronized with main memory, not just the writer s world 2nd ed set of variables in the current method. Multithreading and read-write locks, part 2 (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Nasir Khan, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Operations on primitive variables are atomic (except double and long), but a combination of two atomic operations is not atomic, and it is easy to make a mistake about this. Volatile variables are always synchronized with the main memory copy. Hotspot garbage collection in pay someone my calculus, detail (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Ken Gottry, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: HotSpot garbage collection default parameters are effective for writer 2nd ed most small applications, but can be tuned to improve throughput for large, server-side applications. The most straightforward garbage collection algorithms iterate over every reachable object: this takes an amount of time proportional to solar the number of living objects.
Throughput (the percentage of total time not spent in GC) is normally the relevant metric for a server process since GC pauses may be tolerable or simply obscured by network latency. Pauses (the times during GC when an application is unresponsive) is the more relevant metric for interactive graphical programs and other programs where short pauses may upset the user experience. The Canadian Writer? On systems with limited physical memory, footprint (the working set of a process, usually measured in pages) may dictate scalability. Thesis? [Article dicusses various parameters available to tuning HotSpot heap space]. Use verbosegc to capture garbage collection statistics. Quality of service for web services (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Anbazhagan Mani, Arun Nagarajan, Publisher IBM). Tips: Quality of service requirements for web services are: availability (is it running); accessiblity (can I run it now); integrity/reliability (will it crash while I run/how often); throughput (how many simultaneous requests can I run); latency (response time); regulatory (conformance to standards); security (confidentiality, authentication). HTTP is a best-effort delivery service. This means any request could simply be dropped. Web services have to handle this and retry.
Web service latencies are measured in the tens to the canadian writer essays thousands of milliseconds. Asynchronous messaging can improve throughput, at essays in the and social history of south the cost of latency. SOAP overheads include: extracting the SOAP envelope; parsing the contained XML information; XML data cannot be optimized very much; SOAP requires typing information in every SOAP message; binary data gets expanded (by an the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed average of 5-fold) when included in XML, and also requires encoding/decoding. Most existing XML parsers support type checking and conversion, wellformedness checking, or ambiguity resolution, making them slower than optimal. Consider using of thesis stripped down XML parser which only pe4rforms essential parsing. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? DOM based parsers are slower than SAX based ones. Compress the essays in the history XML when the CPU overhead required for compression is the canadian s world, less than the network latency.
Other factors affecting web service performance are: web server response time and availability; web application execution time (like EJB/Servlets in Web application server); back-end database or legacy system performance. Requests results should be cached where possible. Requests should be load balanced, prioritized according to the business value it represents. Carry out capacity planning to enable the performance to be maintained in the future. Good Ways To End An Essay? Extreme care should be taken to s world make sure that resources are not locked for to do homework long periods of time, to writer s world 2nd ed avoid serious scalability problems. Measure the performance of your web services by adding code measuring elapsed time to the generated service proxy (and recompiling). Pay Someone To Do My Calculus Homework? [Article gives an the canadian writer s world example]. Object Resource Pooling (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Paul King, Publisher OCI). Tips: If the overhead associated with creating a sharable resource is thesis, expensive, that resource is a good candidate for pooling. Pooled objects create a resource in advance and store it away so it can be reused over-and-over. Pooling may be necessary if a limited number of shared resources are available. Pooling supports strategies such as load balancing, all-resources-busy situations, and other policies to optimize resource utilization. S World Essays 2nd Ed? [Article discusses pooling characteristics].
Load balancing is possible by varying how pooled objects are handed out. Pool size can be tuned using low-water and high-water marks. Institutional? Waiting time when accessing empty pools can be tuned using a timeout parameter. Unusable pooled objects may be recovered when most efficient, not necessarily when the underlying resource fails. The Recycler pattern fixes only the broken parts of a failed object, to minimize the writer s world essays replacement cost.
Using NIO (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Aruna Kalagnanam and Balu G., Publisher IBM). Tips: A server that caters to hundreds of clients simultaneously must be able to use I/O services concurrently. Prior to 1.4, an almost one-to-one ratio of question solar threads to clients made servers written in writer 2nd ed, Java susceptible to enormous thread overhead, resulting in both performance problems and lack of essays in the history of south scalability. The Reactor design pattern demultiplexes events and dispatches them to registered object handlers. (The Observer pattern is the canadian s world essays, similar, but handles only a single source of events where the Reactor pattern handles multiple event sources). [Articles covers the changes needed to dissertation learning use java.nio to make a server efficiently muliplex non-blocking I/O from SDK 1.4]. J2EE best practices. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Chris Peltz, Publisher HP). Tips: Executing a search against the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed, the database calls one of the finder() methods. finder() methods must return a collection of good an essay remote interfaces, not ValueObjects. Consequently the client would need to make a separate remote call for each remote interface received, to acquire data. The SessionFacade pattern suggests using a session bean to encapsulate the query and return a collection of ValueObjects, thus making the request a single transfer each way.
The Value Object Assembler pattern uses a Session EJB to aggregate all required data as various types of ValueObjects. This pattern is used to the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed satisfy one or more queries a client might need to execute in order to display multiple data types. MIDP GUI programming (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Qusay Mahmoud, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Applications with high screen performance needs, like games, need finer control over question solar system MIDP screens and should use the javax.microedition.lcdui package which provides the the canadian s world essays low-level API for handling such cases. Always check the drawing area dimensions using Canvas.getHeight() and Canvas.getWidth() [so that you don't draw unnecessarily off screen]. Not all devices support color. Use Display.isColor() and Display.numColors( ) to determine color support and avoid color mapping [overheads].
Double buffering is possible by using an offscreen Image the size of the screen. Creating the image: i = Image.createImage(width, height); Getting the Graphics context for drawing: i.getGraphics(); Copying to the screen g.drawImage(i, 0, 0, 0); Check with Canvas.isDoubleBuffered(), and don't double-buffer if the MIDP implementation already does it for you. To avoid deadlock paint() should not synchronize on any object already locked when serviceRepaints() is called. Entering alphanumeric data through a handheld device can be tedious. If possible, provide a list of choices from which the user can select. Article on the cost of dissertation service casts (Page last updated December 1999, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Casting can be detrimental to the canadian writer s world performance. Improve performance by minimizing casting in heavily used code. Some casts take nearly as long as a simple object allocation. Buy University? [Article discusses various ways of avoiding casts, showing advantages and drawbacks.] Article on writer s world essays 2nd ed Java 2 collections (Page last updated , Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Convert collections into arrays for improved access speed.
The conversion can be made slightly faster by implementing it in a subclass so that collection element access can avoid access methods, accessing elements directly. Customized implementations of Hashtables can perform better. Use type specific implementations of collections for better performance (e.g. IntegerVector rather than Vector) [Article describes a type-generic base class for typed arrayed collections.] Scaling SOAP-based web services. Homework? (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Frank Cohen, Publisher IBM). Tips: Cache the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed web services description language (WSDL) in a centralized database and economic and social history of south yorkshire, periodically check for newer versions. Cache schema definitions for scalability. Use simple SOAP data types (String, Int, Float, NegativeInteger).
Each new data type introduces a serializer to convert from the XML value into a Java value and back again, which may cause performance problems. SOAP messages move much more data than the average HTTP GET or POST call, adversely impacting network performance. Transactional SOAP calls need to cache the state of sessions. [Article dicusses a free open-source utility called Load to stress test SOAP-based web services]. Rules and Patterns for Session Facades (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Kyle Brown, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use the the canadian writer 2nd ed Facade pattern, and specifically Value objects, to transfer all the subset of data needed from an entity bean in one transfer. EJBs are wonderful (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher OnJava). Tips: The out-of-the-box configuration for Entity EJB engines, such as WebLogic, are designed to handle read-write transactional data with the best possible performance. Buy University Report? There are studies that demonstrate entity EJBs with CMP have lackluster performance when compared with a stateless session bean (SLSB) with JDBC. Writer 2nd Ed? [Author points out however that SLSB/JDBC combination is less robust, less configurable, and less maintainable]. Configure separate deployments for each entity bean for different usage patterns (e.g. typical 85% read-only, 10% read-write, 5% batch update), and partition the presentation layer to use the appropriate corresponding deployment (e.g. read requests use the read-only deployment).
EJB performance tips (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Krishna Kothapalli and pay someone, Raghava Kothapalli, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: Design coarse-grained EJB remote interfaces to reduce the number of network calls required. Combine remote method calls into one call, and essays 2nd ed, combine the dissertation data required for the calls into one transfer. Reduce the number of JNDI lookups: cache the home handles. Use session bean wrapper for returning multiple data rows from an entity bean, rather than returning one row at a time. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Use session beans for database batch operations, entity beans typically operate only one row at to end an essay a time. Use container-managed persistence (CMP) rather than bean-managed persistence (BMP). Use entity beans when only a few rows are required for the entity, and when rows need to writer s world 2nd ed be frequently updated. An Essay? Use the lowest impact isolation (transaction) level consistent with maintaining data coherency. The Canadian? Highest impact down: TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED. Correctly simulate the production environment to tune the good application, and use profiling and other monitroing tools to identify bottlenecks.
Tune the writer s world essays 2nd ed underlying system, e.g. TCP/IP parameters, file limits, connection pool parameters, EJB pools sizes, thread counts, number of JVMs, JVM heap size, shared pool sizes, buffer sizes, indexes, SQL queries, keep/alive parameters, connection backlogs. Dissertation Learning? Use clustering to meet higher loads or consider upgrading the hardware. Both Java specific and Java on OS/390 tips. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use the latest release of the SDK. Use zip and jar files.
Partition classes to different zip/jar files according to usage. Order the entries in CLASSPATH so that classes are found quickly (the default classloaders do a linear search in each entry's directory or zip/jar file). If using a large number of threads (thousands) tune the underlying OS to support this. Vary the -ss parameter to optimize for threads. Threads generally don't need more than 256K stack size. Minimize the number of JNI calls Use primitive types for variables Avoid excessive writing to the Java console Use synchronized methods only when necessary Cache/reuse frequently used objects when possible Declare methods as final [dubious tip].
Use static final when creating constants Use int instead of long. Use local variables in writer s world 2nd ed, preference to class and instance variables. Use arrays instead of vectors Consider when to institutional thesis use a temporary variable to essays 2nd ed manipulate class and instance variables in loops (speed vs. memory) Add and good, delete items from the end of a vector Avoid unnecessary cast and instanceof Avoid using String when doing a lot of character manipulation. Use StringBuffer instead. Avoid using long divides. Javaworld tip article, detailing a buffered RandomAccessFile class. (Page last updated 1998?, Added 2000-10-23, Author Nick Zhang). Unfortunately the getNextLine() is too system specific - don't forget systems where lines are 'r' terminated. Tips: Use buffered i/o classes. Re-implement classes to avoid synchronization, where this is applicable. RMI performance tuning (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Ashok Mathew and writer s world essays 2nd ed, Mark Roulo, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: Use netperf to measure network bandwidth. Consider altering the TcpWindowSize parameter. Configure RMI garbage collection by buy university setting the properties sun.rmi.dgc.client.gcInterval and sun.rmi.dgc.server.gcInterval . Send groups of objects together rather than one object at a time. Implementing Externalize can speed up transfers. Pack data to reduce the number and amount of reads and writes, and the canadian writer s world essays, the amount of data transferred. Have object directly serialize contained objects or tell those objects to serialize themselves using Externalize methods (i.e. Essay System? chain Externalize methods for all contained objects). Use special codes to handle special cases such as singleton or reusable objects. Don't introduce extra complications once performance targets have been met.
Local entity beans (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Alex Pestrikov, Publisher Java Developers Journal). S World? Tips: Local entity beans do not need to be marshalled, and do not incur any marshalling overhead for thesis method calls either: parameters are passed by reference. Local entity beans are an optimization for beans which it is known will be on the canadian writer essays 2nd ed the same JVM with their callers. Facade objects (wrappers) allow local entity beans to be called remotely. Institutional? This pattern incurs very little overhead for the canadian writer essays remote calls, while at the same time optimizing local calls between local beans which can use local calls. Nice article on thesis understanding bytecodes by Peter Haggar, Added 2000-10-23, Author of writer s world Practical Java. Explains why a synchronized method is buy university report, faster than a functionally identical synchronized block. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Peter Haggar, Publisher IBM).
Tips: Understanding bytecodes can help determine how to improve performance. It can also help you to create smaller sized class files. Don't synchronize code unless synchronization is required. Use synchronized methods rather than synchronized blocks where the code would be functionally identical. The -O option in SDK 1.2 does nothing. Use the -g:none option to make files class smaller [or use a better optimizing compiler] Move invariants out of loops. S World Essays? Apply simple optimizations like loop unrolling, algebraic simplification, and strength reduction by hand. Chapter 1 of Enterprise Java Performance, Performance in General. Includes the infamous sentences It is dissertation service, likely that the code will not meet the performance requirements the very first time it runs.
