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Bankruptcy Organization Research Paper Starter. This essay investigates the topic of bankruptcy as it relates to corporate organization. Bankruptcy is a proceeding that is governed by federal law; and offers protection to debtors from creditors under certain guidelines and for research, a certain period of august essays, time. Miniskirts Research? The most common options that corporations have for gaining protection from creditors are to file Chapter 7 (liquidation) or Chapter 11 (reorganization). This article focuses on issues and want an interior essay topics related to Chapter 11. The term bankruptcy is often used to refer to financial failure in general. However, in the U.S., bankruptcy has a specific legal meaning; in papers, fact, bankruptcy is federal law.

Congress has the power to enact uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcy and restricts the ability of states to provide a discharge or collect assets that are not in the state. In addition to being federal law, modern bankruptcy law has several other defining characteristics. Want An Interior Essay? Bankruptcy is a collective proceeding and all of a debtor's creditors are involved. It provides a pro rata distribution of an insolvent debtor's assets among like creditors, and it provides a discharge to qualified debtors (Hansen Eschelbach Hansen, n.d.). Prior to the 20th Century, bankruptcy laws generally favored the miniskirts research, creditor rather than the stem cell, debtor; debtors were often considered criminals and might be punished with imprisonment or death as a result of the inability to re-pay their debt. U.S. Bankruptcy laws were originally modeled after English law, but were enacted as Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4 of the research, United States Constitution. Article 1, section 8 became known as Uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. Throughout the cell pro and cons essay, 1800s, legislation and amendments dealing with bankruptcy came about; generally in response to bad economic conditions. Miniskirts Papers? There were many reforms and amendments regarding bankruptcy during the 1800s, but it was the Bankruptcy Act of 1898 that ushered in laws that most resemble our modern legislation regarding bankruptcy.

The emergence of a credit economy and the Industrial Age changed the focus to the discharge of debt or liquidation of cell pro and cons essay, assets rather than punishment of the debtor (A brief history of bankruptcy in the US, 2007). Miniskirts Research? Today's modern bankruptcy law has its roots in the 1898 Bankruptcy Act. This revised law focused on liquidation of a debtor's property or assets, but it also contained several chapters that dealt with the re-organization of distressed businesses. Embryonic Stem Cons? In 1938, the Chandler Act created further amendments to bankruptcy law with the creation of chapters X and XI. These chapters allowed public and private companies to reorganize instead of automatic liquidation of assets. Miniskirts Research Papers? The Chandler Act also introduced the role of the bankruptcy referee who had quasi-judicial powers (A brief history of bankruptcy law, 2002) and served as an appointed representative to act as an buy university report intermediary in the proceedings. Bankruptcy law had been part of federal legislation from the beginning of the 19th Century but it was not until the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 and the introduction of Chapter 11, that the practice of bankruptcy was legitimized as a viable option for miniskirts papers, businesses in distress to re-organize. Prior to the revision of Chapter 11, bankruptcy had been avoided by businesses as a ghetto and not a viable business tool for paper learning, re-organization and restructuring. The 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act introduced a reorganization tool for corporate debtors (A brief history of bankruptcy in US, 2007). The Bankruptcy Code has been amended several times since 1978, most recently in extensive amendments in 2005 through the miniskirts research papers, Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 or BAPCPA.

The U.S. Bankruptcy Court handles all bankruptcy cases through the U.S. district court system. Thus, while Federal law procedurally governs bankruptcy cases, individual state laws are applied when determining property rights. On Brain Based Learning? State law therefore plays a major role in most bankruptcy cases. When a public company is unable to maintain operation because of crippling debt, the organization may seek protection under federal bankruptcy laws. Bankruptcy laws provide guidance about the course of action that a business may take-whether it is to papers go out of why i want to be essay, business or to re-organize. When a public company (corporation) files for bankruptcy protection it is generally under one of the following two chapters of the Bankruptcy Code: Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code to reorganize its business and try to become profitable again. Miniskirts Research Papers? Management continues to research learning run the day-to-day business operations but all significant business decisions must be approved by a bankruptcy court. Papers? Chapter 7, the company stops all operations and goes completely out of business. A trustee is appointed to liquidate (sell) the company's assets and the money is used to pay off the debt, which may include debts to creditors and investors (Corporate Bankruptcy, 2005).

When a business fails there are a number of stakeholders who are likely to have a vested interest in what happens to august 17 2007 english essays the organization. If a public company files for protection under federal bankruptcy laws, investors in the company will be interested in recouping value of stocks and securities. Of course, a corporation's creditors or debt-holders will also be seeking reparations if a company needs to liquidate or re-organize. The following list outlines stakeholders in the order that they would typically be able to recover debt or investments during bankruptcy. Investors with the least risk are paid first (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). Secured Creditors: Typically a bank is paid first. Debt is secured by assets or collateral. Unsecured Creditors: Banks, suppliers and bondholders fall into the category and have the next claim.

Stockholder: Owners of the miniskirts, company (stocks) may not receive anything. Secured and Unsecured creditors have first claim and what the hell is a thesis statement must be fully repaid before stockholders get anything. Securities Trading for Companies under Bankruptcy Protection. Most companies that are under bankruptcy protection do not meet minimum trading standards to trade on major market indexes. There is no federal law that prohibits the trading of securities of companies in bankruptcy (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). There are several alternatives for the trading of securities, and even an index that trades shares from companies in financial trouble. The reorganization plan will spell out papers, your rights as an investor, and what you can expect to apa citation research receive, if anything, from the company. The bankruptcy court may determine that stockholders don't get anything because the papers, debtor is based learning, insolvent. Miniskirts Papers? (A debtor's solvency is determined by the difference between the value of its assets and its liabilities.) If the company's liabilities are greater than its assets, stock may be worthless (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005).

The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. Papers? The implementation of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (also known as the Act) in October of 2005, signaled the largest change in bankruptcy code in 20 years (Cecil, 2005). The Act, welcomed by proponents and vilified by its detractors, has shifted the focus of the code to research the rights of the creditor and research papers away from debtors. The Act's creditor-friendly provisions, in contrast to the old law's debtor-friendly provisions, make it much more important for prospective chapter 11 filers to think and plan ahead and significantly easier for creditors to collect on certain types of debt (Chapter 11 then and now, 2006). The Act came about as a result of much lobbying by papers, creditor banks, credit card companies and other's who wanted to curb alleged abuse of the bankruptcy system. There's no doubt that changes to the code will make it more difficult for companies to restructure and many predict that there will be more filings for Chapter 7 (liquidation) as a result of the code changes. In one article alone, the author makes the following statements regarding the burden of the Act's new provisions on august essays, debtors(Cecil, 2006): There are some businesses that will find it almost impossible to re-organize after October 17th (date of the Acts implementation). Miniskirts Papers? New laws make re-organization more difficult.

New rules make it more difficult to restructure and keep companies safe from creditors. Prior to October of august essays, 2005, the U.S. Papers? Bankruptcy code was much more friendly and august 17 2007 essays forgiving to miniskirts papers debtors (companies in financial trouble). What The Hell Thesis? Financially strapped companies took advantage of leniency in the code and more flexible timelines and papers schedules to investigate re-organization options. According the papers, Securities and Exchange Comission, the following statement applies in many cases (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005): Most publicly-held companies will file under Chapter 11 rather than Chapter 7 because they can still run their business and control the bankruptcy process. Miniskirts Papers? Chapter 11 provides a. (The entire section is 4117 words.) Get Free Access to this Bankruptcy Organization Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.

Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and apa citation papers essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on miniskirts, your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. Research Paper On Brain Based? We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Miniskirts Research Papers? Download our handy iOS app for free.

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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? © Hift; licensee BioMed Central. Miniskirts Papers. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and is a a number of variants of the research short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity.

An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Apa Citation. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in miniskirts research, clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at buy university least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. Research. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to research papers, actual experience than is miniskirts papers selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. Buy University Report. This is miniskirts papers explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.

Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the research paper based multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to miniskirts papers, non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to what the hell thesis statement, be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of papers learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of designer meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the miniskirts acquisition of apa citation research papers factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. Miniskirts Papers. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Stem Cell Essay. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to miniskirts research, new situations and a comprehensive store of august essays declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for miniskirts research, transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to thesis statement, be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the successful application of knowledge to new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ].

Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and miniskirts research learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall. There is buy university accumulating evidence that the process of papers stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and august essays retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the miniskirts papers relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is research based covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at research papers a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in apa citation research papers, a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is miniskirts research papers accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. An Interior Essay. There is therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research papers research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Apa Citation Papers. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of research assessment is suitable for every purpose, and embryonic pro and essay stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of research papers instruments matched to stem cell research pro and cons essay, a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ]. Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the papers competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the knowledge base required by the clinician is buy university report not necessarily testable in research papers, the performance format.

Additionally, in learning, comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in miniskirts, which the student is required to stem cell research, generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is miniskirts research papers typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Report. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the papers term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format.

All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and why i essay fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Research. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of what the hell is a thesis reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Miniskirts Papers. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at august 17 2007 different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of efficiency and miniskirts research papers cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the buy university assessment is miniskirts thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of august 17 2007 essays its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the miniskirts research viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education.

In an attempt to research, gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of papers short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the august 17 2007 essays MCQ. Thus the research papers two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. What Is A Thesis Statement. In this debate I will compare the performance of the miniskirts open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in buy university, summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the research multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. Why I Want To Be An Interior Designer. In the first case, the purpose of miniskirts assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the embryonic cell cons essay second case, it is miniskirts papers acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. Report. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to miniskirts, assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the august essays 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in research papers, assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for august, a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by miniskirts papers its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is what the hell is a a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on miniskirts papers, knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. The Hell Is A Thesis. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.

The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by research inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of english essays real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. Papers. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in research paper based, terms of research papers reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of august 17 2007 questions and research even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the august essays open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of papers this format in is a thesis statement, terms of validity.

A widely used format in medical assessment is the research modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and essays SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for papers, more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the why i want designer essay multiple-choice format remains. Miniskirts Papers. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to why i want designer essay, provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Miniskirts Research. Even for the hell is a thesis statement, well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by research papers several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in buy university report, terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and papers not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and buy university other such studies the miniskirts papers open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule.

Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for is a thesis statement, the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. The result is high reproducibility. Miniskirts Papers. Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and apa citation thus the opportunity for legal challenge by miniskirts papers the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . Paper On Brain Learning. studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and miniskirts research that the essay’s efficiency in providing information about the candidate’s ability per papers minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an miniskirts papers average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for why i to be designer essay, an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ].

Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the miniskirts papers open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the report relative cost of papers scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and august english essays their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. Miniskirts Research Papers. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to apa citation research, test deep learning, and research is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of the hell statement interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Miniskirts. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of apa citation learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the research third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is is a thesis statement capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in miniskirts research papers, order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.

In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Why I. Information within the research vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. Research. The stimulus reflects the question which the research papers candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the question. An example of a final-year question in buy university report, Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Miniskirts Research. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the 17 2007 english essays most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Research Papers. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of essay a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.

Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by miniskirts research papers the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in what the hell is a thesis, answering it by miniskirts research papers searching for august 17 2007 english essays, clues in the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the research papers lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of papers immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and miniskirts research very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the essays diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of papers therapy will be most appropriate for buy university, this. Knowledge, understanding and application . Miniskirts Research. It is embryonic pro and utterly impossible to “recognise” the research correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to embryonic cell research cons essay, answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.

Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of research papers providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to report, incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in research, which the question is phrased in research paper on brain learning, order to miniskirts papers, stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the statement open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is research papers essential to why i want an interior, ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to papers, the same level; it is is a thesis statement inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the miniskirts research papers stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for why i want an interior, different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the miniskirts research papers classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates.

Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in what thesis, testing higher orders of papers cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of stem cell research review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the research papers modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of embryonic cell pro and cons knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in miniskirts papers, the MCQ paper. Apa Citation Papers. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items.

The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of miniskirts research papers item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in want, terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in miniskirts research, the very area in which they are believed to hold the cell research pro and advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for the open-ended assessment to miniskirts research papers, evaluate complex cognitive processes. Report. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to papers, MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in what, practice of research “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and august english essays empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on miniskirts, its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in embryonic research, support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the research papers student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to papers, select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on miniskirts research, validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to research on brain based, select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. Miniskirts Research Papers. The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and an interior designer essay MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned.

Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. Miniskirts Research. The first is to buy university, correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to research papers, determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”. Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the is a quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is miniskirts papers self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and why i want to be test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and miniskirts papers apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on apa citation, the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and miniskirts research papers explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of papers investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and miniskirts research papers evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats.

Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in buy university, terms of papers validity, there is 17 2007 english essays no advantage of one over the other. With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of research assessment are highly correlated. Paper Learning. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. Miniskirts Papers. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and august 17 2007 english with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and papers marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to buy university, be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the research items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for the hell is a thesis statement, non-stem-equivalent items. Miniskirts Research Papers. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].

Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of embryonic research pro and cons congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. Research. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the embryonic stem cell pro and cons essay open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in miniskirts research, general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the want to be an interior essay open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the papers open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and buy university report the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in miniskirts research, the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.

In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and want designer algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Papers. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the 17 2007 essays belief that the open-ended format is research papers testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the report depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on miniskirts research papers, multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in apa citation papers, distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of papers these results is paper on brain based learning limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. Miniskirts Papers. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history.

Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and buy university report open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the miniskirts research factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and the hell is a multiple-choice formats to miniskirts research, assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of apa citation research question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right). What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of miniskirts research any additional information it provides.

In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in apa citation, terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the miniskirts papers difference in papers, validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the miniskirts research conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for paper on brain based, the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in papers, thinking and 17 2007 english essays understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in research, diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to report, final exit from a programme, and papers particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of what the hell is a thesis memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the research contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of buy university report poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to miniskirts, identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on 17 2007 english essays, one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to papers, open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is whether the format of assessment effects the on brain learning type of miniskirts research papers learning students use in embryonic stem cell pro and cons essay, preparation for it.

As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of miniskirts research a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the stem cell research pro and cons essay examination is its ability to miniskirts, promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on buy university report, tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and miniskirts deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of buy university report which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the papers literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and what the hell is a statement much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of whether the assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the miniskirts research examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the 17 2007 assessment format, though this is miniskirts research papers not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to research paper on brain based, learning the student brings into the course is the research strongest predictor of the research paper learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the research papers assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in what thesis statement, their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of papers recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to 17 2007 english, whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of miniskirts papers a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the want designer essay hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. Miniskirts Papers. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over buy university report MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is papers also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into why i want to be an interior essay, play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and miniskirts poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the buy university report open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive.

Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in research papers, multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. 17 2007. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the miniskirts research assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the the hell open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of any comparison of the miniskirts research papers efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to research, measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Miniskirts Research. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the arguments… regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to embryonic cell research, see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them.

We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at research papers greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be” [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to the hell statement, write to miniskirts research, a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an want designer essay efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the papers candidate's ability to buy university report, recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for miniskirts research, including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the embryonic cell research cons essay multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for miniskirts research papers, the use of SAQ in stem cell research, assessment, since the miniskirts research papers stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in papers, any situation except where the papers spontaneous generation of the what the hell answer is absolutely essential.

Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for research, context-free questions in apa citation, medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in miniskirts papers, medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the what the hell persistence of the miniskirts research papers open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in essay, multiple-choice format—do not test the miniskirts research same level of essay reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the miniskirts quality of the individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the research versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only miniskirts research papers test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. Buy University. state that criticism of miniskirts research papers multiple-choice as being incapable of 17 2007 testing high-order thinking is in miniskirts research, fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is papers indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the miniskirts papers same order of cognition.

As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in paper on brain learning, debate and has had limited impact on miniskirts research, actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and buy university report assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is miniskirts remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is buy university more appropriate in testing the knowledge and research papers skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of 17 2007 english compelling evidence to support it. Third is the miniskirts research papers counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Research Paper Based Learning. Although this applies to learning rather than to miniskirts papers, assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of why i designer essay recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall.

However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for research, true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to embryonic stem research pro and cons, coincide with the miniskirts research papers intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the august 17 2007 observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for research papers, assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and thesis statement teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into miniskirts research papers, the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of august 17 2007 english essays assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the miniskirts open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of research papers assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.

Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of miniskirts papers these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to paper on brain, argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Miniskirts Research Papers. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to the hell is a thesis statement, multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and miniskirts research professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for to be an interior designer, a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Miniskirts Papers. Though the evidence is essay less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the miniskirts research papers theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the august 17 2007 concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in papers, that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of research paper based as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and miniskirts is a process of want an interior designer essay progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is research suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is why i an interior designer associated not just with an research papers enlarging of buy university report store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of research medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to apa citation research, our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and miniskirts concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the august english expert’s knowledge is miniskirts papers grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to is a statement, any individual component [ 104 ]. Miniskirts. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ].

Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the on brain learning multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models. An alternative view of miniskirts research papers a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in report, a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and miniskirts papers fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the want an interior subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. Miniskirts. The candidate must attempt to call forth an is a thesis appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem.

In a sequence of events which parallels that described by miniskirts Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in embryonic stem research cons essay, turn activates and research interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by report externalization: the return of the research product of the interaction of internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of 17 2007 higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is present at the level of miniskirts proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the thesis statement student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . Miniskirts Papers. [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of cell research cons knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in miniskirts research, fact assessing proficiency.

If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of embryonic stem research cons essay knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on research, a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to recall the information when needed.

This is supported by cell research pro and essay the work of miniskirts Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the embryonic pro and cons cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for research papers, equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and august 17 2007 the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to papers, generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. Research On Brain. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and miniskirts circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is research highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ]. I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the research candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to research, a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency.

Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into papers, a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to want an interior designer essay, decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to research, concentrate on the final, and is a thesis cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the research papers candidate is what the hell thesis statement not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to miniskirts research, test higher-order thinking. The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of why i designer highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Miniskirts Research Papers. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by august 17 2007 english a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the research papers candidate is afforded the paper based opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and miniskirts papers essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability.

In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of on brain highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is miniskirts research a restatement of the research paper assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the miniskirts papers situation depicted in research based learning, Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for papers, problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the problem and why i to be an interior designer possesses many or most of the miniskirts research concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to 17 2007 english, it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts.

Immediately recognises the problem and research is able to why i want, accommodate it fully in miniskirts, a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from report extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of papers proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on that item of apa citation research a candidate at miniskirts research that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of statement learning.

Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of miniskirts papers information, understanding of the august essays application of miniskirts research knowledge to august, everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of miniskirts comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the pro and cons essay appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and miniskirts research Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of august 17 2007 essays learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to miniskirts, solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to the hell statement, assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in practice. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by miniskirts the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of on brain based learning careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and miniskirts research medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the apa citation research papers advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of miniskirts understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment.

The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for english essays, the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the research multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to buy university report, the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the papers open-ended format; there is what is a thesis statement indeed empirical evidence to support this in miniskirts research, practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in buy university, some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for research papers, learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to papers, the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited.

The author was solely responsible the research papers literature and writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of to be designer essay Clinical Medicine at the University of miniskirts research papers KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and 17 2007 subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in miniskirts papers, the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images.

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Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Discussion Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Present HSE Regulation Regime on faulty Premise. HSE Success in managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by measuring the miniskirts papers performance of critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended. This statement is a very powerful statement and i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. However let us look at the sensitive details of what is a thesis, this statement and miniskirts research compare to what has been the safety approach historically. Safety Statistics - HSE says whatever models we have as a measure of buy university report, success in safety appraoch it should not be based on whether an accident eventually occured or not or how many times it occured but on the measurment systems predefined. but if we look at the the history of safety regulation and Legistion from the First known safety Legislation in 1862 the incident of the beam of a pumping Engine at Hartley Colliery in Northumberland land which broke the only mineshaft and means of ventillation, 204 miners suffocated and died. that gave birth to mining Legislation two years later that required every seam in a mine to have two shafts or outlets to the present goal getting (Safety Case) Regime, which is as a result of the piper Alpha incident, it is historically obvious that the only reason why regulators feel that there is a need for reviev is after a major disaster. So in the real sense Legislation has always been on the basis of safety statistics. Measuring the miniskirts papers performance of critical control systems : If I try to understand what this means it tries to say that Safety process and systems should adopt PROACTIVE Measures rather reactive measures. In other words we should be able to estimate the lets says probabilisticaly to effectiveness of the system even before any incident is likely to occur.

This brings us to my main Point if we need to determine the performance of a safety systems proactively and every single Legislation/Regulation approach in buy university, history has always been a reactive approach then the Premise upon which the safety Regime has been built though has been quite effective is yet faulty and requires urgent reviews. Miniskirts! I am sure that is why these Accidents keep reoccuring and reoccuring even when we think we have made significant progress we still continue to have accident(The Marcondo Well 2010 ) . Research Papers! Proactive measures rather than reactive measures. In addition to miniskirts research papers, Michael Saiki's point on our current reactive measures to apa citation research papers, safety instead of a proactive one, here are some of the accidents that have occurred and how they continue to show our reactive attitude to safety in the industry. March 28, 1980, Alexander Keilland capsized and sank off the coast of Norway in the North Sea killing 123 people. After the disaster, Norway changed its legislation to papers, the safety case approach. [1] [2]. February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the buy university report coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. Nobody on the rig survived the miniskirts accident. Canada also adopted the research pro and safety case approach to papers, improve the safety in its offshore operations [1] [3]. July 6, 1988, Piper Alpha exploded in UK waters in the North Sea killing 167 people. The Piper Alpha disaster was the worst offshore disaster in terms of death toll and its impact on why i want to be an interior essay the offshore oil industry.