Even if it does, it may be worthwhile to look for some ways to s world 2nd ed improve it. NO NO NO! If the code meets the performance requirements, DON'T CHANGE IT. Next time guys, ask me to review your book before you publish. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steven Halter Steven Munroe, Publisher Sun). Tips: The simplest code usually performs best. Consider performance requirements before coding. Write reasonable code without worrying too much about performance until later. If the design identifies a critical section of code, spend time considering that code's performance before and while writing it. Define performance requirements explicitly. Redefine fuzzy requirements to be more explicit. The target machine affects performance requirements.
Use the buy university simplest classes possible--but no simpler. [Don'cha just love it. And here I was using classes simpler than is possible. Gotta make 'em more complex now.] Don?t recalculate things that are constant in loops. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Reuse objects where possible. In The Economic And Social History? Choose the correct collection for performance. Use the default Java data values where possible to the canadian writer s world 2nd ed avoid reassigning them. Use raw arrays in preference to collections. Good An Essay? Performance fixing is iterative. Fixing one bottleneck often reveals another previously hidden one.
Keep performance in mind during the design phase. Avoid monopolizing shared resources. Design is writer, important for any distributed parts of a distributed application. Essays Economic And Social History Of South Yorkshire? The real performance limitations are physical limitations: bandwidth, communication distance, access speed, unavoidable overheads, resource limitations, etc. JNI calls are not necessarily faster than using pure Java because of JNI overheads.
Schema mapping is the canadian s world essays, complex. [Buy a product that does it for you.] Chapter 4 of Enterprise Java Performance, Local/Remote Issues. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steven Halter Steven Munroe, Publisher Sun). Tips: RMI over IIOP has a higher overhead than plain RMI. Objects that can be configured to dissertation be local or remote at any time, provides the flexibility to optimize performance. Large grained remote calls [i.e. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? batched calls] perform better than small grained remote calls [lots of little calls]. Persistency adds overheads that make persistent objects slower. Instead of serializing the transitive closure (recursive traversal of all objects referenced), break up objects into smaller chunks. Use stubs, proxies and handles [essentially objects that indirectly refer to other objects] to break up serialization into smaller chunks. Unless the application is put together with care, the remote method call costs may dominate. Group objects that interact strongly [a lot] in the same physical location.
The closer they are, the more efficient their interaction. Cache in the client any read-only objects, for dissertation service learning the whole session. Replicate any data needed so that queries run locally in the client. Written objects can be held in the canadian s world, the client and periodically written to the server, rather than updating the server object on each change. Good partitioning of objects in distributed applications limits interactions between objects in different partitions and question system, takes advantage of local method access for objects within each partition.
Application partitioning is best addressed early in the canadian 2nd ed, the design. How to use java.rmi.MarshalledObject (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Stuart Halloway, Publisher Sun). Tips: MarshalledObject lets you postpone deserializing objects. This lets you pass an object through multiple serialization/deserialization layers (e.g. passing an ways object through many JVMs), without incurring the serialization/deserialization overheads until absolutely necessary. Doug Bell's article with various low-level techniques and benchmark applets. S World Essays 2nd Ed? (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Doug Bell, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Don't optimize unless necessary. Economic? Optimizing can: introduce new bugs; make code harder to s world essays 2nd ed understand and maintain; reduce the extensibility of the code. 90 percent of a program's excution time is to end, spent executing 10 percent of the code. (Some people use the 80 percent/20 percent rule).
Optimizing the other 90 percent of the program (where 10 percent of the execution time was spent) has no noticeable effect on writer s world essays performance. General optimization techniques include: strength reduction; common sub expression elimination; code motion; unrolling loops. Use compiler features: constant folding; branch folding; dead code elimination. Use the -O option (javac -O). Use a profiler to identify bottlenecks. Institutional? Always time the code before and after making changes to verify that, at least on the test platform, your changes improved the program.
Try to make each timing test under identical conditions. If possible, contrive a test that doesn't rely on any user input, as the variations in user response can cause the results to fluctuate. Tuning the IBM JVM and Linux (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Duc Vianney and the canadian s world essays, James Phelan, Publisher IBM). Tips: [Article also has detailed coverage of essay question tuning Linux]. Use the -Xms and -Xmx parameters to the canadian essays set the heap size. And Social Yorkshire? Use -verbosegc to measure garbage collection statistics. Keep heap size smaller than physical memory. Keep heap size small enough that all other necessary processes also fit into the canadian 2nd ed physical memory. The IBM JVM has extra options to control JVM Focus initially on design, data structures, and algorithms. Do not rely on compile-time code optimization.
Understand runtime code optimization. Use StringBuffer, rather than String, for concatenation. Minimize the cost of object creation. Guard against unused objects. Minimize synchronization.
Use stack variables whenever possible. Good To End An Essay? Use static, final, and private methods to the canadian allow inlining. Initialize instance variables only once. Buy University Report? Use primitive types for faster and smaller code. Do not use an Enumeration or an Iterator to the canadian 2nd ed traverse a Vector. Use System.arraycopy for copying arrays. Prefer an array to a Vector or ArrayList. Institutional? Reuse objects whenever possible.
Use lazy evaluation. Optimize source code by hand. Compile to the canadian writer s world essays native code. Performance tuning embedded Java (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Vincent Perrier, Publisher OnJava). Tips: All the following affect embedded Java performance: hardware processor selection; (real-time) operating system selection; supported Java APIs; application reliability and question solar, scalability; graphics support; and the ability to put the application code into the canadian essays 2nd ed ROM. Various approaches for buy university boosting bytecode execution speed include: a JIT compiler (usually too big for embedded systems); an ahead-of-time compiler (requires more ROM, may disallow or slowdown dynamically loaded classes); a dynamic adaptive compiler (half-way house between last two options); putting the Java application code into ROM; rewriting the JVM interpretation loop in assembly; using a Java hardware accelerator. Use the lightweight graphical toolkit. To keep down the memory footprint, eliminate any classes that are not used (java -v lists all classes as they are loaded), and run in interpreted mode as much as possible. Benchmark results are not necessarily applicable to your application [article reviews the s world essays applicability of standard and proprietary benchmarks]. Caching (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Jonathan Lurie, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Nice description of caching using a filing system analogy.
Nice introductory description of implementating caching, and of managing caching overheads and element expiration. J2EE challenges (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Chris Kampmeier, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Good To End? Tips: Thoroughly test any framework in a production-like environment to ensure that stability and writer essays 2nd ed, performance requirements are met. Report? Each component should be thoroughly reviewed and writer, tested for its performance and security characteristics. Using the underlying EJB container to to do my calculus homework manage complex aspects such as transactions, security, and remote communication comes with the price of s world additional processing overhead. To ensure good performance use experienced J2EE builders and use proven design patterns.
Consider the thesis impact of session size on performance. Avoid the following common mistakes: Failure to close JDBC result sets, statements, and connections; Failure to remove unused stateful session beans; Failure to invalidate HttpSession. The Canadian Writer S World? Performance test various options, for example, test both Type 2 and Type 4 JDBC drivers; Use a load-generation tool to simulate moderate loads; monitor the server to identify resource utlization. Perform code analysis and profiling. Performance requirements include: the required response times for end users; the perceived steady state and peak user loads; the average and peak amount of data transferred per Web request; the expected growth in user load over the next 12 months. Note that peak user loads are the number of concurrent sessions being managed by the application server, not the number of possible users using the system. Larger loads require greater amounts of hardware to satisfy that load. Applications that perform very little work can typically handle many users for a given amount of hardware, but can scale poorly as they spend a large percentage of time waiting for essay solar system shared resources. Applications that perform a great number of computations tend to require much more hardware per user, but can scale much better than those performing a small number of computations.
Processor integer performance is usually the most important hardware factor, though a server can scale poorly if shared resources cause significant contention. Cache design and memory bandwidth play a big role in s world essays, determining how much extra performance is achieved, as processors are added to a server. Additional capacity should be designed into the system. Extrapolate from buy university known performance test results to predict the performance of the system when varying amount of resources are available. EJB Clustering (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher BEA).
Tips: Four locations that can provide clustering logic for an EJB are: the JNDI naming server where the home stub is bound, the writer 2nd ed container, the home stub, and the remote stub. J2EE Application servers (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Authors Christopher G. Chelliah and Sudhakar Ramakrishnan, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: A scalable server application probably needs to be balanced across multiple JVMs (possibly pseudo-JVMs, i.e. multiple logical JVMs running in the same process). Performance of an in the economic and social history yorkshire application server hinges on caching, load balancing, fault tolerance, and clustering. Application server caching should include web-page caches and the canadian writer, data access caches. Other caches include caching servers which guard the application server, intercepting requests and either returning those that do not need to institutional go to the server, or rejecting or delaying those that may overload the app server. Application servers should use connection pooling and database caching to minimize connection overheads and round-trips. Load balancing mechanisms include: round-robin DNS (alternating different IP-addresses assigned to a server name); and re-routing mechanisms to distribute requests across multiple servers. By maintaining multiple re-routing servers and s world 2nd ed, a client connection mechanism that automatically checks for an available re-routing server, fault tolerance is added. Ways To End? Using one thread per user can become a bottleneck if there are a large number of concurrent users. Distributed components should consider the proximity of components to their data (i.e., avoid network round-trips) and how to distribute any resource bottlenecks (i.e., CPU, memory, I/O) across the different nodes.
Hans Bergsten's top ten JSP tips (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Hans Bergsten, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: The include directive (%@ include file=filename.inc %) is faster than the include action (jsp:include page=pagename.jsp flush=true/). redirect s are slower than forward s because the browser has to make a new request. Database access is the canadian s world 2nd ed, typically very expensive in terms of server resources. Use a connection pool to share database connections efficiently between all requests, but don't use the JDBC ResultSet object itself as the dissertation service learning cache object. The Optimistic Locking pattern (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Yasmin Akbar-Husain and Eoin Lane, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: Pessimistic locking, where database data is locked when read, can lead to writer 2nd ed high lock contention. Optimistic locking only checks data integrity at update time, so has no lock contention [but can have high rollback costs]. This is Optimistic Locking pattern is usually more scalable than pessimistic locking. Essay? Detection of write-write conflicts with optimistic transactions can be done using timestamps or version counts or state comparisons. Reusing objects in embedded Java (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Angus Muir and Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: A lot of object creation and destruction can lead to a fragmented heap, which reduces the ability to create further objects.
Define the bulk of memory you need (buffers, etc.) up-front at the canadian essays 2nd ed initialization, and pay someone my calculus, use object pooling to avoid further creation or destruction of objects. Throwing/catching exceptions are tremendously expensive. Pooling is not always faster than object creation. Object recycling part 2 (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Angus Muir and Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: The efficiency of pooling objects compared to creating and the canadian 2nd ed, disposing of objects is highly dependent on the size and complexity of the objects. Object pools have deterministic access and service learning, reclamation costs for both CPU and memory, whereas object creation and garbage collection can be less deterministic. Chapter 2, Java: Fat and Slow?, of Java 2 Micro Edition: Professional Developer's Guide referenced from http://www.microjava.com/articles/techtalk/giguere(Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: Reduce compiled code size by using implicit instruction bytcodes wherever possible.
For example, limiting a method to four or fewer local variables (three on the canadian s world essays non-static methods as this takes the first slot), allows the in the history compiler to use implicit forms of instructions (such as aload, iload, fload, astore, istore, fstore, and so on). Similarly numbers -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ,5 have special bytecodes Java class files are standalone - no data is shared between class files. In particular strings are repeated across different files (one reason why they compress so well when packaged together in JAR files). An empty class compiles to the canadian s world essays 2nd ed about 200 bytes, of which only 5 bytes are bytecode. There are no instructions for initializing complete arrays in the Java VM. To Do? Instead, compilers must generate a series of bytecodes that initialize the array element by element. This can make array initialization slow, and adds bytecode to the class. You can reduce bytecode bloat from array initialization by encoded values in strings and using those strings initialize the arrays.
Explicitly set references to null when they are no longer needed to ensure that the objects can be garbage collected. Allocate objects less often and allocate smaller objects to reduce garbage collection frequency. Animation in java applets article. Old article, but basically sound (the basics haven't changed). (Page last updated March 1996, Added 2000-12-20, Authors Arthur van Hoff and Kathy Walrath, Publisher JavaWorld). The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: Use a separate thread to draw the animation. Do not use the paint() method. Essay Question Solar? Destroy the animation drawing thread when the user leaves the page (Applet.stop() is called) to avoid consuming CPU when nothing is being viewed. 2nd Ed? Keep the correct frame rate by calculating elapsed time and delaying for the remaining time, rather than always simply delaying for a contant time period.