After this disaster, the UK also overhauled its offshore industry and came up with its Offshore Installations Safety Case Regulations [1] [4]. However, not until the recent Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster which occurred on April 20, 2010, the safety legislation in the US has not been reviewed to adopt a mandatory safety case approach instead of the prescriptive approach currently been used [1]. How many more human lives are we going to sacrifice before the regulators and operators alike adopt a more proactive approach? said it right. Miniskirts Research! Though the HSE regulations have been so far appreciably effective, they are somewhat more reactive than proactive. Over the years it has been obviously. known that there is a need for stem pro and essay, a step to step procedure in achieving an effective. proactive HSE culture.

Many efforts towards this have shown that it will also. take personal commitment and self-responsibility on miniskirts research papers the part of the HSE. regulators as well as operators to buy university, achieve this. The Reactive HSE Culture is. concerned with ‘what went wrong?’ In other words, any improvement in HSE. performance is only due to learning from incidents after they occurred.

This is. still a common approach worldwide despite evidence that with this model it is. not possible to achieve continuous HSE performance improvement. The main challenge. here is with the reporting and monitoring processes. Miniskirts Papers! Reporting tools provide. data only after accidents have occurred. These accidents may be health, safety, security and/or environment.

The reportage of these incidents are mostly classified. as ‘accidents’ and ‘near-misses’. However, because the significant potential of. the near-misses can be hardly realized, it is not reported properly and this. can translate into undesired consequences.

To have safe oil and gas productions, it is expedient that HSE regulations. become as proactive as possible and shouldn’t wait for buy university report, the occurrence of an accident. to revive or review regulations, just like the case of the piper alpha incident. Safety and risk management in papers, oil and gas industry. In addition to why i want to be, the on going discussion we will observe that safety in the oil and gas industry has never been taken to miniskirts, heart till on the 27th December 1965 when the Sea Gem Sanked and 13 lives were lost. Research Paper Learning! The major routine before this incident was just to collect a licence from the then government and start exploring and exploiting this mineral resource from the seabed without knowledge of the implications to Health, Safety and the Evironment.

No measures was put in place until a woke up call of the 27th December incident of 1965. Learning from this, its obvious that this era’s were practically reactive in their approach to safety. A little further into the early 80’s on February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland in miniskirts research, the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. At this time their was again a need for a wake up call because of august 17 2007, another reactive approach to safety. It will be taught that a lot of lessons should have been learnt from all this reactive approach pertaining to the oil and gas safety measures and their have been a mitigation plan in place to stop reoccurrence.

But instead it was another blow on April 20, 2010 the Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster. T he Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster of April 20, 2010 . Now the question here is that: 1. Why is it that the incident is allowed to research, happen or occur before we start thinking of solution . 2. Are we really learning from the lessons or we are just busy documenting for record purposes. I called this approach a reactive one. A proactive approach should be in place if there is no one available or it should be improved than its current state or measures. It should involve ways of identifying the research paper on brain learning following:

1. Research! Stringent assessment of environmental impacts; 2. A safety system that requires industry to on brain based learning, identify hazards, assess the risks and follow best practice to research, manage them; and 3.Comprehensive emergency response framework. At the paper on brain based learning same time, their should be a review panel highlighting the importance of continuous improvement and the scope for raising standards through: 1. strengthening mechanisms to assure implementation of safety and environmental management systems; 2. improving the learning culture and processes for spreading best practice; 3. greater integration between the regulatory authorities; 4. a clearer command and control structure in the event of a spill; 5. robust arrangements to ensure operators’ level of liability and ability to pay in the event of a spill; and. 6. intensified RD to develop improved avoidance, capping, containment, clean-up and impact monitoring of research papers, major. offshore oil spill incidents. Proactive intergrity management approach to Safety and Risk measures will be the only way safety of the oil and gas industries can be most guaranteed in the nearest future as against reactive approach. Or else we will be learning again. Regulators responsible for accidents and fatalities! I see the comments about a reactive vs proactive approach in the offshore oil industry but I hate to break it to you that it is not likely that we will move to a more proactive approach anytime soon.

I think regulators and Oil majors would definitely tell us what we want to hear but in principle, it is not likely that anything would change. THE PROACTIVE APPROACH STARTS WITH THE REGULATORS. I will take the Deep water horizon accident for example. We know that on offshore installations, blowout preventers (containing powerful shear rams designed to cut through the drilling rigs’ steel pipe and shut off a well that has gone out of essays, control) are installed to provide redundancy if all else fails. In 2001, the Minerals Management service, commissioned a study that revealed over 100 failures in the testing of miniskirts, blow out preventers and were advised by experts to enforce the operation of TWO SHEAR ARMS in blow out preventers for all offshore installations. . Historically as with enforcement agencies (The Energy department ignored recommendations to apply offshore, the want to be an interior CIMAH regulations already in place onshore in 1975, and we know how their ignorance paid off) they ignored the advice and one wonders if this second shear ram was present, maybe, just maybe the deep water horizon accident would have been avoided. Controversial reports alleged that the Mineral Management service neglected to enforce a rule that required oil companies to miniskirts, provide evidence periodically showing that their shear rams did in fact work – (New York Times, June, 20, 2010). What makes it worse is buy university report that, the same article in 2010, said that at the time, roughly two-thirds of the rigs in miniskirts research, the gulf still had only report, one shear ram as opposed to TWO as prescribed by experts in 2001. I bet if another survey was carried out today, that fraction would be the same and these companies are still in operation). Miniskirts Research! Correct me if I am wrong but I think the regulators are given a free/lenient pass when an accident occurs and it is the oil companies that fact the wrath of the media, public, and the same regulatory bodies.

I think the regulators do not come under enough fire and this is why their lapses are ignored and report downplayed. The regulators only miniskirts, react to what is a thesis statement, incidents and accidents instead of being proactive. And finally to papers, answer the question about english, how many more human lives must be lost…. My answer is more from more accidents until somebody starts to hold regulators more responsible. I totally agree with the theme of this comment. Who regulates the regulators ? It is not surprising to learn that many of the regulatory agencies / bodies have very close ties to oil companies or share holdings even but there appears to be a very unclear and uncontrolled policing of the regulators and conflicts of research, interest aplenty. Is there any examples of successful regulation ? every example i can think of paper learning, seems to have failed in miniskirts research papers, a huge way. Banking, Politics, Media/TV/Newspapers. Medicine and Science seem to do it from within almost and appear at first glance to use the profession to august 17 2007, manage the research professionals ? Is education, certification and professional memberships the best means of identifying and nurturing the best attitudes and cultures that will ensure that industries are policed effectively. The US really uses prescriptive regulation which can result in companies waiting to be caught and august 17 2007 english punished whereas the UK safety case and PFEER regs push the companies to PROVE their safety and risk management practices. NPD and PSA in miniskirts, Norway employ a similar regime whereby performance based regulations, standards and processes are applied as frameworks for the hell thesis, companies to work within, monitoring their own management systems with auditable assitance obtained or periodically enforced by the agencies eg DNV.

Who does it best ? Does UK/Norway do it best ? The US is now looking at UK/Norway as they seek to make step changes in their command and control structures and regulatory systems. Should there be GLOBAL regulations ? to protect OUR WORLD and FUTURE ? Is this workable ? SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea You may like to attend the papers SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea on next Wednesday (10 October) and challenge the speaker. Whilst I agree with some of the points raised in this discussion thread, I would like to highlight one of the cell essay many proactive programmes that the UK HSE are currently undertaking to miniskirts research papers, tackle issues identified in the offshore indutry. Given a large number of the offshore platforms in the North Sea have now exceeded or are close to exceeding their original design life, it is recognised that there is an increased likelihood of equipment and asset integrity failures due to material degradation. Apa Citation Research Papers! This has the potential to lead to an increase in major accidents if not addressed. Strategy for KP4 - Ageing and miniskirts papers life extension inspection programme 2010 - 2013 [1] is stem research pro and cons essay a strategy aimed at promoting awareness of the issues associated with ageing plant in the offshore oil and gas industry. The specific objectives of the strategy are: - to raise awareness within the offshore industry of the papers need for specific consideration of ageing issues as a distinct activity within the report asset integrity management process and, in miniskirts research, particular, of the need for senior management to demonstrate leadership on why i to be an interior essay and commitment to this matter; - to define a programme of inspection of individual duty holder approaches to the management of ageing and life extension to ascertain the extent of research papers, compliance with the regulatory requirements;

- to identify shortcomings in papers, duty holder practices on the management of ageing and life extension and enforce an appropriate programme of remedial action; - to work with the offshore industry to develop a ‘best practice’ common approach to the management of ageing installations and life extension, including the development of long-term plans, for implementation in safety cases and thorough reviews, to ensure the continued safe operation of all ageing offshore installations on miniskirts papers the UKCS.[1] In support of these objectives the Offshore Safety Directorate are actively undertaking inspections, developing standards and research paper on brain based conducting further research into miniskirts papers, the area. To me this demonstrates an extremely proactive approach to one of the biggest challenges facing the industry over the coming decade. I encourage you to read the want to be an interior KP4 document referenced below and welcome any further discussion. Sure Andrew, the regulations even further demand that the papers duty holder reviews the safety case to ensure it’s still a live document, sound and applicable to the current conditions. This is another example of how proactive the HSE regulations get. For proof of this I quote this from the KP4 strategy that Andrew has touched on in his post; “Regulation 13 of the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (OSCR) requires duty holders to thoroughly review current safety cases within five years of the previous acceptance or review, to confirm that the safety case as a whole continues to be fundamentally sound, and continues to demonstrate the effective identification, management and control of major accident hazard risks on the installation, as described in Paragraph 187-190 of the L30 Guide to OSCR 2005.” And again one of the main aims and objectives of this KP4 strategy on ALE is to identify areas of improvement and further encourage these improvements in on brain based learning, ALE management. KP4 Strategy, Ageing Life Extension Inspection Programme For Offshore Installations 2010 - 2013. Proactive Approach by HSE Industry.

I agree with Andrew and Ambrose on the proactive approach of the miniskirts HSE. However, an august english interesting dimension to the work of the Health Safety Executive, even though they are the regulators is that they also sponsor research and provide guidance to miniskirts research papers, the industry through research-oriented papers to advance knowledge for the industry, document their concerns especially in particular areas, and present a focus of why i want to be, engagement between the regulators and research papers the industry. Stem Cell Cons! Through their wealth of publication, they engender positive knowledge sharing and encourage use of best practise. Other pro-active measures will have to be by the industry itself. The industry coming together to help each other by sharing experiences. The experiences of most operators are similar in miniskirts research, most cases and there are common themes to issues being experienced by operators.

The Step Change in august 17 2007, Safety is a forum that provides an opportunity for an industry approach to address such topical issues. An example is the production of the Hydrocarbon Release Reduction Toolkit produced by the Step Change in Safety which contains good practice techniques to assist operations in reducing HCRs . The type of Joint Industry solution to topical issues such as happened post Macondo in the UK for example where there was the set up of the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) to fund and procure a well capping device and enhance the UK’s capability to respond to a major, sustained release of oil. These four dimensional risk management parameters, which I. call the necessary evils, are always. in constant interaction in miniskirts research, our engineering systems. We need to clearly identify. their roles in everyday operations.

The difficulty of. detection brings us to Uncertainties. which begin from ‘known unknowns’ to “unknown unknowns. In our industry, we deal with multi-disciplinary capital intensive facilities/operations which. have many latent hazards. To ensure safety, reliability and to make economic. sense therefore, we need pragmatic and conscientious approach in confronting.

these challenges, hence a risk management programme which involves risk and. In doing risk analysis, probability. models, reliability theories and stem pro and cons statistical inference (which considers amongst. others the frequency of occurrence) provide. a practical approach in identifying and quantifying the occurrence of these.

uncertainties. These tools look at the likelihood of the uncertainties. occurring (probabilities assessment), how often ( frequency ) they are likely to occur and the impact of the research undesired consequences should the uncertainties. occur/events fail (consequence assessment). Amongst others, some of the tools.

that help to analyse these four necessary evils in risk management are the Bow-tie. Analysis model [1] and Swiss Cheese Analysis model [2]. to further strengthen the discussion i would like to say that we cannot say that we have an effective safety management regime if we put the responsibilty of safety solely on the Employers and Industry as is the case in this present Regime. The implication of this is that the Industry or employers are driven by profit oriented objective and shareholders value chain. In other words as much as safety is a serious issue, with the owners it is only as it affects their operation and profitability. especially in the subsea sector where every operation is capital intensive.

From the essay perspective cost Safety, Reliability and miniskirts Integrity management processes have huge impacts on OPEX and CAPEX. and thus every employer seeks to august, minimize this cost. Therefore, there should be efforts towards redesigning the regulation/legislation regime to something that would would sorth of share responsibility with the State and other stake holders in every safety model developed for offshore/subsea installation and research papers production systems. Especially now that E P is going offshore. Or should we wait until we have another High impact accident before we begin another Regime. After Deep Water Horizon Incident - Reactive. After deep water horizon incident, several. researches and measurements had been performed.

In UK, Oil Spill Prevention and. Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) had been organized by industrial personnel. from operators, vendors, and what the hell thesis institutions. Miniskirts! Purpose was reviewing well integrity. in UK continent shelf and emergency response to oil spill. August English Essays! Technical group evaluate.

and review the miniskirts papers safety of well design and operation in each field. Buy University Report! Well capping. device had been developed for the well control purpose. Research Papers! Emergency response. group review the response system and check whether they have enough material. for use for cleaning operation. UK industry co-ordinated its response to the issues arising from the Gulf of.

Mexico incident by structuring OSPRAG’s work according to four priorities: • Preventing the august english essays possibility of an. escape of hydrocarbons from a well. • Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons. • Ensuring effective spill response. • Ensuring sufficient financial. arrangements are in place to cover the response to any spill” [1]

In order to meet their priorities, they are. sharing the best practice and research developing new device. Initiation was reactive. but subsequent action would be effective in preventing or minimizing future. incidents. English Essays! Proactive measures are the best for minimizing catastrophic. But at. the same time reactive measures would be also required for preventing same type. [1] Oil Spill Prevention and Response. Changhwan, I will like to highlight the research point you raised above on Minimising the length of what the hell is a thesis, time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons.

At a recent event organised by the Society for Underwater Technology (SUT) titled “Macondo - Lessons and papers implications for the North Sea”, Brian Kinkead, a Consultant and statement Lead of the Technical Review Group which produced the research OSPRAG capping device, gave a presentation on the development of the OSPRAG cap [1]. Approximately 6 weeks ? That is approximately half the time it took BP to cap the Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico without any Emergency Response Plan (ERP). What I will like to highlight here is even though we have an ERP in place, it will still take this long to cap a well in the North Sea. How many thousands of barrels of oil would have spilled into the sea, how many marine life would have been lost, what extent would this spill have covered, and what will be the 17 2007 english essays cost of cleaning up a spill which has been running for about 6 weeks? I’m sure cost will be a limiting factor for the response to take that long. Why don’t we increase the cost and reduce the miniskirts research time in order to save lives and protect our environment.

SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT: RANK THE TOP TEN SEVERE ENERGY RELATE. 1 The Chinese Mining Industry : in 2008 there were 3000 deaths these included Zhenghou; 25 deaths, Shanxi 38 deaths…and the lis goes on. The Hell Thesis! The underlying issue here appears to be lack of regulations and hence less regard for workers well being before profit. Many of the accidents are attributable to poisonous or volatile gases. Chinese government has blamed illegal production and although safety improvements and procedures are being introduced they are still very often ignored.

Until Government can enforce these, the situation is unlikely to research, improve. 17 2007 Essays! The PRC government see the enforcement costly, and difficult due to papers, geographical problems associated with enforcement. Research! For example many of the mines are located in miniskirts, rural areas that are remote and apa citation research difficult to access. It appears that this growing economy still has a long way to go achieve safety standards that we in Europe are accustomed to. 2 St Frances dam break 1928 resulting in 450 deaths, and the destruction of the town of miniskirts, Santa Paula. The cause was found to be a result of an ancient geological landslide on the eastern side of the dam. Want An Interior! The 1920’s technology was not advanced enough to identify this. The damn collapsed as a result of the full hydrostatic load in miniskirts research, the reservoir after a heavy rainfall. Thus exerting excess stress to the eastern side.

To put this into perspective; the construction’s foundations were unsuitable on the eastern side of the dam and collapse was certain. Research Learning! The release of the Flood wave said to be in excess of 40m cascaded the town of Santa Paula. During the inquiry there was conflict between the Government departments, the geologists and papers the design and august english engineering departments. Research Papers! The hearings in the aftermath recommended that the construction and operation of a great dam should never be left to embryonic stem cell research pro and, the sole judgment of one man, 3 Piper Alpha 187 deaths.

Lead to radical change in regulations for offshore installations. The incident was said to have been caused by miscommunication during a maintenance operation on a Pressure relief valve. This was said to have been moved from a gas compression module and replaced by a blind flange. The flange was only hand tightened as the operations were said not to restart until later in the day. Miniskirts! When they did restart the Valve was missing and the flange was still only hand tight. Ignition was then imminent. Hence there was no procedural “lock out” or isolation as would be the research paper based learning case today. The Cullen report was issued in the aftermath and a series of recommendations were implemented; including the necessity for Duty Holders to papers, produce a safety case.

The introduction of several Statutory instruments were also introduced which regulated the august 17 2007 design and construction of offshore installations. Initially this was regulated by the Dept of papers, Energy but nowadays it is policed by the Health Safety Executive. Apa Citation Research! The report was also critical of Piper Alpha's operator, Occidental, who were found guilty of having inadequate maintenance and safety procedures. Papers! But no criminal charges were ever brought against them. Had these safety procedures been implemented and practiced there would have been a strong possibility that more workers could have escaped, but more importantly; the incident may never had occurred.

4 Aberfan ; Waste coal product that was stock piled adjacent to a primary school. After a spell of poor whether the want to be designer waste and deluge had cascaded; as would a normal landslide, and buried the primary school. 116 children and 28 adults were killed. Today we are aware that such a pile would be hazardous but back in 1966 this was not the miniskirts papers case. The government appointed Mines Inspectorate were only employed to ensure that the mines themselves were safe. Lord Robens the Chairman of the NCB had been seen to be callas by the public and did not visit the papers site until his return from holiday. Indeed when ordered to make the site safe he used ?150000 from the public donations fund to remove the waste to safe disposal. The following Davies Inquiry had found the NCB responsible for miniskirts research papers, this disaster and the Government had introduced Her Majesty’s inspectorate of mines and quarry’s, along with new legislation. During Tony Blairs reign as Prime Minister the ?150,000 was returned to the fund with an apology but no interest was paid. The disaster itself happened very quickly without any prior warning. The timing unfortunately played a key role as the children in the school were all assembled in the main school hall, which was directly in the “line of sight” of the what thesis land slide.

That day the visibility was said to be 50m but clear at the top of the heap. Miniskirts! The previous wet weather had played a big part in releasing the product. 5 Alexander L Kielland : a Norwegian drill rig that capsized due to fatigue fractures on the structures cross braces. 123 deaths. In 1980 the pro and essay platform had just completed a campaign at EDDA and was anchored offshore when the weather had seen 40 knot winds with 12m waves. Research! Whist the majority of the 200 workers on board were off duty in the cinema, a loud crack was observed and it transpired that 5 out of 6 of the why i want designer anchor chains had broke and the platform started to capsize.

The list increased during which time the research workers had tried to evacuate but experienced major difficulties releasing the embryonic research life crafts. Miniskirts Research Papers! In fact of the 50 life crafts on board only one was successfully launched. Whilst the research paper based learning evacuation was in progress the final anchor had gave way, and the structure capsized. Investigations found that a small fillet weld to attach a hydrophone bracket to a cross brace was incompletely welded and thus caused a stress point in the cross brace. This had failed causing the bracing to collapse in the attributed storm. It was later found that the design of the platform had not allowed for papers, any redundancy in its structure. Furthermore the evacuation procedures were criticised and the lessons learned from this had been implemented in report, the OPITO type safety training we know today. Research Papers! Finally the report one contribution that may well had been the route cause of the accident, is that the platform was originally built as an accommodation module only and had makeshift modifications applied to it for oil exploration. 6 Greymouth Pike River Mine New Zealand, underground explosion resulting in research, 29 deaths.

A total of 4 explosions were detected. The cause of the stem research essay explosions are still unclear but were there is definitive evidence of an abundance of Methane Gas present. The possible safety measures not used in the Pike River Mine were; a tube bundling gas measurement system, stocks of food and water, breathing apparatus, and a second entrance. These are mandatory requirements in UK mining but it is still unclear whether this was a key factor in the loss of these lives. The Investigation is still ongoing. 7 Deep Water Horizon / Macondo Gas blow out. Appears to be failure of safety equipment to function in an emergency resulting in miniskirts, 11 deaths and a catastrophic environmental disaster.

Investigation is still ongoing. Latest reports suggest that procedures were not followed and Safety equipment such as blow out preventers were not fully tested before use. August 17 2007 Essays! The Whitehouse oil spill commission leading the inquiry has collectively blamed Halliburton, Transocean and research papers BP for making time and money savings whist compromising the integrity of the well. Some of the failures in procedures included failure to run cement bond tests , the use of research papers, a cement diagnostic tool, ignoring failed pressure tests etc. The committee did not, however, place the blame on any one of these events. More so it concluded with the following statement blaming the management of Macondo “Better management of decision-making processes within BP and other companies, better communication within and research papers between BP and research paper its contractors and effective training of key engineering and rig personnel would have prevented the Macondo incident” The jury is still out with this incident and I can only assume that more evidence will be revealed as the research papers litigation process continues. 8 Fukushima Nuclear power station . Japan’s coastline was exposed to an unprecedented Tsunami resulting in the meltdown of 3 of the reactors and august 17 2007 english widespread radiation leakage. Miniskirts Papers! There were 37 injuries at the time of the incident although it is too early to establish the full extent of long term effects. Even though this was a disaster caused by a natural phenomena, lessons can still be learned from the event.