Override the pay someone to do my calculus homework update() method to avoid flashing (update() clears the frame each time it is painted). Writer S World Essays? Use double buffering to eliminate further flashing and usually faster drawing: drawing offscreen is potentially faster, and mapping blocks of pixels oto the screen is normally very fast. Use a media tracker class to in the of south yorkshire avoid displaying images until they are fully loaded. [This still applies, but Java 2 has more interfaces to writer s world essays help you do this.] Use image strips to to do my calculus load multiple images in one action. Inter-frame compression can reduce the total size of multiple images of an animation, and so improve animation network/disk transfer rates. Another tutorial from Sun. This ones on animation (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-12-20, Author ?, Publisher Sun). The Canadian Essays? Tips: Normal frame rates for animation: 8 frames per second (fps) for poor quality animation; 12 fps for standard animation; 24 fps for short bursts of smooth, realistic motion. Animation loop (usually a separate thread) keeps track of frames and requests screen updates. Dissertation? Suspend the animation whenever it is not visible. Use the MediaTracker to load all required images before drawing, using checkID(anInt, true)/checkAll(true) [asynchronously] or waitForID()/waitForAll() [synchronous]. [example code included in article] Combine images in a single file (e.g. jar file, or single image strip) to improve image loading if transferring them over a network. Basic animation tutorial (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dave ?, Publisher ?).
Tips: Avoid flicker by overriding the update() method to avoid blanking the canvas. Use a separate thread to manage the the canadian 2nd ed calculations and drawing. Use MediaTracker to load all required images before drawing. Use double buffering (draw image on offscreen buffer, then map onto screen buffer). Use synchronization to synchronize methods in the two threads. Moving from JSP to solar EJB (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Patrick Sean Neville, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Entity EJBs should contain aggregate get/set methods that return chunks of data rather than fine-grained get/set methods for individual attributes, to reduce unnecessary database, transactional, and network communication overheads. Avoid stateful session beans as they are resource-heavy, since one instance is s world essays, maintained for each client. Dissertation? Under heavy loads, entity beans should do more than merely represent a table in a database.
If you are merely retrieving and 2nd ed, updating data values, consider using JDBC within session beans instead. Solar? If you have one large database host but only a small Web and essays 2nd ed, middleware host, consider moving much of to end an essay your logic into stored procedures and calling them via JDBC in session beans. Writer Essays? If your database host is weak or unknown, or you require greater portability, keep the data calculations in entity beans. Essays? Consider using a single stateless session bean to provide access to the canadian writer essays 2nd ed other EJBs (this is a fa?ade pattern). This optimizes multiple EJB references and calls by buy university report keeping them in-process. Container Managed Persistence (CMP) typically provides better performance (due to data caching) than Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). Judging various aspects of Java, including performance (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Brian Maso, Publisher DevX). Tips: J2EE defines component models with high scalability potential.
Maximizing scalability requires sticking to stateless session beans and handling all database interactions programmatically (through pooled JDBC connections). EJBs are slower and more complex than proprietary server implementations when high scalability is not needed. Java (to 1.3) does not have non-blocking I/O, which virtually guarantees Java server implementations bind one thread per client connection. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? This limits communication throughput. Some Java application servers provide proprietary non-blocking I/O to improve throughput. From the 1.4 SDK, Java includes non-blocking I/O. Using java.lang.reflect.Proxy (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Tom Harpin, Publisher Sun). Institutional? Tips: Interposing proxy objects is a useful approach to trace or profile method calls. The java.lang.reflect.Proxy class allows you to create a wrapper around any object which implements an interface. Appendix A (Garbage Collection) of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Authors Steve Wilson, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Large RAM requirements can force the the canadian 2nd ed OS to use virtual memory, which slows down the application.
Most JVM implementations will not dereference temporary objects until the method has gone out of scope, even if the object is created in an inner block which has gone out of scope. So you need to explicitly null the variable if you want it collectable earlier. Adding a finalizer method extends the essays and social life of the object, since it cannot be collected until the finalize() method is run. Do not use finalizers to free resources in a timely manner. Various performance tips from a JavaOne 1998 presentation. (Page last updated September 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Tony Squier Steven Meloan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Minimize the number of times that an applet has to the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed request data from the question solar server. The Canadian Writer? Package Applet images into a single class file.
Use Thread pools where these improve performance. Use BufferedIO streams to dissertation access URLConnection's Input/Output streams. Load Balancing Web Applications (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Vivek Veek, Publisher OnJava). The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? Tips: DNS round-robin sends each subsequent DNS lookup request to the next entry for that server name. This provides a simple machine-level load-balancing mechanism, but is in the and social history of south, only appropriate for session independent or shared-session servers. DNS round-robin has no server load measuring mechanisms, so requests can still go to overloaded servers, i.e. the load balancing can be very unbalanced. Hardware load-balancers solve many of the problems of DNS round-robin, but introduce a single point of failure. A web server proxy can also provide load-balancing by s world essays 2nd ed redirecting requests to multiple backend webservers. Article on using CachedRowSet, a ResultSet that doesn't need continuous connection to the database (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Taylor G. Cowan, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: CachedRowSet provides cached result sets that do not require continuous connection to solar system the database, allowing connections to be reused more efficiently. The Canadian S World? Using CachedRowSet lets you batch updates, and execute them asynchronously. CachedRowSet also supports offline work which is later synchronized. CachedRowSet is history yorkshire, probably not appropriate for managing large datasets. JMS vs RMI (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Kevin Jones, Publisher DevX). Tips: RMI calls marshall and demarshall parameters, adding major overhead.
Every network communication has several overheads: the the canadian s world essays 2nd ed distance between the sender and the receiver adds a minimum latency (limited by the speed the signal can travel along the wire, about two-thirds of the speed of in the and social history of south yorkshire light: London to writer s world 2nd ed New York would take about 3 milliseconds); each network router and switch adds time to respond to to do my calculus data, on the order of 0.1 milliseconds per device per writer 2nd ed packet. Part of dissertation most network communications consists of the canadian writer s world essays small control packets, adding significant overhead. One RMI call does not generally cause a noticeable delay, but even tens of RMI calls can be noticeable to the users. Beans written with many getXXX() and setXXX() methods can incur an pay someone to do RMI round trip for every data attribute. Messaging is naturally asynchronous, and allows an application to decouple network communications from ongoing processing, potentially avoiding threads from being blocked on communications. Proxy code generation (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Paul McLachlan, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Generative programming is a class of techniques that allows for more flexible designs without the performance overhead often encountered when following a more traditional programming style. Writer S World Essays? JSP engines are one example. java.lang.reflect.Proxy is another. More advanced code obfuscations (such as control-flow obfuscation) can produce slower programs as the institutional obfuscated bytecode is more difficult to s world 2nd ed optimize by the JIT or HotSpot compiler. A reflective lookup [obtaining the method reference from its name] is much slower than a reflective invoke [invoking the method from the reference] once you have a method reference. [Article provides an implementation of the JNI call using the JVM_OnLoad() function to trap class bytecodes as they are loaded].
A generated Proxy class uses the Reflection API to look up the interface methods once in report, its static initializer, and generates wrappers and access methods to handle passing primitive data between methods. [This means that a generated Proxy class will have a certain amount of overhead compared to the equivalent coded file]. Finalizers (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM). Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: Adding finalizers to dissertation learning your code makes GC much more expensive and unpredictable. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? Finalizers are not executed at a predictable time. Sun community chat session: Tuning the Java Runtime for buy university Big Iron (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use the the canadian s world 2nd ed -server option. Use -XX:+UseLWPSynchronization (better threading) or on Solaris set LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/lwp:/usr/lib (even better threading). Set the young generation space to homework 1/4 to 1/3 of heap space, e.g. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? -Xms1024m -Xmx1024m -XX:NewSize=256m -XX:MaxNewSize=256m. On Solaris use vmstat, pstat (utilities) and -verbose:gc (runtime option). GC is single-threaded (at least to 1.3.x), so cannot take advantage of multiple-CPUs (i.e. can end up with multi-processor mostly idle during GC phases if using a single JVM).
Too many threads can lead to thread starvation [presumably thrashing]. Use at least one thread per CPU, more if any threads will be i/o blocked. On Solaris use the mpstat utility to monitor CPU utlization. 1.4 will include concurrent GC that should avoid large GC pauses. Pay Someone My Calculus? The biggest performance problem is the canadian s world essays, bad design. Use: -XX:NewSize=value -XX:MaxNewSize=value rather than -XX:SurvivorRatio and -XX:NewRatio. Set initial heap size to max heap size when you know what size heap you'll want and you want to avoid wasting time growing the heap as you'll fill up space. If you're not sure how big you'll want your heap to be you might want to set a smaller initial size and only grow to use the space if you need it. Low CPU utilization together with bad performance may indicate GC, synchronization, I/O or network inefficiencies. -XX:MaxPermSize affects Perm Space size (storage for HotSpot internal data structures), and only needs altering if a really large number of essays in the history of south classes are being loaded. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? [The session also discussed some Solaris OS parameters to tune]. For JDK 1.3, the heap is: TotalHeapSize = -Xmx setting + MaxPermSize; with -Xmx split into new and essay system, old spaces [i.e. The Canadian Writer S World Essays? total heap space is old space + new space + perm space, and settable heap using -Xmx defines the size of the old+new space. My Calculus? -XX:MaxNewSize defines how much of writer s world essays -Xmx heap space goes to new space].
Looks at Bluestone Total-e-server, Sybase Enterprise Application Server, SilverStream Application Server, and WebLogic Application Server. S World Essays? (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Abraham Kang, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: A cluster in this context is a group of machines working together to transparently provide enterprise services. A cluster can be implemented using a dispatcher which accepts requests and passes them on to other servers (either by redirecting the dissertation service client or directly). Clusters target to provide scalability and high-availability. J2EE application servers implement clustering around their implementation of s world essays 2nd ed JNDI.
Clustering should allow failover if a machine/process crashes. Pay Someone My Calculus Homework? For stateful sessions, this requires state replication. Database and filesystem session persistence can limit scalability when storing large or numerous objects in the HttpSession. Writer Essays? To scale the static portions of your Website, add Web servers; to scale the dynamic portions of your site, add application servers. Multicasting efficiency (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Paul Timberlake, Publisher Message MQ).
Tips: When dealing with large numbers of active listeners, multicast publish/subscribe is more efficient than broadcast or multiple individual connections (unicast). When dealing with large numbers of listeners with only a few active, or if dealing with only buy university, a few listeners, multicasting is inefficient. This scenario is writer, common in institutional thesis, enterprise application integration (EAI) systems. Inactive listeners require all missed messages to be resent to them in order when the writer essays 2nd ed listener becomes active. A unicast-based message transport, such as message queuing organized into a hub-and-spoke model, is more efficient than multicast for dissertation service learning most application integration (EAI) scenarios. NIO (Page last updated Daniel F. Savarese, Added 2002-02-22, Author February 2002, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: GatheringByteChannel lets you to write a sequence of bytes from multiple buffers, and writer essays 2nd ed, ScatteringByteChannel allows you to read a sequence of good an essay bytes into multiple buffers. Both let you minimize the number of system calls meade by combining operations that might otherwise require multiple system calls.
Selector allows you to multiplex I/O channels, reducing the number of threads required for efficient concurrent I/O operations. FileChannels allow files to be memory mapped, rather than reading into a buffer. This can be more efficient. [But note that both operations bring the file into memory in different ways, so which is the canadian, faster will be system and pay someone my calculus homework, data dependent]. Optimizing Searches via Rare Events (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Authors ANDREA MONTANARI RICCARDO ZECCHINA, Publisher Nature). Tips: Re-starting a search algorithm at the canadian s world essays 2nd ed random times can improve the average time required to reach the solution. Compression in Java (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Qusay H. Mahmoud and Konstantin Kladko, Publisher Sun). Thesis? Tips: Compression techniques have efficiencies that vary depending on the data being compressed. It's possible a proprietary compression technique could the most efficient for a particular application. For example, instead of s world essays 2nd ed transmitting a compressed picture, the thesis component objects that describe how to draw the writer picture may be a much smaller amount of data to transfer.
ZIPOutputStream and GZIPOutputStream use internal buffer sizes of 512. BufferedOutputStream is unnecessary unless the size of the buffer is significantly larger. GZIPOutputStream has a constructor which sets the internal buffer size. Zip entries are not cached when a file is in the economic history of south yorkshire, read using ZipInputStream and FileInputStream, but using ZipFile does cache data, so creating more than one ZipFile object on the canadian the same file only opens the file once. In UNIX, all zip files opened using ZipFile are memory mapped, and therefore the learning performance of s world 2nd ed ZipFile is superior to dissertation learning ZipInputStream. If the writer contents of the same zip file, are frequently changed then using ZipInputStream is more optimal. History Of South Yorkshire? Compressing data on the fly only improves performance when the writer s world essays data being compressed are more than a couple of hundred bytes. Porting to KVM (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Shiuh-Lin Lee, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: Minimize program runtime size. Avoid third-party class libraries if not necessary, for example kAWT (a GUI toolkit library) and MathFP (Fixed point math).
Store big lookup tables in the user database rather than as part of the program. Call GC functions manually. Learning? Dispose of writer s world essays 2nd ed Objects; close the database and buy university report, the network connections as soon as they are no longer needed. Only load or transfer minimal required data structures and records into memory. Avoid float and double calculations. The Canadian Essays? Avoid data conversions: store and use the data in the final required format, or execute conversions on buy university report the server. Use client caching. Data compression has to be tuned to minimize both client CPU impact as well as transfer size. Use tabbed panels to hold different groups of information. Scrollable panel can have higher memory requirements than a tabbed panel. Avoid some KVM user components (like ScrollTextBox), because they are runtime memory hogs.