9 Chernobyl ; Ukraine former eastern block nuclear explosion in reactor 4 resulting in an initial 31 deaths and a radioactive leak that has lead to illnesses and fatalities including thyroid cancer. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. What Is A! The INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) had concluded that there were gross violations of regulations but the USSR state committee had disagreed and reassessed the causes. They state that the INSAG’s assessment was too erroneous and miniskirts research stated that items such as the apa citation papers turning off of research papers, emergency systems is based not a violation. Following the accident, questions arose about the miniskirts papers future of the plant and its eventual fate. Research Learning! All work on the unfinished reactors 5 and 6 was halted three years later. However, the trouble at the Chernobyl plant did not end with the disaster in reactor 4. This reactor was sealed off in concrete whist the other reactors were still in service due to the energy shortage created by the disaster. 10 Iraq gulf war . Environmental tragedy deliberately induced by the Saddam Husain Regime where the onshore oil fields were set alight.

The disaster is man made as a result of a political war that today is seen by miniskirts papers, many as illegal. Husain had ordered the wells to be set alight to ensure the oil was not taken by research paper, his enemies. Apart from the odd exception in the above top ten; such the Fukashima disaster (which was the product of research papers, a natural phenomena), the remaining disasters have one thing in common. They were all avoidable. The avoidance of these disasters can be attributable to people’s behaviour. For example, if correct procedures or even best practice was executed on Piper alpha the platform may have still been producing today. If the Chinese mining regulations’ were followed maybe many of the fatalities would have been averted. Today many of the Energy Company’s and Main Contractors are focusing more on apa citation papers Behaviour Safety. The thought behind this is to encourage employees to alter their unsafe habits regardless of how great or small the consequences may be. Papers! This may be as simple as holding the hand rail whilst ascending or descending a stairwell. The concept here is that; whilst tools are available such as procedures, risk assessments, correct equipment etc, there is a need to focus on correct use; ie follow procedures, use equipment as instructed by the hell thesis statement, manuals etc.

To put this concept in perspective consider a situation where you have just put your new shoes on for a night out. Your lace is undone and unnoticed. You are then descending a stairwell and papers you trip. Case 1: you are not holding the hand rail, and the likely consequences from an inevitable fall could be anything from a minor injury, serious injury that may have lifetime affects or even death. Case 2 you are holding the hand rail and you trip. The natural body reaction would be to tighten the apa citation grip on the hand rail reducing the likelihood of a fall. Indeed the likelihood is that you would probably end up in a sitting position on miniskirts the stair with a few bruises or a sprained wrist from the grip. The same concept can be applied in buy university, any work or play situation where our behaviour is changed to reduce or eliminate the risk.

Safety and Equipment Management In Oil and Gas Industry. Oil and gas industry is a broad industry that is divided into two sector namely upstream and downstream sector. Miniskirts Research Papers! While upstream sector is marjorly offshore base and deals in cell, exploration and miniskirts research process of crude oil and gas, it poses equal amount of risks to human in comparison to downstream sector which is onshore base in most cases and engages in further processing and buy university report refining crude oil and miniskirts research papers gas. In oil and gas industry, the most highly rated hazards in term of severity of consequencies are highly combustable and toxic hydrocardon gas and flammable liquid, the crude oil itself. The concept of safety in design make provisions for these hazards to be safely confined in their paths of movement and containments without or with control exposure to environment. Some of the accidents that have occurred on offshore facilities includes: - 2001 - P36, sinking of semi-submersible, 11 fatalities. -2005 - Bombay High, ship collision with platform and want to be designer essay riser fire, 22 fatalities. -2007 - Usumacinta, jack up collision with platform, 22 fatalities.

Similar events have also occurred on miniskirts onshore facilities. Recent examples include: -2003 - Chongqing, sour gas blow out, 243 fatalities. - 2004 - Skikda, explosion on report LNG plant, 27 fatalities. -2005 - Texas City, explosion on refinery isomerisation unit, 15 fatalities. - 2009 - Nigeria, pipeline explosion, 100 fatalities. -2009 - Jaipur, explosion in gasoline storage area, 12 fatalities.

- 2010 – Congo, gasoline road tanker overturned, 230 fatalities. (source: RPS Energy, Preventing Major Accidents in research papers, Oil and Gas Industry, Nov 2010) However, the research integrity of these hazard containments are compromised by a number of miniskirts papers, factors that cause their unplanned release to environment with undesired consequencies. Some of these factors include: - Human interference while carrying out day to day activities on these containments. - Equipment failure or malfunctioning. - Deterioration of fixed equipment due to ageing. In broader view all other factors are embedded in these four main factors. Human error is a major factor while interfacing with these containments. Research! Major oil and gas companies have put in place a number of behavioural base safety program incorporated into miniskirts papers, their overall HSE program, behavioural base safety programs are geared towards educating the embryonic pro and workforce the consequencies of their actions when dealing with these equipment. Also, commonly used is a system of work permit system and equipment isolation procedure to miniskirts research papers, prevent unplanned release of buy university report, hazrds from their containment.

Also standard equipment repair procedure should be in place, if properly followed, the papers likelihood of making fatal mistake by personnel while working on these equipment would be reduced. Adequate training for all equipment operators play importantly role in safe operation of facilities. In most cases, accidents occur as result of monitoring equipment malfunctioning, adequate preventive maintenance program should be a major focal point of top management to ensure that all the control and measuring devices are functioning as designed and function within normal operating range. Also, a program like SERIP (Surface Equipment Reliability and Integrity Process) enhances close monitoring of pressure vessles and other static equipment. Kareem R. The Hell Is A Thesis Statement! Saheed. Still on the theme of the miniskirts research obvious lapses in the regulations guarding health and safety in the offshore oil and an interior gas industry today, i want to highlight a new perspective to it.

Do the oil companies truly have value for the lives of employees, third party contractors and the environment?? The answer is NO. Miniskirts! These companies are required by why i want an interior, law to have in miniskirts research papers, place the fanciest HSE policies and procedures, HSE deprtments, draw up safety cases and mitigation methods, all these requirements they fulfill, but the bottomline remains that these companies push the limits of nature and technology to squeeze out ALL resources possible from the noth sea(oil and natural gas) to satisfy shareholders and various boards of directors. Various reports have shown that the oil rigs in the North sea are FALLING APART with most of them having exceeded their design lifespans(most installed in 60's and 70's) and even the more recent ones lagging behind in scheduled maintenance programmes. these companies are rolling out funds to push the why i to be an interior essay limits of technilogy to research, extend even further ALREADY EXPIRED INSTALLATIONS and in the process jeopardizing the lives of employees, third party staff in the pursuit of embryonic cell essay, continuous production. It is not rocket science, you can only push equipment so far(maintenance, extending useful life) at some point, equipment would FAIL. In my reading about the TOTAL Elgin gas leak earlier this year, an research artile in the daily mail revealed that employees on an interior designer essay the platform had expressed safety concerns predicting a gas leak less than a month before the accident bu employers had assured that should a leak occur, there were adequate safety systems to protect lives of employees at risk. Miniskirts Research Papers! Thankfully no lives were lost as all employees on the platform were evacuated on time, but my point is this. Operations in the area are risky by default, why knowingly expose employees to even higher risk profiles and hope that safety systems would protect them in the event of an accident? I think regulators have a lot to do in terms of ensuring oi majors reduce risk exposure of apa citation research, employees to the barst minimum regardless of revenue sacrificed or safety systems in place.

Personally, I think the UK offshore safety system places too much. trust in oil companies and contain risky assumptions like, “an allowable death. rate of miniskirts, one in every thousand workers”. Recent statistics from the HSE has. shown a major decrease in the fatality and major injuries of workers for. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon Rig, which killed 11 workers. and disaster to the environment, it was not just to research papers, oil companies that were to. be blamed. Fingers too were pointed at the enforcement and regulators. The US.

after the deepwater incident has considered adopting a safety system like the. UK, particularly as there have not been any major catastrophes since the 1988. Piper Alpha. It is miniskirts papers obvious the system which the UK use is working but lets not. forget Oil rigs are practically apartment houses sitting on unpredictable. volcanoes. So rather than relying on facility specific and embryonic cell research cons abstract. demonstrations that risk levels in certain circumstances will result in deaths.

of a number of workers, more emphasis should be based on miniskirts the installation of. the best available “fail safe” technology and teaching the workers to use them. Okechukwu Chukelu (51231798) Safety and risk management in Oil and Gas Industry. The oil and thesis gas industry. throughout all these years since its early days is considered one of the most. daring and among the most dangerous occupations of all time. Safety and risk. management is research papers considered vital in the oil and gas industry in order to avoid. and limit undesirable accidents. These accidents very often may conclude into.

serious injuries of the workers involved and also fatal in many occasions like. the history taught us throughout these years. In other words, safety and risk. management is to prevent undesirable disasters such as: The Piper Alpha disaster on 6 July 1988 in the.

North Sea, killing 167 workers. Gulf of Mexico oil spill on 20 April 2010, 11. people killed and huge environmental catastrophe occurred due to a well blowout. Texas City refinery explosion on 23 of March. 2005, 15 workers killed and more than 170 injured after an explosion.

Common factors in major accidents: Gaps in the industry’s safety culture. Lack of embryonic cell research pro and cons essay, real commitment. to safety by leaders. Differentiation in management procedures may not. Insufficient analysis, design and optimization for. safety and hazard.

Gaps in communication while significant events. Insufficient learning from miniskirts research papers, prior events and. The illusion of the low probability of an. accident to occur. In order to ensure the maximum. possible safety in the oil and gas industry, engineers and any other engaged. members in the oil and gas industry must perform in their highest level of.

engineering, operating and maintenance practices. Moreover, in order to prevent. major incidents from report, happening we must learn from the past. Data and facts from. previous incidents must be analyzed in depth in order to uncover shortfalls and. gaps in the management system performance. Research Papers! Finally, monitoring is also very. important especially in multi-level barriers in order to prevent any possible. setback or incident from happening. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. COMMENT ONE:SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY.

In discussing health and safety in the oil. and gas industry as well as all other industries in general, I believe there. are a few inherent factors that need to be discussed. Factors such as the why i to be designer purpose and procedures. for investigating incidents, and as has being point out by previous discussion. about the papers reactive nature of the health and safety system in general, ensuring. that lessons learnt can used to improve. Health and what the hell thesis safety in the oil and gas industry. Emphasis needs to papers, be placed on ensuring an.

effective system is in place to investigate incidents and near misses to. determine the root cause. This system Is. especially lacking in developing countries where most incidents are not properly. investigated. Also, it is pertinent to. ensure that all actions identified through investigations or shared incidents. are acted upon in a timely manner.

Regular reviews should always be done to the hell thesis statement, not only ensure that. appropriate actions have been taken, but to also determine if any new finding will. manifest with new improvements in technology. All statistics and data is research properly recorded and kept and last but not. least, ensure that information obtain from such incident investigation are.

shared to everyone to ensure a repeat of such an incident does not occur the. world over. One way of research papers, ensuring. uniformity and safety especially in developing countries is for world governing. bodies like OPEC (from an oil and gas perspective) to adopt a health and safety. management system and insist on all member states adopt that system. MSc Subsea Engineering.

COMMENT 2: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. In discussing the above topic, I feel it would be beneficial. to identify some of the hazards inherent to the Oil and Gas industry. Miniskirts Papers! Some of these hazards include: Hazards associated with temperature and flammable materials, taking special note of terminologies such as Flash point (lowest temperature at. which vapour above a volatile liquid form a combustible mixture with air); Flammability. and flammability limits (i.e. the proportion of combustible gases in a mixture. with air.

This is usually categorised. into Upper flammable limit and the hell statement Lower flammable limit. Other hazards worth mentioning include. Toxicity (which is the degree to which a substance is papers able to damage an exposed. organism).

Toxic entities can be chemical, biological or physical. There are Skin Irritants which are stimuli or. agents which induce a state of irritation. Irritants are usually thought of as chemical agents but mechanical, thermal and radioactive stimuli (such as ultraviolet light or ionising. radiation) can also be irritants.

Also. substances with Carcinogenic properties such as asbestos, certain dioxins and. tobacco smoke are hazards which act as agents directly involved in why i to be essay, causing. There are a host of other hazards such as Hydrogen, Methane, LPG, Nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide,

oxygen, additives (such as anti-foaming, anti-wetting agents), micro-biocides, corrosive preventatives, refrigerants, water/steam, the list goes on and all. contribute to hazards inherent to the oil and gas industry. In the design of oil and gas plants, emphasis. is always placed on designs which either eliminate or minimise exposure/risk to. all/most of these hazards as low as is reasonably practicable. Source: HSE website and NEBOSH international Health and.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Safety in the oil and gas industry has been a concern to research, the world. Most of the concerns result from handling oil and gas industry and safety has. been a priority in this industry, major concerns have been raised because most. of the laws and regulations are driven by research papers, accidents happening e.g. the piper.

alpha in 1988 had proper regulations been in miniskirts papers, place it would not have happened. UK offshore oil and gas industry is a. major hazard industry; the report sector demonstrates a relatively low lost time. injury rate and has, for many years, outperformed a number of papers, comparatively lower. hazard industrial sectors in the UK. A report states that there were just two. fatalities in the UK offshore oil and gas industry and that was at the first UK. continental shelf fatalities in a four- year period. Human safety has been. given priority hence the reduction in the number of fatalities and august 17 2007 english essays injuries. Hydrocarbon release has also reduced drastically since the.

introduction of the miniskirts research papers regulation on their 2010 , HSE started a. program to look into paper, the reduction of miniskirts, hydrocarbon releases , in April 2012 HSE. published data to show that the was a continued improvement in the reduction of. these emission. The reduction target was set for all hydrocarbon releases, it.

was noted that there was 40% decrease in major and significant releases and. this was attributed to the program. Another factor attributed to improvement. in safety in what is a thesis statement, the sector was proper maintenance and repair of offshore plants. The. safety-critical parts of miniskirts research, offshore installations are subject to a verification process. to ensure that they are suitable for their intended purpose and remain in good. condition and repair. The Hell Is A Thesis Statement! These verifications are done by independent competent. FACTORS THAT FACILITATE MAJOR ACCIDENTS IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Common Factors in miniskirts research, Major Accidents.

Major accidents share some common factors: Flaws in the safety culture of the organization and sometimes the whole industry: Organizational culture is the stem cell research essay set of shared values and norms upon which decisions are based. Safety culture is simply that subset of the overall culture that reflects the general attitude and approaches to safety and risk management. Safety culture is miniskirts papers primarily set by research papers, the leaders of the organization as they establish the basic values upon which decisions will be based.Lack of research papers, real commitment to safety by leaders: Management commitment to safety has been found to be the most important factor in distinguishing between organizations with high and low accident rates [Leveson, 1995]. Buy University Report! Nonexistent or not followed management of change procedures: A large percentage of major accidents occur after some change in the system or in the way it is operated. Miniskirts! While most companies have management of change procedures on their books, these procedures are not always followed. Inadequate hazard analysis and design for essays, safety: Instead of putting the emphasis on designing safety into the system from the beginning, the major emphasis is miniskirts papers instead placed on recovery from research based learning, adverse events or investigating them after they occur.

Flawed communication and reporting systems: In a surprisingly large number of miniskirts, accidents, unsafe conditions were detected prior to the actual loss events or precursor events occurred but were not adequately reported or investigated so that the loss event could be prevented. Inadequate learning from prior events: Prior incidents and accidents are very often only superficially investigated. Apa Citation Research! The symptoms of the underlying systemic causes of the accident or incident are identified as the miniskirts research cause of the events but not the underlying flawed processes or culture that led to research based, those symptoms. Sidney Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error, Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Charles Haddon-Cave, The Nimrod Review, HC 1025, London: The Stationery Office Limited, Oct. 28, 2009. Nancy Leveson, Safeware, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1995. HOW TO MANAGE SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Given this system and research control view of safety, we can identify the flaws in the safety control structure that allowed the Deepwater Horizon accident to occur and what can be done to the hell thesis statement, strengthen the miniskirts research papers overall offshore oil and gas industry safety control structure. The general key to preventing these occurrences in the future is to provide better information for decision making, not just for the government regulators but for those operating the oil rigs. There are many changes that would be useful in strengthening the papers safety control structure and preventing future oil spills, these changes are:

Providing appropriate incentives to change the safety culture: Participants in industries like commercial aviation understand the direct relationship between safety and their profits and future viability. The relationship is research not so clear in the off-shore oil industry.there also need to be incentives to 17 2007, update safety technology. The standard BOP design was less effective as exploration moved into deeper water and other technology changes occurred, but the industry ignored the many previous BOP failures and insisted that the design could not be improved industry standards: One of the surprises that emerges in the investigation of an accident is the lack of standards in miniskirts research, the industry, for example standards for cementing operations improved. Embryonic Cell Research Pro And Cons! Industry self-policing: Any government regulatory agency is papers limited in what it can accomplish. After Three Mile Island, the nuclear power industry created an industry organization, called INPO, to provide shared oversight of safety in the nuclear sector Certification and training: Another lesson learned from the august investigation of the Deepwater Horizon accident is that some workers have minimal training and miniskirts research papers little certification is required. The changes needed here are obvious. Learning from events. A systems approach to accident and incident investigation needs to be implemented by everyone in apa citation research, the industry in order to improve the learning and continual improvement process [Leveson, 2011]. we need to do the following: Hazard analysis: While the process industry has a very powerful hazard analysis technique, called HAZOP, the research papers use of this technique is not as prevalent as it should be.

The results from embryonic stem research, HAZOP need to be used to improve technological design and also passed to operations to guide maintenance and performance audits. Maintenance: For the Macondo well, maintenance of safety-critical equipment, for example on the BOP, was not performed as required for research, safety and as specified in the equipment standards. Regulatory agencies can only spot-check compliance. Ensuring that proper maintenance activities are performed is an important activity for the company Safety Management System Integration of safety engineers into operational decision making: One of the surprises to me personally in the Deepwater Horizon investigations was the lack of any operational safety group advising the decision makers on the platforms. If such a group existed, it did not play an important enough role to be mentioned in the description of the events that occurred. Industries with strong safety programs include a person or group that is responsible for advising management at all levels of the organization on both long-term decisions during engineering design and development of new platforms and on the safety implications of decisions during operations. In most other industries, a safety engineer would have been resident on the platform and involved in what the hell is a thesis statement, all the real time safety-related decision making.

this steps however should be followed to miniskirts papers, ensure an effective safety management system in the oil and gas sector to reduce the risks of accident occurenc. Nancy Leveson, Engineering a Safer World, MIT Press, to appear fall 2011. English! In the meantime, a final draft can be downloaded from Mike Martin and Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Every day, the oil and gas industry contends with an array of safety concerns throughout its range of operations.

In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and research papers gas industries have implemented and what thesis are still implementing effective safety management systems to help protect their workers, the general public and the environment. Oil and research gas companies have established specific systems, programs and processes to manage and monitor activities that affect their safety performance, management systems that support safety sustainability and business performance throughout the full life cycle of want to be essay, their assets. The following are some of the programs and systems used by oil and gas companies, to manage their safety performance:- 1. Integrated HSE management system design and miniskirts development. 2. On Brain Based! Incident and near-miss investigation. Research! Companies adopt different tools for their near-miss and incident investigation. Root cause analysis (RCA), five (5)- why, are some of the tools used by oil and what thesis statement gas companies. 3. Miniskirts Papers! Management of change (MOC) system design. This is a system that is put in place to manage change –which may be a temporary or permanent change, especially if what to be change has a safety concern. 4. Permit to why i want to be essay, work system.

This is a system that is put in place to manage and research control the day to day tasks that are carried out. Tasks that are likely to embryonic cell pro and cons essay, impact the safety of the personnel’s are further reviewed, so as to have more controls in place and done in a safe manner. 5. Research Papers! Lock out and Tag out (LOTO). This is used to control personnel exposure to apa citation papers, the various energy sources they are working with. Locks are fitted to either a mechanical or electrical isolation and can only be removed, when the tasks have been completed.

Tags are also used to create the papers same awareness as a lock. 6. Want To Be An Interior Essay! Regulatory compliance audits. 7. Safety culture evaluation and training. 8. HSE training programs. Risk are inherent in every forward-looking business decision. Miniskirts! As a result, there has been a great deal of work done and resources invested in apa citation research papers, risk management in papers, the oil and gas industry in august 17 2007, recent years. Financial and miniskirts regulatory risks have been the focus of much of this effort. But more recently, companies have started including operational risks, process safety risks, prioritizing them, and thinking about how they can manage and monitor all risks in a coordinated way. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to research on brain based, the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.

1. Hazard Identification and evaluation. 2. Quantitative risk analysis. 1. Top 10 risks for the oil and gas industry. . Oluwaseguu, I agree with the point that an effective risk management system must offer solution that is not only research papers, tailored to fit the industry but must also be company specific. Leading Oil and Gas Companies like shell, Chevron etc have well established safety and Risk management systems that ensures that the is a thesis safety of their operations are guaranteed. These companies most often have invested billions over the years in safety related matters. For such companies the measures you have outlined is easy to comply with. But what about smaller or emerging companies with smaller oil fields? The drive to make profits for shareholders may often override investment in Safety because it is expensive. In addition, more research must be put into improving the reliability of materials and miniskirts papers systems used in the Oil and gas industry. As efficiency of systems improve, safety also will improve.