Use selection lists rather than manual entry to speed up user data entry. Tracking Memory leaks (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jim Patrick, Publisher IBM). Tips: An object is only counted as being unused when it is the canadian essays, no longer referenced. Pay Someone My Calculus Homework? If objects remain referenced unintentionally, this is a memory leak. S World 2nd Ed? If you get a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError after a while, memory leakage is a strong suspect. If an application is meant to run 24 hours a day, then memory leaks become highly significant.
Most JVMs grow towards the upper heap limit (-Xmx/-mx options) when more memory is an essay, required, and do not return memory to the operating system, even if the memory is no longer needed, until the JVM process terminates. [Article provides an example of tracking memory leaks using JProbe]. BigDecimal and Enumerations (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). The Canadian Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: BigDecimal provides arbitrary-precision floating point number arithmetic, at report the cost of performance. Type-safe enumeration is safer than using ints for enum values, and you can still use comparison by identity for fast performance. But you lose the performance potential of using the the canadian writer s world enum values directly as array indices, switch constants and bitmasks. Article on institutional thesis connection pools (Page last updated September 1999, Added 2001-02-21, Author Hans Bergsten, Publisher Web Developers Journal). Tips: Reuse database connections using a connection pool.
Put helper classes (non-servlet classes used by writer servlets) in the CLASSPATH of the thesis servlet engine. Weblogic's RMI framework (Page last updated January 1999, Added 2001-03-21, Author , Publisher BEA). Tips: Use a single, multiplexed, asynchronous, bidirectional connection for the canadian RMI client-to-network traffic instead of the standard reference implementation using multiple sockets. Try to improve the serialization mechanism for faster RMI [Externalization is better]. Report? Use local calls for the canadian objects located in essay question, the same JVM. Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Minimize distributed garbage collection. Use smart stubs which provide data caching and localized execution in addition to to end the normal remote execution and data fetching capabilities. Using VolatileImage (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Someone@sun, Publisher Sun). Tips: Graphics performance in 1.2 is worse than 1.1. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? 1.3 is better, and 1.4 should be the fastest yet.
From 1.2 direct access to image pixels was available, but was too slow to be usable because it involved copying many bits around in memory. Institutional? Use BufferedImage to move offscreen images to system memory rather than copying pixels. For even faster image mapping, VolatileImage allows a hardware-accelerated offscreen image to be drawn directly on the video card. VolatileImage is volatile because the image can be lost at any time, from various causes: running another application in the canadian 2nd ed, fullscreen mode; starting a screen saver; changing screen resolution; interrupting a task. Only constantly re-rendered images need to be explicitly created as VolatileImage objects to essays in the and social history of south yorkshire be hardware accelerated. Such images include backbuffers (double buffering) and the canadian writer s world essays, animated images. All other images, such as sprites, can be created with createImage, and Java 2D will attempt to accelerate them. If an image, such as a sprite, is thesis, drawn once and copied from many times, Java 2D makes a copy of the canadian it in good to end, accelerated memory and future copies from the image can perform better. The Canadian Writer S World? To render sprites to the screen, you should use double-buffering by: creating a backbuffer with createVolatileImage, copying the sprite to the backbuffer, and my calculus, copying the backbuffer to the screen. If content loss occurs, Java 2D re-copies the the canadian writer essays 2nd ed sprite from software memory to institutional thesis accelerated memory.
Only some graphics operations (e.g. curved shapes) are accelerated on some platforms. Use profiling to the canadian writer 2nd ed determine what works best for your situation. From 1.4 Swing uses VolatileImage for its double buffering. VolatileImage.getCapabilities() provides an ImageCapabilities object which gives details of the details of the runtime VolatileImage. Pay Someone My Calculus Homework? The ImageCapabilities allows the application to decide to use less images, images of the canadian essays lower resolution, different rendering algorithms, or various other means to attempt to get better performance from the current situation and platform.
Sun community chat session on Optimizing Java Program Performance with Peter Haggar. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Try faster JVMs if possible. Never tune code unless you have identified a performance problem with a profiling tool. Beware that tuning techniques may not work well on question solar all platforms. Speed start-up time by: minimizing the .class sizes (use -g:none or a shrink tool e.g. DashO, JAX, JOpt); turn off the JIT Good design, data structures, and algorithms are the best things to produce good performance. The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? Check String manipulation code. It is essay question, much more efficient to read data from disk all at once rather than with multiple reads. Use the buffered classes when doing i/o. import is a compile time function, so has no effect on runtime (i.e. import a.b.*; or import a.b.c; make no difference to runtime performance). Optimize conditionals to have the most likely true results first. Java transaction management (JTS) (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM).
Tips: A container managing transactions can identify communications to the same database, and automatically convert a two-phase transaction into the canadian s world 2nd ed a more efficient single-phase commit. Article about frameworks and the effective memory management of objects; avoiding memory leaks by design. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Leonard Slipp, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Define the life cycles of objects and the duration of institutional object interrelationships. Then manage objects according to whether the framework retains exclusive control of them, or whether the object can be accessed from outside the framework. Minimize the writer essays 2nd ed number of buy university objects that can be accessed from outside the framework. In general, the creator of an object should be responsible for the objects' life cycle. Where this is not the case, the transfer of ownership of the object should be explicit and emphasized. Similarly object relationship management should be explicit and writer 2nd ed, reversible: for every add() action, there must be a remove(); for every register() action, there must be a deregister(). Various strategies for report connecting to databases (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Prakash Malani, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Use pooled connections to reduce connection churn overheads. javax.sql.DataSource provides a standard connection pooling mechanism [example included]. Obtain and release pooled conections within each method that requires the resource if the writer s world connection is very short (termed Quick Catch-and-Release Strategy in the article).
However do not release the connection only to use it again almost immediately, instead hold the connection until it will not be immediately needed. The performance penalty of an essay obtaining and the canadian writer s world 2nd ed, releasing connections too frequently is quite small in thesis, comparison to potential scalability problems or issues raised because EntityBeans are holding on to the the canadian writer s world essays connections for too long. The Quick Catch-and-Release Strategy is the best default strategy to ensure good performance and scalability. Basic article on performance tuning techniques. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2000-12-14, Author Tarak Modi, Publisher Java Pro). Question Solar? Tips: [The compiler concatenates strings where they are fully resolvable, so don't move these concatenations to runtime with StringBuffer.] Where the the canadian writer s world essays compiler cannot resolve concatenated strings at compile time, the code should be converted to StringBuffer appends, and the StringBuffer should be appropriately sized rather than using the default size. Buy University Report? Using the writer s world essays 2nd ed concatenation operator (+) in a loop is very inefficient, as it creates many intermediate temporary objects. Presizing collections (like Vector) to institutional thesis the expected size is more efficient than using the default size and letting the the canadian writer s world essays collection grow. Removing elements from a Vector will necessitate copying within the Vector if the element is report, removed from anywhere other than the the canadian writer 2nd ed end of the collection.
Cache the size of the collection in a local variable to use in a loop instead of repeatedly calling collection.size(). Unsynchronized methods are faster than synchronized ones. [Article discusses applying these optimzations to a thread pool implementation.] Object creation tuning (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-07-20, Author Daniel F. Savarese, Publisher Numega). Tips: Creating and dereferencing too many objects can adversely impact performance. Avoid holding on of south yorkshire to objects for the canadian writer s world essays too long by explicit dereference (setting variables to null) and by using weak references. To Do My Calculus? Use a profiler to determine which objects may be created too often, or may not be being dereferenced. The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? When looking for memory problems, look at methods that are called the most times or use the most memory.
Frequently called methods may unnecessarily allocate objects on each call. Methods that use a lot of memory may not need to learning use as much memory or they may be a source of memory leaks. Try to use mutable objects like StringBuffers or a char array instead of immutable objects like String. The Canadian S World? Don't restrict object state initialization to my calculus homework the arguments passed to writer a constructor. Provide a zero-argument constructor that creates reasonable default values and include setter methods or an init method to ways to end an essay allow objects of that class to essays be reused. If you have to wrap primitive types, such as an int, define your own wrapper class which can be reused instead of pay someone to do using java.lang.Integer. If you need to create many instances of a wrapper class like Integer, consider writing your algorithm to accept primitive types. Use a factory class instead of directly calling the new operator, to allow easier reuse of the canadian writer essays 2nd ed objects. Object pooling and buy university, database connection pooling are two techniques for reducing object creation overheads. Object pools can be sources or memory leaks and can themselves be inefficient. The java.nio packages (updated) (Page last updated December, 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author John Zukowski, Publisher Sun).
Tips: Direct buffers have a higher creation cost than non-direct buffers because they use native system operations rather than JVM operations. Direct buffers optimize access operations by using the system's native I/O operations. Reduce threads by multiplexing I/O using selectors: The new I/O capabilities, allow you to the canadian s world essays 2nd ed create a Web server that does not require one thread per connection. How to Climb a B-tree (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Rick Grehan, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: A B-tree outperforms a binary tree when used for external sorting (for example, when the index is stored out on disk) because searching a binary tree cuts the report number of keys that need searching in half for every node searched, whereas B-tree searching cuts the number of keys that have to be searched by approximately 1/n, where n is the number of keys on a node. B-tree variants provide faster searching at writer s world the cost of buy university report slower insertions and the canadian s world 2nd ed, deletions. Report? Two such variants are the B-tree with rotation (more densely packed nodes) and the B+tree (optimized for sequential key traversing). 2nd Ed? [Article discusses building a B-tree class, and persisting it to provide a disk-based searchable index].
Database comparison (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Timothy Dyck, Publisher E-Week). Tips: SQLServer has driver problems that slow access to it. Essays Economic History Yorkshire? Connection memory requirements vary dramatically between databases, and affect how much memory can be allocated to other resources. In-memory query result caches (such as with mySQL) improves performance significantly. (Works by retrieving cached results of byte-for-byte identical queries, with no query compilation required). Add extra indexes. Essays? Arrange the stored order of rows to best satisfy the queries. Some drivers store the buy university report entire result set in memory when using bidirectional cursors - which does not scale. File Channels, StackTraceElements, (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: File Channels (from the 1.4+ nio package) provide optimized mapping and a transferTo() method which is the the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed fastest way to copy files. StackTraceElement provides access to essays in the economic and social of south the stack from excception objects, useful for analyzing stack elements.
Article about garbage collection and finalization. Writer S World? (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Jeff Friesen, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: [No specific performance tips, but its always helpful to know about GC]. Java Transaction Service (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Tips: Writing every data block to disk when any part of it changes would be bad for buy university system performance. The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? Deferring disk writes to a more opportune time can greatly improve application throughput.
Transactional systems achieve durability with acceptable performance by summarizing the results of multiple transactions in a single transaction log. The transaction log is stored as a sequential disk file and will generally only be written to, not read from, except in to do, the case of rollback or recovery. Writing an update record to a transaction log requires less total data to be written to disk (only the data that has changed needs to the canadian s world essays 2nd ed be written) and fewer disk seeks. Changes associated with multiple concurrent transactions can be combined into a single write to to do my calculus homework the transaction log, so multiple transactions per disk write can be processed, instead of requiring several disk writes per transaction. HTTP sessions vs. stateful EJB (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Peter Zadrozny, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). The Canadian S World Essays? Tips: The comparative costs of storing data in an HTTP session object are roughly the thesis same as storing the same data in a stateful session bean. Failure to remove an the canadian writer essays 2nd ed EJB that should have been removed (from the HTTP session) carries a very high performance price: the EJB will be passivated which is a very expensive operation. Chapter 1, What Is Performance? of Java Platform Performance. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Design your software with the target configuration (e.g. RAM) in pay someone to do homework, mind. Essays? If your program consumes all of your user's memory resources, they probably won't be happy.
Measure performance under loads comparable to expected deployed loads. Perceived performance is a highly important aspect of performance. How fast a program feels is pay someone my calculus homework, more important than how fast it really is. Chapter 2, The Performance Process of Java Platform Performance. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? Tips: It's nearly impossible to ways to end an essay achieve good performance through optimizations alone, without considering performance in analysis and design stages. The Canadian? Creating clear system and performance requirements is the key to evaluating the success of your project.
Use cases provide excellent specifications for building benchmarks. Specify the good ways to end limitations of the application: well-defined boundaries on the application scope can provide big optimization opportunities. Specifications should include system and performance requirements, including all supported hardware configurations (RAM/CPU/Disk/Network) and other software that normally executes concurrently. Essays? You should specify quantifiable performance requirements, for example a response time of two seconds or less. Scalability is more dependent on good design decisions than optimal coding techniques. Encapsulation leads to slowdowns from increased levels of indirection, but is essential in large, scalable, high-performance systems. For example, using a java.util.List object may be slower than using a raw array, but allows you to change very easily from ArrayList to LinkedList when that is service, faster. Meeting or exceeding your performance requirements should be part of the shipping criteria for your product.
Once you've determined that a performance problem exists, you need to begin profiling. Profilers are most useful for identifying computational performance and RAM footprint issues. Performance tuning is an iterative process. Data gathered during profiling needs to be fed back into the development process. Chapter 3, Measurement Is Everything of Java Platform Performance. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). S World Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: Benchmarks are typically time-related, but can also measure quantities such as how much memory is used. Service Learning? A stopwatch is a versatile benchmarking tool. System.currentTimeMillis() provides millisecond timing for benchmarking [A Stopwatch class based on s world essays using System.currentTimeMillis() is presented]. Use benchmarks to: Compare the performance of alternative solutions; Profile performance; Track performance changes. Buy University? Micro-benchmarks (repeatable sections of code) can be useful but may not represent real-world behavior.
Factors that can skew micro-benchmark performance include Java virtual machine warm-up time, and global code interactions. Macro-benchmarks (repeatable test sequences from the user point of view) test your system as actual end users will see it. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? Extract minima, maxima and averages from repeated benchmark data for analysis. Use these to compare progress of pay someone to do my calculus homework benchmarks during tuning. [I like to add the 90th-centile value too]. Profilers help you find bottlenecks in applications, and should show: the methods called most often; the methods using the largest percentage of time; the methods calling the most-used methods; and the canadian writer 2nd ed, the methods allocating a lot of memory. The Sun JVM comes with the hprof profiler. Bottlenecks can be tuned by making often-used methods faster; and by in the economic and social history yorkshire calling slow methods less often.
Backtrace methods to understand the the canadian s world essays 2nd ed context of the bottleneck. For example, caching a value may be a better optimization than speeding up the repeated calculation of that value. Memory usage is dissertation service, often of writer s world critical importance to the overall application performance. Excessive memory allocation is often one of the first things that an experienced developer looks for good ways to end when tuning a Java program. Examine bottlenecks for memory allocation. For example you may be able to replace a repeated object allocation in a loop with a reusable object allocated once outside the loop.
Memory leaks (not releasing objects for the canadian writer s world the garbage collector to reclaim) can lead to a large memory footprint. You identify memory leaks by: determining that there is a leak; then identifying the to do objects that are not being garbage colleted; then tracing the writer essays references to institutional those leaking objects to determine what is holding them in writer essays, memory. If your program continues to use more and more memory then it has a memory leak. This determination should happen after all initializations have completed. Identify memory leak objects by marking/listing the objects in some known state, then cycling through other states and dissertation service, back to that known state and writer s world essays, seeing which extra objects are now present. When there are obvious bottlenecks, the method profile should show these. A flat method profile is one where there are no obvious bottlenecks, no methods taking vastly more time than others. In this case you should look at cumulative method profiles, which show the relative times taken by a method and all the methods it calls (the call tree ). This should identify methods which are worthwhile targets for to do homework optimization. Chapter 4, I/O Performance of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun).
Tips: Buffer i/o operations. Custom buffering (using your own array of the canadian writer bytes/chars) is quicker than using a Buffered class. Application specific i/o can be tuned, e.g. Institutional? caching in memory frequently served pages of a HTTP server. Default Serialization is slow. Use the the canadian writer essays transient keyword to define fields to report avoid having those fields serialized. Examine serialized objects to determine which fields do not need to be serialized for the canadian essays 2nd ed the application to work. Chapter 5, RAM Footprint of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and ways, Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Virtual memory is writer 2nd ed, many times slower than RAM: try to fit the institutional application into available RAM on the target platform.
Runtime.totalMemory() and Runtime.freeMemory() measure available heap memory, but not the RAM footprint of the application. Use operating system monitoring tools to determine the RAM footprint of the application: e.g. task manager on writer s world essays 2nd ed Windows NT, pmap -x and ps on in the economic history of south Solaris. Small GUI apps need several hundred classes to be loaded just to start the app. Small GUI apps need to the canadian writer essays reduce the my calculus homework number of classes loaded to the canadian improve startup time. You can approximate sizes of objects based on the number of fields and their types: byte-1 byte; char-2 bytes; short-2 bytes; int-4 bytes; float-4 bytes; long-8 bytes; double-8 bytes; references-4 bytes. JVMs will impose additional overheads. You can determine actual object sizes for a particular JVM by measuring the heap space taken by service multiple instances of writer essays 2nd ed a class. To Do? Use profiling to determine the overal size cost of writer s world 2nd ed a class of objects, to report determine whether it is worth reducing the the canadian size cost of the class.
Some JVM/OS combinations can impose a significant memory overhead on each thread. Use 'java -verbose MyMainClass' to identify all classes that are loaded. Chapter 6, Controlling Class Loading of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: To avoid loading unnecessary classes (e.g. when the JIT compiles methods which refer to unused classes), use Class.forName() instead of directly naming the class in source. This tactic is useful if large classes or a large number of dissertation classes are being loaded when you don't think they need to be. The Canadian S World Essays? Combine listener functionality into one class to report avoid an s world 2nd ed explosion of generated inner classes. This technique increases maintenance costs.
Use a Generic ActionListener which maps instances to method calls to avoid any extra listener classes. This has the drawback of pay someone my calculus homework losing compile-time checks. java.lang.reflect.Proxy objects can be used to generalize this technique to multiple interfaces. The Canadian Writer S World? Run multiple applications in the same JVM. [Chapter discusses how to do this, but see Multiprocess JVMs and Echidna for more comprehensive solutions]. Chapter 7, Object Mutability: Strings and essays history of south, other things of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: The allocation, initialization, and collection of many short-lived useless objects can cause major inefficiencies in the canadian writer essays, your software, even when running on an advanced runtime such as the HotSpot VM. Be cautious when the buy university report number of s world objects you're allocating becomes very high-for example, when allocating objects inside loops.
For heavy-duty text processing, however, some uses of the dissertation learning String class can become major performance bottlenecks. The Canadian Writer? StringBuffer can be used to improve the performance of common text processing operations. To Do? Avoid creating new strings in compute intensive parts of code. Be careful of the concatenation operators '+' and '+=' when used with strings. To avoid spurious object creation, create methods which return primitive data for s world multiple data items, rather than one method returning an essays in the history of south object holding multiple data items.
Use immutable objects to the canadian writer s world essays prevent the need to copy objects to pass information between methods. Object pooling small objects is often counterproductive. The overhead of managing the object pool is institutional thesis, often greater than the small object penalty. Pooling can also increase a program's memory footprint. Pooling large objects (e.g. large bitmaps or arrays) or objects that work with native resources (e.g. Threads or Graphics) can be efficient.
Chapter 8, Algorithms and data structures of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Choosing the best algorithm or data structure for a particular task is one of the keys to writing high-performance software. The optimal algorithm for a task is highly dependent on writer s world essays the data and data size. Special-purpose algorithms usually run faster than general-purpose algorithms. Testing for easy-to-solve subcases, and using a faster algorithm for those cases, is a mainstay of dissertation service high-performance programming. Collection features such as ordering and duplicate elimination have a performance cost, so you should select the collection type with the fewest features that still meets your needs.
Most of the time ArrayList is the best List choice, but for some tasks LinkedList is more efficient. The Canadian Essays? HashSet is much faster than TreeSet. Choosing a capacity for HashSet that's too high can waste space as well as time. Set the initial capacity to about twice the size that you expect the Set to grow to. The default hash load factor (.75) offers a good trade-off between time and question solar system, space costs. Higher values decrease the space overhead, but increase the writer s world essays 2nd ed time it takes to look up an good ways an essay entry. (When the number of entries exceeds the writer s world 2nd ed product of the load factor and the current capacity, the capacity is good ways to end an essay, doubled). Programs pay the costs associated with thread synchronization even when they're used in a single-threaded environment. The Collections.sort() method uses a merge sort that provides good performance across a wide variety of situations. When dealing with collections of primitives, the overhead of allocating a wrapper for each primitive and then extracting the primitive value from the the canadian writer 2nd ed wrapper each time it's used is quite high.
In performance-critical situations, a better solution is to service learning work with plain array structures when you're dealing with collections of primitive types. Random number generation can take time. If possible you can pre-generate the random number sequence into the canadian essays an array, and report, use the elements when required. Chapter 10 (Swing models and renderers) of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and writer 2nd ed, Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steve Wilson, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Swing?s model-view architecture is essays in the economic and social of south, critical for building scalable programs. When changing data stored in models, perform the the canadian s world 2nd ed operations in bulk whenever possible. Solar? E.g. use the interface that adds an writer s world array of elements rather than one element at a time. Use custom models to handle large datasets.
The default models provided with Swing are generic and report, designed for light-duty use [i.e. are slow]. Custom renderers can sometimes be used to 2nd ed improve performance. But watch out system, as it is easy to s world 2nd ed badly construct a custom renderer, making performance worse. A custom model and thesis, a custom renderer can be used together in the same Component. When initializing or totally replacing the contents of a model, consider constructing a new one instead of reusing the existing one, as this avoid posting notifications to any listeners. [Or reuse the object but deregister the listeners first]. Improving socket transfer rates (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Rama Roberts, Publisher Sun). Tips: The usual StringBuffer better than String tip applies to socket communications too. S World 2nd Ed? PrintWriters are not suitable for socket communications because they flush at good to end an essay each newline. Socket.setTcpNoDelay(true) may help speed if you have many small packets sent frequently across the connection. Server performance testing (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-05-21, Author Floyd Marinescu, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Test response times against average current data/user volumes, then repeat the same test against four times as much volume as you expect in 3 years time.
This defines your long term target - getting the s world essays 2nd ed response times the same for that latter test. Institutional? Response time increasing too much when database is over populated probably indicates lack of writer 2nd ed or inappropriate indexing on the database. Institutional Thesis? Response time increasing exponentially as load increases, you need to the canadian writer essays improve scalability by optimizing the application or adding resources. Use SQL clause with EXPLAIN or similar (e.g. Explain select * from table where tablefield = somevalue) to ensure that the database is doing an system indexed search rather than a linear searches of large datasets. Use a profiler to s world essays 2nd ed determine object usage, garbage collection behaviour and buy university report, method bottlenecks in the application. Minimize network calls, especially database calls: make one large database call rather than many small ones; make sure ejbStore isn?t storing anything for read only operations; use Details Objects to the canadian writer get entity bean state rather than making many trips for each aspect of state. To End? Use caching where possible. Use session beans as a fa?ade to your entity beans to encapsulate the workflow of the canadian 2nd ed one entire usecase in one network call to one method on a session bean (and one transaction). Optimizing entity beans (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Akara Sucharitakul, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use container-managed persistence when you can.
An efficient container can avoid database writes when no state has changed, and reduce reads by retrieving records at the same time as find() is homework, called. The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? Minimize database access in ejbStores. Use a dirty flag to avoid writing tee bean unless it has been changed. Always cache references obtained from lookups and buy university, find calls. Always define these references as instance variables and look them up in the setEntityContext (method setSessionContext for session beans). Always prepare your SQL statements. Close all database access/update statements properly. Avoid deadlocks.
Note that the sequence of ejbStore calls is s world essays, not defined, so the essays and social history yorkshire developer has no control over the access/locking sequence to database records. EJB best practices (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Sandra L. Emerson, Michael Girdley, Rob Woollen, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: To avoid resources being held unnecessarily for long periods, a transaction should never encompass user input or user think time. Essays 2nd Ed? Container managed transactions are preferred for consistency, and should provide extra optimization options. Don't model a shared cache or any shared resource as a stateful session bean. Stateless session beans are easier to scale than stateful session beans. With stateful session beans, every client will need its own session bean instance, reducing scalability. Buy University Report? Always call remove after finishing with a stateful session bean instance, otherwise the EJB container will eventually passivate the bean, incurring extra unnecessary disk writes. J2EE clustering (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Abraham Kang, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Consider cluster-related and load balancing programming issues from the beginning of the the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed development process. Load balancing has two non-application options: DNS (Domain Name Service) round robin or hardware load balancers. [Article discusses the pros and cons].
To support distributed sessions, make sure: all session referenced objects are serializable; store session state changes in a central repository. Try to essays and social of south keep multiple copies of objects to a minimum. SoftReference-based HashMap (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Heinz Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Tips: WeakHashMaps are not ideal if you want the values to be weakly referenced rather than the keys. SoftReferences may be better for memory sensitive caches since they are supposed to be collected in the reverse order to which they were last referenced. Adding the capability to strongly reference some of the values ensures those objects will be retained through a garbage collection. Avoiding memory leaks in EJBs (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Govind Seshadri, Publisher IT World). Tips: Make sure that any beans which have session scope implement the HttpSessionBindingListener interface Explicitly release any resources that may be used within the bean by implementing the valueUnbound() callback. 2nd Ed? Explicitly release the user's session by invoking invalidate() when they log out.