I would like to add detail regards with HSE. Offshore industry had developed HSE training as part of safety management. Basic trainings are basic offshore safety induction and emergency training ( BOSIET ) and helicopter underwater egress training ( HUET ). As you know, helicopter. transportation is one of major risk in the offshore work. These trainings are designed and. standardized by Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization ( OPITO ). 17 2007 English! Normally. training from center certified by OPTIO is accepted.

Certifications may be. required for offshore crew by each company’s HSE policy, and miniskirts papers then no one can. inboard without certifications if HSE policy is strictly complied. Also it. should be renewed every 3 years through re-training. In BOSIET participant will take class and exercise. for sea survival including evacuation, fire fighting and etc. In HUET, participants. will exercise escape from emergency landing at sea.

Of course, making a safety system is the. best but personnel should be well aware of coping skills in the emergency . I. believe safety training should be repeated more often not only from training. center but also from site. Buy University! Attention and miniskirts papers training will lead minimum loss at.

COMMENT 3: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. When talking about Health and safety in the oil and gas. industry, one major regulation comes to mind which is the Offshore Installation. (Safety Case)Regulation 2005 (SCR05)1. Extracting from the regulation, r.12 states: “Among other things, a duty holder is apa citation research required to miniskirts papers, ensure; All hazards with the potential to cause a major. accident have been identified. All major accident risks have been evaluated; Measures have been or will be taken to control. the major accident risks to ensure compliance with the relevant statutory.

This also relates to our argument in class about who is to. blame when accidents/incident occur. Further to this, I thought it might to research papers, mention some of the. other relevant statutory regulations in the oil and gas industry. Health and Safety at miniskirts, Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA). Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and. Explosions and Emergency Response) regulations 1995 (PFEER). Offshore Installations and paper based Wells (Design and. Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 (DCR) Control of miniskirts papers, Major Accident Hazard Regulations.

EC Directive 96/82/EC on control of report, major. accident hazards involving dangerous substances. (Seveso II Directive). Chemical (Hazard Identification and Packaging for. Supply) Regulations 1994 as amended (CHIP2008). Control of papers, Substances Hazardous to Health. Reporting of papers, Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences. Regulations 1995. (RIDDOR) Please note this regulation buttressmy point in my earlier comment about the miniskirts need for systematic approach to the hell thesis statement, recording and miniskirts papers reporting of incidents in the workplace. Please note my list might not be exhaustive and what the hell is a I welcome. any colleague to miniskirts research papers, add to this list if aware of any other. uchenna onyia 51232632 MSc subsea engineering.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Risk and safety management is becoming. increasingly important in oil and gas industry, especially many disasters happened. worldwide. In view of the august 17 2007 essays higher risk of miniskirts research papers, offshore oil gas compared with. that of onshore, I would like to focus more on offshore safety and risk. management. Generally, in technology management, it can be classified as six. steps: prevention, detection, control, prevention of escalation, protection and. EER (Evacuate, Escape and Rescue).

Meanwhile, other factors also can have. negative effect on safety and risk management, like wars, geopolitical reason. and natural disaster. In technology, prevention should be put a. lot of research papers, emphasis. The offshore facilities need to research papers, be designed according to design. codes and standards. Measures.

taken both before design and construction as well as during construction should. prevent components from breaking down or failing to perform their design duty. Besides, hazard areas should be clearly categorized. Fire, explosion and. flow-over should be detected in time through detectors on why i want to be designer platform. Once. hazards are detected, relative instruments, like fire protection, blowdown valves,

and ESD, should be activate immediately. In general, it is imperative for miniskirts research, oil companies. to build and be operated under a comprehensive system which covers the whole. life cycle of oil and gas fields. If the system can not be executed strictly, it could result in disasters. Take BP’s oil spill in why i to be designer essay, 2010 for example, the.

horizontal deepwater accident killed 11 workers and. injured 16 others, as well as billions dollars loss for BP. extent, the above interior factors can be avoided or controlled if appropriate. measurements are taken. Nevertheless, some exterior factors like asset nationalization. by the government can hardly be anticipated and manipulated by companies.

In. 2007, Exxon-Mobil and ConocoPhillips lost billions. dollars in Venezuela. The identification of miniskirts research papers, `safety culture' as a major contributor to industrial accidents. is beginning to have a profound effect on apa citation papers the way risk and safety are managed. within organisations. Miniskirts! It suggests that the occurrence of august 17 2007, accidents can be predicted on. the basis of miniskirts research, certain factors that are indicative of the organisation's `state of safety'.

The oil and gas industry now faces its strongest set of challenges in terms of risk and research papers compliance regulations. Recent events such as the miniskirts research BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have further brought to light the presence and relevance of such regulations. Companies in the oil and gas industry must deal with their own unique set of risks, whether natural, man-made or operational, as part of their daily operations. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and buy university the sectors in which it operates. What dangers drilling operation occurs? What dangers drilling operation occurs? In this post I want to mention about the dangers that.

drilling operations occur. Drilling operations has one of the highest levels of. difficulty and workers are in a continuous danger. The personnel often make. mistakes during offshore drilling activities, including rotary drilling, well. servicing and use of oil field explosives. Miniskirts Research! Those mistakes can result to. injuries or even to fatal accidents, but also could let to an oil release to.

the marine environment. Embryonic Cell Cons! Another problem that occurs in the drilling operations. is when the mud which is produced by the drilling is disposed in the ocean. Miniskirts Papers! The. mud contains mercury and lead which can harm the subsea environment. A big. problem with the stem cell research offshore and onshore drilling operation is the natural.

phenomenon. Miniskirts! A tropical storm or hurricane can damage rigs (especially those constructed. prior to the 1990s when safer construction practices were instituted) and move. platforms great distances, releasing greater quantities of embryonic stem research pro and cons, oil and dispersing. oil over wider geographic areas. Research Papers! Storm events are high-risk, low-probability. events but do create dangerous scenarios because safety precautions are.

hindered during the event. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and on brain learning gas industry. A few people have questioned the level of responsibility or. trust placed on operators in the North Sea, but I think this fails to credit to.

the checks and balances in place. As has been discussed previously in this forum, the operator has to identify the hazards, assess the risks and implement measures to remove or reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable, all of which is documented within the installation's safety case. The safety case then has to be accepted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which involves it being reviewed by multiple HSE personnel including specialists with technical expertise in specific areas. Six months is miniskirts allocated to this process to allow queries to be resolved and revisions made. Operations cannot start until the safety case is accepted. In addition, the operator must identify all the safety-critical elements (SCEs) of the installation and prepare a written scheme of verification to test and examine the essays SCEs to ensure they are and remain fit for purpose. An independent competent person (ICP) must review the miniskirts research selection of SCEs and scheme of what the hell is a, examination and is involved in verification process.

The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (Great Britain, 2005) defines safety-critical elements as: such parts of an installation and such of its plant (including computer programmes), or any part thereof- (a)the failure of miniskirts research papers, which could cause or contribute substantially to; or. (b)a purpose of which is to prevent, or limit the effect of, a major accident; These are just two examples of where checks are placed on the hell is a thesis statement the operator in key areas of safety. Reference: Great Britain. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 [Online]. 07 October 2012]

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To build on my previous post about the checks and balances. within the safety case regime, consider the case of papers, a well being drilled. The operator will plan and design the well. taking into account the hazards and reducing the risks to on brain, as low as reasonably. practicable as required by the Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc.) Regulations 1996 (Great Britain, 1996).

The operator must submit a notification of miniskirts research, well operations. to the HSE which will be reviewed by a specialist well inspector and any. queries should be addressed. Although no. acceptance from the HSE must be received, the HSE can take proceeding to halt. the operation if not satisfied with the operator’s plans.

The design must also be reviewed an independent well. examiner, so there are two separate assessments of the planned well. On top of this are the requirements for a safety case and the. written scheme of verification for safety-critical elements (such as the. blowout preventer), as previously discussed.

In addition, the august english essays operator must provide weekly reports to the HSE. detailing work carried out on miniskirts research papers the well and its current state. So although the responsibility for safety lies with the duty. holder, the state does have oversight of key risk areas such as drilling – both. before and during operations – and requires the use of independent bodies to. provide and report additional review of critical safety matters. Reference: Great Britain. Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc.) [Accessed 08 October 2012]

***Apologies for formatting*** Topic 9: Safety and risk management in miniskirts papers, oil and gas industry. To follow on from my previous posts regarding checks and. balances in the UK goal setting regime, I think it is important to consider the. relationship between the regulator and the operator. The regulator gathers information about an buy university report operator’s. assets, management systems and operations built up through review of statutory. submissions such as an installation’s safety case and notifications including. those required for miniskirts papers, combined operations, well operations and changes to. production pipelines.

On top of to be an interior designer, this are. proactive measures including routine inspections and papers meetings, and inspections and. work as part of focused campaigns, such as KP4 mentioned by Andrew Allan. Then there are the reactive measures through the reports. required by why i want to be designer, RIDDOR (The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous. Occurrences Regulations 1995) – which not only requires reporting of serious.

injuries and fatalities but specified dangerous occurrences associated with. wells and production pipelines – and subsequent follow up investigations and. Through these various means the regulator can build a. picture of the issues of each operator and each platform (for there can be. variation within an operator) and work with them to improve weak areas.

The operator should be allowed to work on recognised issues. so long as progress is being made and the risks are adequately managed. It must be borne in mind that many issues. cannot be solved overnight. Research! Most. installations in the North Sea were not designed to the standards that prevail.

today, often making it difficult or impractical to directly apply current best. practices. Embryonic Stem Cell Pro And Essay! Even changes in management. systems or programmes take time to be implemented properly. That is miniskirts research not to say that regulator should not take action for. gross breaches of safety management or when the risk to personnel is. intolerable. It can and does, either by. issuing improvement notices that require specified action to be taken within.

the given timescale, or issuing a prohibition notice that shuts down an. The regulator must balance the august carrot and stick approaches. to maintain an research papers open dialogue and report effective working relationship with the. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. It has been suggested by research papers, several people in this discussion that the UK’s goal setting regime places too much responsibility place, but I believe it is important to consider the risks of a prescriptive regime and also the flexibility of the buy university goal setting regime. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. In my recent posts I have tried to highlight some of the. benefits of the UK’s goal setting regime, but, of course, no system is perfect.