Try setting the session invalidation interval to a smaller value than the default 30 minutes. Make sure that you are not placing any large grained objects into the servlet context (application scope) as that can also prove problematic sometimes. Parallel clustering of machines using Java (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Aashish N. Patil, Publisher IBM). Tips: [Article describes an implemented architecture for solar distributing Runnable threads across multiple computer nodes]. The Javap disassembler (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-04-20, Author Stuart Halloway, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Article describes using the javap disassembler, useful for identifying exactly what the writer essays 2nd ed code has been compiled into]. Use the javap disassembler to determine the efficiency of generated bytecodes. javap is report, not sufficient to determine code efficiency, because JIT compilers can apply additional optimizations. Speeding up file searching in JFileChooser (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Slav Boleslawski, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: [Article discusses JFileChooser's operation in detail, including multi-threading, filename caching and batched delivery. Article discusses how to add type-ahead lookup functionality to s world essays choosing files]. Various tips. (Page last updated 1999?, Added 2000-10-23, Author Nate Sammons, Publisher Sammons). Tips: Use StringBuffer for String concatenations, rather than the '+' operator. Use static strings, String.intern() or a static Hashtable to ways to end an essay reduce the number of the canadian writer s world occurrances of identical string objects. Buy University Report? Modify java.lang.String to cache the writer hashCode if you are using many string keys in hash tables [note Sun added this optimization to the String class in learning, SDK 1.3] String.getBytes() is very inefficient with a method call for every character.
Use getBytes(int, int, byte int) instead, or some other mecahnism. Use non-synchronized Vector, Hashtable, etc. Writer Essays? where possible. Size Vector, Hashtable, etc. In The Economic History Of South Yorkshire? appropriately. Writer S World? Object creation is expensive. Pool your objects where possible. Inner class object creation is even more expensive than normal. Use non-public concrete support classes instead. Method call times: static 220ns; final 300ns; instance 550ns; interface methods 750ns; synchronized methods 1,500ns. [But times vary enormously depending on the VM and context]. Use static final methods where possible. Pay Someone To Do My Calculus? [And do functional programming too ;-)] Rewrite loops so that the termination test compares against 0. The Canadian Writer S World? Use exception terminated infinite loops for long loops. Report? Use System.arraycopy() to copy arrays. Use temporary local variables to manipulate instance variables.
EJB2 clustering with application servers (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article discusses multiple independent ways to load balance EJBs] Sun community chat session with Steve Wilson and the canadian essays, Jeff Kesselman on Java Performance (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: HotSpot JVMs can return heap memory to the OS while running. HotSpot Client VM (JVM 1.3) is optimized for quick startup time and low-memory footprint. The server VM (HotSpot 1.0/2.0) is designed for pay someone to do my calculus homework peak performance (may take a little longer to get up-to-speed but it will go faster in the end). Always use System.arraycopy to copy arrays.
Sticky applets available with the the canadian essays 2nd ed 1.3 plugin speeds startup (persistently caches classes on ways clients). 2nd Ed? Also put resources together into of south jar file to reduce download requests. SwingSet2 (demo in SDK distribution) provides a good example of large numbers of Swing components in a window, created asynchronously. Don't use use finalizers for s world 2nd ed anything that must be done in a timely manner. An Essay? Use primitives and transients to speed up serialization. Use a concentrator object to limit the writer s world repaint events to once every 100 milliseconds in institutional, heavily loaded systems and in multi-threaded swing environments. There is some overhead for context switching (using invokeLater) into the AWT-event thread, which you want to minimize. The Canadian S World Essays? The key to high performance code is organization and process.
Write clean, well encapsulated code, then use a Profiler to find your true bottlenecks and tune those. Experiences building a servlet (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Asif Habibullah, Jimmy Xu, Publisher Java Pro). Institutional? Tips: Keep the size of the client tier small so that downloads are fast. The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? Use the servlet init() and destroy() methods to start and buy university report, stop limited and expensive resources, such as database connections. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Make the servlets thread-safe and good ways to end, use connection pooling. Use PreparedStatements rather than plain Statement objects. Use database stored procedures.
Typesafe Enumeration gotchas (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Vladimir Roubtsov, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Implement readResolve() for Serializable Enumeration classes to maintain object identity. Ensure that the writer s world essays 2nd ed same Classloader always loads the Enumeration class to maintain object identity. Reference objects (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Jeff Friesen, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Cache objects such as images in memory for quicker presentation after the first display request. Use Reference objects to hold cached objects so that the garbage collector can free space when required. [Article discusses in dissertation learning, detail the various Reference object types]. Optimizing Java for intensive numeric calculations (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author James W. The Canadian Writer S World? Cooper, Publisher DevX). Tips: Allocating on the heap (as with object creation) is much slower than allocating on the stack.
Making numbers into first-class objects imposes a significant overhead on calculations. Hand applied optimizations may be superceded by an essay future compiler optimizations. Essays? Use specialized subtypes to reduce dynamic dispatching. Replace objects with their data held and passed as local variables. OS Signal handling in Java (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Chris White, Publisher IBM). Ways An Essay? Tips: [Article describes how to handle operating system signals from within Java. The Canadian S World Essays? Useful if you want your application to to do my calculus be able to respond to the full gamut of system and user actions].
Natively compiled code from Java source (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Martyn Honeyford, Publisher IBM). Tips: Natively compiled code generated from the canadian writer essays 2nd ed Java source might be faster and might require less memory and disk resources. [But this articles show some JVMs can be faster]. When you include the disk size of the essay solar JVM libraries, a natively compiled Java application is writer essays, significantly smaller in dissertation service, disk size. When considering compiling Java applications to the canadian s world essays native code determine exactly what problem (or problems) you are hoping to solve with native compilation, and good ways, try all the available native compilers. RMI arguments (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Scott Oaks, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Some application servers can automatically pass parameters by reference if the communicating EJBs are in the same JVM.
To ensure that this does not break the application, write EJB methods so that they don't modify the parameters passed to them. Choosing an application server (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Sue Spielman, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: A large-scale server with lots of writer essays 2nd ed traffic should make performance its top priority. Performance factors to consider include: connection pooling; types of thesis JDBC drivers; caching features, and their configurability; CMP support. Inability to scale with reliable performance means lost customers. Scaling features to consider include failover support, clustering capabilities, and load balancing. Notated keys to access elements of nested Maps. (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Matt Liotta, Publisher DevX). Tips: Use dot separated, concatenated strings to optimize access to elements of nested Maps by caching elements in the top level Map. The Garbage Collector (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM).
Tips: In most current JVMs (prior to the canadian s world essays 1.4) GC starts off by locking out buy university report, all other threads in s world essays, the JVM. GC is a stop-the-world, synchronous operation. Non-generationl GC requires scanning the stacks of essay solar system every thread and the entire Java heap. Calling System.gc() explicitly is not good for performance, as it can be called when GC is not necessary, but will still result in a long pause of writer 2nd ed all JVM operations. Object management (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Mark Bluemel, Publisher IBM). Tips: Avoid retaining objects accidentally, by holding references beyond an appropriate time for their release.
Use profiling tools to identify unintentionally retained objects. Garbage collection is not free; other processing will be paused during GC. Try to reuse objects in preference to discarding and re-creating them. JViewport scrolling performance (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Heather Brailsford, Publisher IBM). Essay Question? Tips: JViewport.BLIT_SCROLL_MODE is the default scrolling mode for JViewport in SDK 1.3 (available since 1.2.2). This mode paints directly to the screen instead of being buffered offscreen. This normally provides optimal performance and minimum memory requirements. S World 2nd Ed? However complex images may display some intermediate paint operations if the painting is essay solar system, not fast enough, giving jerky or flashing images. If this is s world, unacceptable, try the alternate modes: setScrollMode(BACKINGSTORE_SCROLL_MODE) (intermediate performance, higher memory requirements); or setScrollMode(JViewport.SIMPLE_SCROLL_MODE) (slowest). Using JNI Get* calls (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Mark Bluemel, Publisher IBM).
Tips: If you use JNI Get* calls (for example, GetStringCritical), you must always use the corresponding Release* call (for example, ReleaseStringCritical) when you have finished with the data, even if the isCopy parameter indicates that no copy was taken. Servlet 2.3 events (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Budi Kurniawan, Publisher DevX). Tips: The Servlet 2.3 specification adds application and question solar system, session events. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? [Event driven applications can often be scaled more easily than process driven applications]. Sun presentation on J2SE performance strategies (originally accessed from Reginald Hutcherson's page) (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Reginald Hutcherson, Publisher Sun). Tips: The Sun 1.3 JVM has a significantly faster startup time compared to any earlier Sun release. Improve bytecode (method) execution by: using JITs; reducing (byte-)code size; profiling code to institutional eliminate bottlenecks. Reduce garbage collection overheads by: reducing the the canadian s world essays 2nd ed number of objects generated; reusing objects; caching objects. Reduce multithreading overheads by targeting the granularity of locks, and managing synchronization correctly.
Other operations which improve performance include: using JAR files; using arrays rather than collections; using primitive types rather than objects. If the CPU is the bottleneck, target: code; method profiler identified bottlenecks; algorithms; and object creation. If system memory is the dissertation bottleneck, try to avoid paging by targeting: large objects; arrays; the application design. The Canadian Writer Essays? If disk I/O is the bottleneck, identify the solar problem and the canadian writer, eliminate it. Ensure that you have benchmarks and targets, and run reproducible benchmark tests. Target the easiest of the top 5 methods, or the top method, identified by solar method profiling. Repeat profile, fix, benchmark iterative process. Avoid runtime String concatenation. Use StringBuffer instead.
Local variables (method arguments and tempoararies) remain on the stack and are much faster than heap variables (static, instance new objects). Use strength reduction: x = x + 5 - x += 5; y = x/2 - y = x 1; z = x * 4 - z = x Always profile the s world essays 2nd ed code to find where the bottlenecks are. equalsIgnoreCase() is faster than equals() in most cases (except where string sizes are the report same). Loop backwards rather than forwards [actually its the s world essays 2nd ed comparison to 0 that matters]. Reduce code size by: obfuscating code; compression in jar files; excluding the manifest in jar files; reordering variable declarations; eliminating dead code; using protected methods. Manipulate data that requires parsing into a format that is easier to parse. Use bitshift instead of multiplying or dividing by powers of 2. Use binary-And (on N-1) instead of modulus (on N). Use Thread.sleep() instead of a for loop for institutional thesis measured delays.
Use the update() method to the canadian writer s world draw things, not the paint() method. Ways? Use double-buffering. The Canadian Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Apply faster algorithms and data structures. Use StringBuffer for String concatenations, rather than the '+' operator. Pay Someone To Do My Calculus? Use static [pre-created] exceptions. Use final classes. Javabean component architecture (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors David Hardin and Mike Frerking, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Writer Essays? Tips: Reusing events reduce object creation and institutional, garbage collection overheads. Writer S World? Passing primitive data types directly to event handlers is the fastest way to pass event information. Generic events reduce the number of (inner) classes required to handle the events. The logging APIs (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tom Harpin, Publisher Sun).
Tips: [Article gives a high level view of the buy university report logging APIs introduced in SDK 1.4. No application is adequately deployed unless it has some performance logging in writer essays 2nd ed, place]. The performance of games on question solar J2ME (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jason R. Briggs, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Target performance for processors that you will run on when the project is deployed. Implementing the ImageProducer interface and setting an image's pixels directly eliminates one or two steps in the MemoryImageSource option and the canadian writer essays, seems to be about 10 percent to institutional thesis 20 percent faster on average. Raw frame rate display, without taking account of the time taken to the canadian writer essays draw an image, runs from 2 frames per second (fps) to 400 fps, depending on processor and JVM. The PersonalJava runtime has no JIT, and provides the worst performance. With a JIT it might be usable. [Article includes references to a number of hardware based Java implementations, i.e.
Java enabled CPUs.] Introductory level article on threading applets (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Monica Pawlan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Multi-threaded programs can allow multiple activities to continue without blocking the user. Spawning additional threads carries extra memory and processor overhead, but can easily be worth the service overheads. Applets need a separate timer thread to execute any non-short tasks so that the applet remains responsive to writer essays 2nd ed the browser.
The volatile modifier requests the Java VM to always access the in the economic and social of south yorkshire shared copy of the variable so the its most current value is always read. If two or more threads access a member variable, AND one or more threads might change that variable's value, AND ALL of the threads do not use synchronization (methods or blocks) to read and/or write the the canadian s world essays value, then that member variable must be declared volatile to ensure all threads see the changed value. Cute tip on unblocking a blocked socket by dissertation service learning sending it data from the canadian s world 2nd ed a timer thread. Economic And Social History Of South Yorkshire? (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Albert Lopez, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a separate timer thread to timeout socket operations Instead of killing the 2nd ed blocked socket, send it some data to unblock it. J2EE design optimizations (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Vijay S. Ramachandran, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: For data that changes infrequently (i.e. Essays Economic And Social History Of South? rarely enough that a user session will not need that data updating during the s world 2nd ed session lifetime), avoid transactional access by using a cached Data Access Object rather than the transactional EJB (this is called the Fast Lane Reader pattern). Don't transfer long lists of data to question system the user, transfer a page at the canadian s world a time (this is called the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern). Instead of making lots of remote requests for data attributes of an object, combine the attributes into another object and send the object to the client. Then the attributes can be queried efficiently locally (this is good ways an essay, called the Value Object pattern). Consider caching the value objects where appropriate. Choosing a J2EE application server, emphasizing the importance of performance issues (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Steve Franklin, Publisher DevX).
Tips: Application server performance is affected by: the JDK version; connection pooling availability; JDBC version and optimized driver support; caching support; transactional efficiency; EJB component pooling mechanisms; efficiency of webserver-appserver connection; efficiency of persistence mechanisms. Writer? Your application server needs to be load tested with scaling, to determine suitability. Always validate the performance of the dissertation service app server on writer s world 2nd ed the target hardware with peak expected user numbers. Decide on service what is acceptable downtime for your application, and ensure the app server can deliver the required robustness. High availability may require: transparent fail-over; clustering; load balancing; efficient connection pooling; caching; duplicated servers; scalable CPU support. Servlet Filters (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Jason Hunter, Publisher JavaWorld). The Canadian Writer? Tips: Servlet Filters provide a standardized technique for dissertation wrapping servlet calls. You can use a Servlet Filter to log servlet execution times [example provided].
You can use a Servlet Filter to compress the webserver output stream [example provided]. Implementing clustering on the canadian writer a J2EE web server (JBoss+Jetty) (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Bill Burke, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Clustering includes synchronization, load-balancing, fail-over, and distributed transactions. [article discusses implementing clustering in an environment where clustering was not previously present]. Economic And Social Of South? The different EJB commit options affect database traffic and performance. Option 'A' (read-only local caching) has the writer essays 2nd ed smallest overhead. Hardware load balancers are a simple and fast solution to learning distributing HTTP requests to writer clustered servers. Making HTTP connections using background threads. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: The user interface must always be responsive to the user's interaction. The application should respond to input no later than a tenth of a second after it occurs: longer delays are noticed by the user, and make the buy university report user interface seem unresponsive.
So don't do more than about a tenth of a second's worth of work in the user-service thread in response to any user interface event. Use separate threads to perform operations that will last longer than one tenth of a second. Provide the user with the option to the canadian 2nd ed cancel the pay someone my calculus homework operation at any time. [Article provides an example of making an HTTP connection following these suggestions]. Article by Frederic Boulanger with tuning tips. (Page last updated June 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Frederic Boulanger, Publisher Macadamian). Tips: Choose the best algorithm or data structure. The Canadian S World? Whatever can be calculated outside of a loop should be calculated outside of the buy university loop.
Try to minimize method calls within a loop. Reduce the number of references to s world an array in loops. Store the value of array or array elements in temporary variables and use these in the loop. For multidimensional arrays store a reference for the currently accessed row in a variable. Store member variables in a local temporary variable in thesis, loops. IBM's list of Java performance tuning tips (same page, two URLs). The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM). Service Learning? Tips: Group native operations to reduce the number of JNI calls. Primitive types are faster than classes encapsulating types. Avoid excessive writing to the java console. S World? Reorder CLASSPATH so that the most used libraries occur first. Solar System? Don't overuse synchronized methods.
Use int instead of long when possible. When possible, declare methods as final. If needed, only call the garbage collector explicitly at an appropriate time (when things are quiet). Prudent use of zip and writer, jar formats can improve load time. Compile java files with the optimizer on. Cache frequently used objects when possible. Use static final when creating constants. Use StringBuffer when doing excessive string manipulations. Consider when to use local variables in loops (speed vs. memory?).
Vectors are more flexible than arrays, but much slower. Good Ways An Essay? It is faster to add/delete items from the end of the the canadian writer s world essays 2nd ed vector. Buy University? Avoid unnecessary casts and instanceof. Scope of variables can impact performance. EJB2.0 Container-Managed Persistence (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Beth Stearns, Publisher Sun).
Tips: EJB 2.0 Container-Managed Persistence provides local interfaces which can avoid the performance overheads of remote interfaces. FAQ site with a couple of basic performance tips. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Martin Webb, Publisher IRT). Tips: FAQ 4002: Use an ImageObserver (method listed in writer s world essays, FAQ) to control how and to do homework, when images are painted during loading. 2nd Ed? FAQ 4003: Minimise flicker in animations by overriding update() to simply call paint() (default action is to clear the image first), and use double buffering. FAQ 4063 4066: Use jar files to reduce the amount of time that it takes to download an applet. Anonymous inner classes (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2002-04-26, Author Heinz M. Essay System? Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz).
Tips: Accessing private data members of an outer class, is writer s world, done using a generated method, which is slower than normal field access. Though HotSpot can inline the access. Minimizing space taken by HTTP downloads (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Gary Adams and Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use HttpConnection.getLength() to determine the number of thesis bytes needed to to hold the data from a download. Use a ByteArrayOutputStream to accumulate results if the content length is writer s world essays, indeterminate. To Do? The best performance is obtained from a 1.1 compliant webserver using persistent connections. Double-if on multi-CPU (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM). Tips: Double-if logic fails on multiple CPU machines. You need to synchronize around double-if logic for consistent results, though this may be inefficient.
Faster JSP with caching (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Serge Knystautas, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: The (open source) OSCache tag library provides fast in-memory caching. Cache pages or page sections for a set length of time, rather than update the 2nd ed page (section) with each request. Caching can give a trade-off between memory usage and CPU usage, especially if done per-session. To Do? This trade-off must be balanced correctly for optimal performance. Scaling web services (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Simeon Simeonov, Publisher XML Developers Journal). The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: Use bigger, better, faster hardware, but there is good ways to end an essay, a limit to the scalability of a single server: most application performance does not scale linearly with increases in the hardware power. Use more than one server in a cluster that services requests as if it were a single server using: OS-level clustering (OS level built in failover mechanisms); Software load balancing (using a loda-balancing front-end dispatcher); Hardware load balancing (e.g.
DNS round-robin to different servers). A basic load-balancing scheme is achievable by sending documents with different binding addresses (differnent URL hosts) Use faster communication protocols (e.g. plain sockets) Support asynchronous request processing message based interactions. Multithreaded Swing Applications (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Monica Pawlan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use the writer s world 2nd ed SwingUtilities.invokeAndWait() and buy university report, SwingUtilities.invokeLater() methods to put code on the GUI eventr queue. The Canadian Writer 2nd Ed? Spawn threads for long operations so that the user does not get a blocked GUI.
Timers and buy university report, low-level GUI display effects (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: You need a scheduling mechanism to perform animation, scrolling, updating the display, etc. The paint() method on the Canvas is the canadian s world, called by essays economic and social of south yorkshire the system only if it thinks that it needs to repaint it. So we need another timer to repaint the screen on a regular basis. Use a timer to periodically call repaint(). Architecting and Designing Scalable, Multitier Systems (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Michael Minh Nguyen, Publisher Java Report).
Tips: Separate the UI controller logic from the servlet business logic, and let the controllers be mobile so they can execute on the client if possible. 2nd Ed? Validate data as close to the data entry point as possible, preferably on the client. Homework? This reduces the network and s world essays, server load. Business workflow rules should be on the server (or further back than the report front-end). You can use invisible applets in a browser to writer validate data on the client. Sun community discussion on pay someone homework Optimizing Entity Beans with Akara Sucharitakul (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun).
Tips: Prepared SQL statements get compiled in the database only once, future invocations do not recompile them. The result of the canadian this is institutional thesis, a decrease in the database load, and an increase in performance of up to 5x. Container Managed Persistence (CMP) can provide 2-3x better performance than Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). Optimizing dynamic web pages (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Helen Thomas, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Dynamic generation of s world web pages is more resource intensive than delivering static web pages, and can cause serious performance problems. Question Solar System? Dynamic web page generation incurs overheads from: accessing persistent and/or remote resources/storage; data formatting; resource contention; JVM garbage collection; and the canadian s world 2nd ed, script execution overheads. Dynamic content caching tries to mitigate Dynamic web page generation overheads by reusing content that has already been generated to solar service a request. JSP cache tagging solutions allow page and writer s world essays, fragment level JSP output to be automatically cached.
On highly personalized sites page-level caching results in low cache hit rates since each page instance is unique to buy university a user. The Canadian Writer S World Essays 2nd Ed? Component-level caching applies more extensively when components are reused in many pages, but requires manual identification of bottleneck components. J2ME apps, with a discussion of the needs to balance performance (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Glenn Coates, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Dissertation? Tips: J2ME devices have limited processing power, so performance is important and must be considered for the canadian s world essays the target device. JIT compiled or natively compiled code is buy university, preferred, but may be unobtainable because of memory resource or deployment considerations.
JVM Interpreters have a significantly lower memory overhead compared to writer s world essays 2nd ed JIT/HotSpot JVMs, but are much slower. Selectively compiled code might provide a good compromise of speed and memory if deployment considerations allow. The application does not need to essay question system be lightning fast in order to have a responsive user interface. The perception of speed is writer, important, for good to end an essay example, the user interface should give immediate feedback. JVM slection for the J2ME device is pivotal to the canadian achieving the required performance. Thesis? Compared to desktop environments, embedded systems typically have: lower memory availability; less processing power; user Interface restrictions; reduced communication bandwidth or unreliable connections; battery power; higher reliability requirements; lack of a file system. Tuning JVMs for servers. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Timothy Dyck, Publisher E-Week).
Tips: Multiple JVMs are often available for a particular platform. S World? Choose the JVM that best suits your needs. The test here found setting min and report, max heaps to the same value provided the essays 2nd ed best performance. Limiting each Sun 1.3 JVM to using two CPUs (test used multiple JVMs and 6 CPUs) provided a 30% reduction in CPU usage. IBM JVMs did not require (or benefit from) this optimization. Data compression (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: [Article covers how to add zip compression to and social of south RMI communications]. Creating Web-based, interactive graphics. (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Steve Lloyd, Publisher DevX). Tips: If an applet parameter's [tags in the webpage] length is too long, the Web page's responsiveness begins to bog down. Move all but the essential parameters from the the canadian 2nd ed APPLET tag to a dedicated HTTP link between the applet and the servlet. This allows page loading and applet initialization to occur at the same time over my calculus homework separate connections. Close java.sql.Statements when finished with. Inverting booleans (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). The Canadian Writer S World? Tips: The fastest way to invert a boolean is to XOR it (bool ^= true). Be careful when making performance measurements with HotSpot because the optimizing compiler can kick in to in the economic adjust results. The Proxy design pattern. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author David Geary, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: Creating images is expensive. ImageIcon instances create their images when they are constructed. If an application creates many large images at once, it could cause a significant performance hit. If the writer s world essays application does not use all of its images, it's wasteful to create them upfront. Using a proxy, you can delay image loading until the learning image is required. The Proxy pattern often instantiates its real object, the Decorator pattern (which can also use proxy objects) rarely does. The java.lang.reflect package provides three classes to support the Proxy and Decorator patterns: Proxy, Method, and InvocationHandler. Stateful vs Stateless EJBs (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Chuck Caveness, Doug Pardee, Publisher IT World). Tips: Stateless session beans can support multiple clients, thus increasing scalability.
Webservices SOAP communications overheads (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Leigh Dodds, Publisher XML). Tips: Generating XML produces a large amount of the canadian s world essays 2nd ed data during communications, but this does not mean that the communication will be the bottleneck. Webservices have all the same limitations of every other remote procedure calling (RPC) methodology. Requiring synchronous communications across a WAN is buy university, a heavy overhead regardless of the protocol. If Web services tend to the canadian writer 2nd ed be chatty, with lots of thesis little round trips and a subtle statefulness between individual communications, they will be slow. That's a function of failing to realize that the API call model isn't well-suited to building communicating applications where caller and callee are separated by a medium (networks!) with variable and unconstrained performance characteristics/latency. Asynchronous messaging may be required for efficient webservices.
Sun community chat session on Threading and essays, Concurrency in the Java Platform with Thomas Christopher and George Thiruvathukal (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: If memory is at a premium, the report cost of the canadian s world 2nd ed allocating a Thread object and allocating a stack can be expensive. If there are real-time considerations, you do not have any scheduling and performance guarantees for threads. Be careful about the number of threads you create: too many and you can exhaust your memory: too few and you don't get the advantages of parallelism. Use javax.swing.SwingUtilities.invokeLater() [java.awt.EventQueue.invokeLater()] to to do homework schedule work onto the awt thread. Basic article on a minimal ArrayList implementation, from a micro-Java slant (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Lee Miles, Publisher Micro Java).
Tips: ArrayLists are the writer s world fastest SDK collection class. System.arraycopy provides an institutional efficient method for copying arrays. You should request garbage collection whenever elements are dereferenced (e.g. the list is cleared). Precompiling JSPs (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Steve Mueller, Scot Weber, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Tips: Precompile your JSPs one way or another to avoid the the canadian writer s world 2nd ed first user having a slow experience. High performance inserts with DB2 and JDBC (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Krishnakumar Pooloth, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use SQLJ to get the thesis use of buffered inserts, and modify the code generated from SQLJ to the canadian essays reuse the RTStatement object. Optimizing StringBuffer usage (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: Pre-size the StringBuffer to dissertation learning the expected result String size where possible. Customized high-speed, fine-grained access control (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Wally Flint, Publisher JavaWorld). Essays? Tips: [Article discusses an Access control pattern which has no performance penalty].
Connection Pooling with JRun (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Karl Moss, Publisher Allaire). Tips: Establishing an initial connection is one of the most expensive database operations. Use a pool of connections that are ready and buy university, waiting for use to the canadian 2nd ed minimize the connection overhead. Connection pooling is one of the largest performance improvements available for applications which are database intensive. Connections should timeout if not used within a certain time period, to reduce unnecessary overheads. Initial and maximum pool sizes provide further mechanisms for fine-tuning the pool. To Do My Calculus? JDBC 2.0 supports connection pooling, though a particular driver may or may not use the support. If pooling is supported by the driver, it is probably more efficient than a proprietary pooling mechanism since it can leverage database specific features. Some IBM Java performance tips. Although intended for AS/400 Java, many tips are generally applicable (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM).
Tips: Minimize the use of synchronized methods. Use the the canadian s world essays 2nd ed -O javac option. Minimize object creation, reuse objects. Use StringBuffers or char arrays to minimize the number of String objects created. Use faster accesses. Accesses from fastest to slowest: local variable; instance variable: accessor method in-lined; accessor method; synchronized accessor method.
Minimize the use of created exceptions. Solar System? Use static final when creating constants. Use Prepared Statements. Store character data in DB2 as Unicode, numeric data as float. Monitoring Networked Applications (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Russ Currie, Publisher Message MQ). Essays 2nd Ed? Tips: Use network probes to essays in the economic break down how the network is being used by the various networked applications on it.
Deciding whether EJB is appropriate. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Ed Roman, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: An HTTP layer is not always necessary. Connecting directly to EJBs is s world, faster and provides automatic load balancing. Tips on using XSLT (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Eric M. Burke, Publisher O'Reilly). Buy University? Tips: XSLT transformations are CPU memory intensive, so cache results wherever possible.
Examples include stylesheets; mainly static XML data (cache the transformation result). Rambling discussion of building J.Crew website, in Chapter 3 of J2EE Technology in Practice (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Dao Ren, Dr. Rick Cattell and Jim Inscore, Publisher Sun). The Canadian Essays? Tips: Use database connection pooling Cache Database Requests [Statistics useful for comparison if you are building a business enterprise site: The architecture can handle 8,000 concurrent user sessions; 85 dynamic page views a second; 250,000 unique daily visitors; 8 million hits a day; 1 to 2 second average response time]. Converting booleans to strings. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use String.valueOf(bool) to institutional convert booleans to strings. Generating integer random numbers (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author John Zukowski, Publisher Sun). The Canadian Writer S World? Tips: [Article explains why ways of good generating random integers produces skewed results. Important for correctly simulating a variety of things].
Tuning tips intended for Sun's Web Server product, but actually generally applicable. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author ? - a Sun document, Publisher Aikido). Tips: Use more server threads if multiple connections have high latency. Use keep-alive sockets for higher throughput. Increase server listen queues for high load or high latency servers. Avoid or reduce logging. The Canadian 2nd Ed? Buffer logging output: use less than one real output per in the economic of south yorkshire log. Avoid reverse DNS lookups. Writer Essays 2nd Ed? Write time stamps rather than formatted date-times. Separate paging and good an essay, application files. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? A high VM heap size may result in paging, but could avoid some garbage collections. Occasional very long GCs makes the VM hang for ways to end that time, leading to variability in service quality.
Doing GC fairly often and avoiding paging is more efficient. The Canadian S World Essays 2nd Ed? Security checks consume CPU resources. You will get better performance if you can turn security checking off. Research paper on high performance Java. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Sandeep K. Singhal, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use local variables as a first choice for buy university manipulating data. Rewrite the loop test so that it uses a comparison to 0. Avoid synchronization where possible. Reuse and pool objects.
Avoid throwing exceptions ( not avoid using try-catch blocks). The Canadian 2nd Ed? Build specialized classes, don't rely on the general-purpose (but slow) core SDK library. Use a zip archive to download classes. Report? (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author John D. Mitchell, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a zip archive to writer essays download classes. JMS CORBA (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Steve Trythall, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Asynchronous messaging is a proven communication model for developing large-scale, distributed enterprise integration solutions. Messaging provides more scalability because senders and receivers of messages are decoupled and are no longer required to execute in lockstep. Wrapping PreparedStatement (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Bob Byron and Troy Thompson, Publisher JavaWorld).
Tips: With Statement, the same SQL statement with different parameters must be recompiled by the database each time. But PreparedStatements can be parametrized, and these do not need to be recompiled by learning the database for use with different parameters. [Article discusses a PreparedStatement wrapper class useful for debugging.] String to double (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use Double.parseDouble() instead of Double.valueOf(aString).doublevalue() . Tutorial on non-blocking socket I/O available from the canadian essays 2nd ed JDK 1.4 (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tim Burns, Publisher Owl Mountain). Tips: [No tips, and a rather haphazard tutorial but beggars can't be choosers]. Sun community chat session with Bill Shannon, Kevin Osborn, and Jim Glennon on in the economic of south JavaMail (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: You might see a performance increase by writer s world using multiple connections to your mail server.
You would need to get multiple Transport objects and call connect and sendMessage on each of in the and social history yorkshire them, using multiple threads (one per connection) in your application. JavaMail 1.2 includes the ability to set timeouts for the initial connection attempt to the server. JavaMail tries to allow you to make good and efficient use of the IMAP protocol. Fetch profiles are one technique to allow you to s world get batches of information from the institutional thesis server all at once, instead of writer s world single pieces on institutional thesis demand. Used properly, this can make quite a difference in your performance. Optimizing recursive methods (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Eric E. Allen, Publisher IBM). Tips: Try to convert recursive methods into tail-recursive methods. Writer S World? You can test if a particular JIT is able to dissertation service convert tail-recursive into loops with a dummy tail-recursive method which never terminates.
If the the canadian writer essays JVM crashes because of stack overflow, no conversion is done (if the conversion is managed, the JVM loops and never terminates). The HotSpot JVM with the 1.3 release does not convert tail-recursive methods into loops. The IBM JVM with the 1.3 release does. Java collections (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Richard G. Essays And Social History Yorkshire? Baldwin, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Choose the right structure for writer the right job. ArrayList may be faster than TreeSet for some operations, but ArrayList.contains() requires a linear search (as do other list structures) while TreeSet.contains() is essays in the history yorkshire, a simple hashed lookup, so the writer s world essays 2nd ed latter is much faster. The facade pattern for internationalization (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author David Gallardo, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: If multiple strings will be compared using internationalized comparison, use (and reuse) CollationKeys to manage the comparisons during sorting. Computational planning and scheduling problem solving (not performance tuning) (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Irvin Lustig, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: [Article introduces the solving of planning and scheduling problems in Java]
Various tips. Economic History Of South? For web servers? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher ?). Tips: Test multiple VMs. Tune the heap and stack sizes [by trial and error], using your system memory as a guide to upper limits. Keep the system file cache large. [OS/Product tuning, not Java] Compression uses significant system resources. Essays 2nd Ed? Don't use it on a server unless necessary. Essay Solar? Monitor thread utilization. Increase the number of writer 2nd ed threads if all are heavily used; reduce the number of threads if many are idle.
Empirically test for the optimal number of buy university database connections. Optimizing padded string display (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Gervase Gallant, Publisher JavaZoid). Tips: Avoid copying individual string characters. Use the essays same underlying char array, by using methods like String.substring(). Runtime.exec() pitfalls (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2002-07-24, Author Michael C. Report? Daconta, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Runtime.waitFor blocks until the spawned process terminates. Avoid blocking the the canadian Java thread because the spawned process is essay system, waiting on I/O. Make sure you read and write the spawned process's I/O as required. A worked example of optimizing Lava Rocks Java Printf. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher SharkySoft). Tips: When adding multiple items to a collection, add them all in one call if possible.
Avoid creating multiple objects where they can be replaced by one object referred to many times. Avoid repeatedly executing a parse [or other constant expression] in a loop when the 2nd ed execution can be achieved once outside the loop. Call more complex underlying methods instead of simpler wrapping methods. JMS redelivery (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Prakash Malani, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Both auto mode (Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE) and duplicate delivery mode (Session.DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE) guarantee delivery of messages, but duplicate okay mode can have a higher throughput, at the cost of the occasionally duplicated message. Buy University? The redelivery count should be specified to avoid messages being redelivered indefinitely. Java I/O tutorial by Elliotte Rusty Harold (author of O'Reilly's Java I/O book). (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Elliotte Rusty Harold, Publisher IBiblio). Tips: Sometimes output streams are buffered by the operating system for performance. The flush() method forces the data to be written whether or not the buffer is full. This is not the same as the buffering performed by a BufferedOutputStream. That buffering is handled by the Java runtime.
This buffering is at the canadian writer the native OS level. However, a call to flush() should empty both buffers It's more efficient to good to end an essay read multiple bytes at a time, i.e use read(byte) rather than read(). The best size for the buffer is highly platform dependent and generally related to the block size of the disk, at least for file streams. Essays? Less than 512 bytes is probably too little and more than 4096 bytes is probably too much. Institutional Thesis? Ideally you want an integral multiple of the the canadian s world 2nd ed block size of the disk. Economic History Of South Yorkshire? However, you should use smaller buffer sizes for writer s world unreliable network connections. iPlanet Web Server guide to to do my calculus servlets, with a section at the end on Maximizing Servlet Performance. (Page last updated July 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: Try to optimize the servlet loading mechanism, e.g. by listing the servlet first in loading configurations. Tune the heap size. Keep the the canadian 2nd ed classpath short. Paul Tyma's article on low level Java optimizations. Buy University Report? (Page last updated 1996, Added 2000-10-23, Author Paul Tyma, Publisher Dr.
Dobb's). The Canadian Essays? Tips: Speed up the most-used code, such as highly iterated loops and popularly called methods. int is faster than long Performance of code that is heavily dependent upon institutional thesis system API calls is largely out of writer s world essays your hands. Create classes that support primitive data types directly, rather than having to wrap the data, e.g. a Stack class that directly stores int s. Inline code. Declare methods as static or private to allow inlining. Apply code motion (eliminating redundant calculations).
Improving applet download time by installing the applet on the client. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Mark Roulo, Publisher JavaWorld). To End An Essay? Tips: Store your applet on the client machine so that applet download time is absolutely minimal. This is not worth doing for really small applets. Sun community chat on iPlanet (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). The Canadian 2nd Ed? Tips: Optimal result caching (caching pages which have been generated) needs tuning, especially the timeout setting. Make sure the timeout is not too short. Developing Scalable Distributed Applications (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Mario A. Torres, Publisher Dr. Dobb's). Tips: Use interfaces. Alot.
Inner classes (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Nonstatic member classes must maintain a reference to the enclosing instance, which adds overhead, so use static inner classes where no acces is need to the enclosing instance. Basic performance tuning intro (Page last updated March 2000, Added 2001-03-21, Author Reggie Hutcherson, Publisher JavaWorld). Thesis? Tips: Use a JIT-enabled JVM or HotSpot. JyLog logger (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Sanjay Dahiya, Publisher JavaWorld). The Canadian Writer? Tips: Using JyLog (which uses the JPDA) slows down the solar system JVM executuion time: use standard logging, not JyLog, for deployed applications. Using Timers (java.util.Timer) (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Timers provide a simple mechanism for repeatedly executing a task at a set interval [with simplicity being the keyword here. Don't look for anything sophisticated like thread interrupt control]. Article on high availability architecture. If the the canadian writer s world system isn't up when you need it, its not performing. To Do Homework? (Page last updated November 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Sam Wong, Publisher Sun).
Tips: Eliminate all potential single-points-of-failure, basically with redundancy and automatic fail-over. The Canadian S World 2nd Ed? Consider using the redundant components to pay someone homework improve performance, with a component failure causing decreased performance rather system failure. Another use StringBuffer instead of '+' tip. The Canadian S World? (Page last updated Jul 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Real Gagnon, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: use StringBuffer instead of '+'. Tuning the SPECjbb2000 Java specmark. Institutional? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher SPEC). Tips: Use Java profilers (-prof, -Xrunhprof) to determine the routines most heavily used. The Canadian Essays? Having extra stuff in to do my calculus homework, CLASSPATH can degrade performance on some JVMs. Microsoft discussion about csharp garbage collection (the Java clone unsurprisingly has similar issues) (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brian Harry, Publisher Harry). Tips: [No performance tips here. But a fascinating discussion about all the thought that has gone in to csharp GC, only to result in a what already exists in Java]. Sun system (not Java) profiling with Sun WorkShop. (Page last updated 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher Sun).
Tips: Select the right combination of compiler options, optimized libraries, and essays, coding techniques. Compiler optimizations: common subexpression elimination; loop-invariant hoisting; strength reduction; dead and redundant code elimination; loop pipelining/unrolling; instruction scheduling; inlining; code motion; profile feedback; tail recursion elimination; loop parallelization; loop interchange; loop fusion (combining loops to reduce overhead). Cache blocking: a technique that increases the cache-hit rates of the program by increasing the reuse of the data present in the cache. (Page last updated , Added 2002-10-30, Author , Publisher ). Tips: x.
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