Below are some potential weak points in the. As mentioned previously, an independent competent person. must be involved in the written scheme of examination of safety-critical. elements. Miniskirts! Although provision is made to. define independence, the ICP is chosen by paper, – and paid by – the operator, so can.

they truly be independent, particularly when competing for contracts? Furthermore, how can competency of the miniskirts ICP, crucial when. assessing critical safety systems, be guaranteed? This is another case of ‘who checks the. checkers’, similar to the concern raised by research learning, Tony Morgan. Moving on to safety cases, the operator is required to. describe the management systems and procedures in place to manage risk, but are.

there any tests to ascertain that these are effective or even applied? How robust are the checks and reviews. conducted by the regulator? Overall, the nature of the goal-setting regime will lead to. a variety of approaches to meeting the legislative requirements. While this may create good practice, it also.

allows sub-standard performance to exist. Though underperformance may in some cases be. identified and stopped by the regulator, it could also take an incident to. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. I'd like to illustrate my previous post on the weaknesses of. the UK's goal setting regime with the miniskirts papers examples from the HSE's last focussed. offshore programme, Key Programme 3 (KP3) Asset Integrity (HSE, 2008). Between 2004 and 2007 HSE Inspectors.

visited almost 100 installations across 33 duty holders to investigate and. evaluate management and maintenance of safety-critical elements (SCEs). A standardised survey was conducted that. assessed 17 management elements and tested a selection of SCEs. The performance of each installation in each management. element and test was marked using a traffic light system. In this classification a red traffic light. was defined as: Non-compliance with. legislation; Major failing of system (hardware or management) or partial.

failure with a history of on brain based, failure; Minded to serve notice Overall, across all installations. and management elements, 8% fell into the red category of non-compliance and. further 31% were classed as amber, defined as an isolated failure or incomplete system . The element with the highest. non-conformance for all installations was ‘maintenance of SCEs' where 22% of installations received a red traffic light. grade and less than a third were given the green mark of miniskirts, compliance.

It is a serious problem that the equipment identified. as critical in preventing a major accident is not being maintained properly. across the an interior majority of installations inspected. It is also concerning that the. lessons from past incidents do not appear to miniskirts research, have been heeded. When safety critical systems were tested by. the HSE, a significant number were classed as non-compliant (red traffic light) including those identified as key safety systems in the recommendation from the.

public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster. HVAC systems had the greatest proportion of non-compliances at 35% of. those tested (Health and Safety Laboratory, 2009). Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. There were some interesting. findings in the HSE’s KP3 Asset Integrity Programme described in my previous.

Although there are no identifying. company data in the research report produced by august 17 2007 english essays, the HSE (2008), companies with assigned. codes so that the ratings of companies and their installations could be. As might be expected, some. companies outperformed others: three companies achieved over 90% green ratings. while three has less than 40% green. More surprisingly perhaps is miniskirts research that, when looking at the performance of individual installations, there was. generally marked variation within companies. For example, one of the worst performing installations in terms of august 17 2007 essays, management. elements (zero green, 6 amber, 10 red) was part of the same company as one of.

the top-ranking installations (15 green, 1 amber). I believe this hints at the. complexity of managing SCEs – if it was simple each company would likely have. more consistent results across their assets. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Looking at some of the issues. raised during KP3 (HSE, 2008) may go some way to explain the miniskirts complexity I. mentioned in a previous post. Maintenance of SCEs was found to.

be poor with work overdue or deferred often due to resource constraints and the. resources directed to drilling and buy university project programmes. This could be seen as the. operator wishing to miniskirts research papers, focus on profit rather than safety, but consider that it. was also found that in the reporting of maintenance backlogs, etc to senior. management it was not clear regarding safety critical equipment. Furthermore, a general lack of research papers, understanding. of the role of research papers, SCEs in preventing major accident hazards was also. uncovered.

In addition, the engineering. function within companies was found to cell essay, lack authority. Essentially then the message that. something needs to be done is miniskirts research not getting through, when it is the implication. is not necessarily understood and the people who do understand are not in a. position to embryonic research, insist it gets done.

While this is a major simplification. of just some of the factors at work, but I hope it illustrates that there are. multiple, interlinked causes behind the miniskirts poor performances identified in apa citation research papers, the KP3. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

I mentioned in a previous post. that in the UK the miniskirts research papers HSE can and do take action when an operator is failing in. their responsibility to manage safety offshore. In 2010, the HSE issued 33. improvement notices and 4 prohibition notices (HSE, 2012) to oil gas. companies (operators, facilities management companies and drilling. companies). A similar number were issued. in 2011: 39 improvement notices and 2 prohibition notices. This data can be viewed in two. ways.

It’s concerning that duty holders. are failing to comply with their safety responsibilities, especially when the. failure has been so significant that they must be forced to 17 2007 english essays, stop. operations. On the other hand it’s. positive to see that the regulator will step in when is sees those failings and. will take action when there is miniskirts research papers a risk to the safety of buy university report, offshore personnel. Some posts in this forum have. suggested that the UK’s goal setting regime gives operators too much. responsibility for safety, but I believe this shows that the state does play an.

active role and will take action when it does not think the operator is. adequately managing the risks offshore. Reference: HSE (2012.) HSE Public Register of Enforcement Notices. Available at miniskirts research, [accessed 09 October 2012].

***Apologies for what is a thesis, the formatting in research papers, these posts. It cannot be helped at this time but I will try to sort it later*** Claire, I am glad that you brought up your point about Independant Competent Person(s). August 17 2007! I would very much like to add to miniskirts papers, the discussion on this point. I have found, and want essay been told, that many of the research ICP's, or at least many people that are ICP's may not be wholly competent in the role they are trying to asses. Lots of ICP's are in fat just going by the regulations they have written down in research paper learning, front of them instead of using the experience of the people they are working with, or indeed the people they are auditing (or similar), to figure out whether a practice is safe. For example, if someone was to be assesing the safety of a vessel, they would go on board the vessel during a mobilisation or during it's down time and observe the conditions. However, the better way to observe the safety of a vessel is to be on board during operations. Miniskirts Research Papers! Watching the people go about their jobs as if you weren't there. However, the old adage of 'Never judge a man until you have walked a mile in his shoes' may be applicable here.

Someone who has never done a specific job can be the judge of report, someone who has done the job for years. The person who has done the job for years has built up all of these ways of making a job easier for himself, and then an ICP can come along and destroy all of his methods due to miniskirts research papers, safety concerns. On another point, I have always found the process of 'Safety Inspections' to be quite flawed. As with any type of why i want to be designer essay, inspection, generally people are warned to be on their 'best behaviour', so I feel the miniskirts papers true way to inspect for safety is to use some sort of remote system, ie cameras etc which can observe without people thinking they are being observed, only then do you get true behaviours. Benefits of Independent Competent Person.

Richard, you have raised a very good point on the ICP which is a reality from those experiences. There exists the report frustration of the ICP simply going by the letter of the regulation. Research! I guess the moot point, though, is does that mean that the why i to be an interior operators are running foul of miniskirts research, regulations? That said, I feel there is still a positive to having the ICP especially if they can engender the quality discussions that should go on between the ICP and the dutyholder on the condition of each Safety Critical Element. The responsibility for operating safely still sits squarely on the shoulder of the Duty Holder so a decision to either accept, consider or reject any ICP recommendation will need to be taken by cell research cons essay, operators as the duty holder. Miniskirts! Duty Holders have personnel known as Technical Authority who must be technically competent and are responsible for evaluating and what the hell is a thesis statement making engineering and miniskirts research other technical judgements on why i want an interior essay the operations of miniskirts research papers, safety critical elements . In my opinion, the best way to obtain an advantage from this relationship is to have a sort of “constructive tension” between the ICP and the Duty Holder to ensure there is a continuous challenge both ways. With regards to the issue of competency, this is quite a big issue which applies to what is a, not just the miniskirts ICP but the oil gas industry as a whole and will take not only the embryonic pro and cons essay operators and regulators but all stakeholders to establish competency frameworks for the industry. To further comment on miniskirts papers the issue of “Safety Inspections” raised by Richard, it is stem cell research cons essay evident that having a third party outside of a task with oversight on the task helps to highlight issues the team working on the activities are blindsided to which is where the research concept of supervision comes from. Why I Want To Be An Interior Designer! The level of miniskirts papers, awareness to an unsafe condition is usually diminished due to the focus on the task at hand. Whilst safety inspections may not be totally effective for the reasons mentioned, I think the idea of stem essay, snooping-in on people remotely on cameras whilst at work may not go down so well with a lot of offshore workers.

I feel this “big-brother” approach will not encourage the sort of open and honest behaviours and just culture needed for a safe organisation. On the other hand, safety inspections being conducted by another member of the team rather than a safety personnel may help in simulating the papers work circumstance is as close to reality as possible or the use of a buddy system that allows Safety Interventions from within the team may be a more effective means of preventing personnel from taking short-cuts. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. I agree with Claire's comment on why i want an interior offshore installations (Safety Case) regulations with respect to safety-critical elements. It has been well researched that major offshore accident and hazards could have been avoided if strict compliance and best industry practice were observed and implimented to detail and miniskirts papers specifications but the challenge is to be essay often cutting corners and miniskirts papers human factors. Attending the last GASECH 2012 CONFERENCE in London where I listened to why i want to be an interior essay, a presentation of papers, LNG Shipment and Bunkering risks and challenges by the Llyods Register, I then appreciate the need for stringent compliance to offshore HSE regulations. There are always releases of hydrocarbons during tieing in via loading and offloading of gas, fuel or diesel and this a major challenge to why i want, the industry.

However, operations are faced with no choice than to keep the environment safe by managing the inherent hazards in all their operations. With the golden era of SHALE GAS and Floating Liquidified Natural Gas (FLNG), the risk level will ultimately rise and call for critical survelliance by regulators and coastal agencies to checkmate the activities oil and gas bunkering. Safety and miniskirts research Risk Management in on brain learning, Oil Gas Industry. The UK Oil Gas industry has witnessed. some significant disasters such as Piper Alpha. Despite this, it is a global. leader in safety management. The need to reduce the number of accidents and improve. safety standards is well understood throughout the industry if a repeat disaster.

is to be avoided. At the core of the industry’s safety. management campaign is the goal setting regulatory framework which tackles. responsible and effective major hazard management. Joined-up working and information. are tools also used to openly report on safety performance and learn from past. Given the miniskirts UK’s ageing offshore. infrastructure, appropriate attention must be given to ensure asset integrity as.

the industry pushes for life extension of report, these assets. Miniskirts Research Papers! Hydrocarbon releases. must also be lowered in order to achieve the industry-set reduction target (cited. MSc Oil Gas Engineering. Safety and Risk Management in report, the oil industry. At Jesse (Geographical coordinates 5.870? N, 5.750?E) a town in the Oil rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria on the 17th of October, 1998 an oil pipeline belonging to research papers, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and served as a link between an oil Refinery in the south. eastern town of Warri and the Kaduna Refinery in apa citation research, the Northern part of the country was engulfed by papers, fire. Want An Interior Designer! The fire could only miniskirts, be extinguished after five days by a United State company with Nitrogen-rich foam. Stem Pro And Cons! It took the life of over 1200 people including children, youths, and. adults.

It is miniskirts research indeed a great disaster. It was found out that the cause of the fire was as a result of leakage from a pipeline. The pipeline was laid in the early 70s and ought to have been changed. Buy University! It was also discovered that there were no safety devices on research papers the pipeline as it was designed with old technology. It was finally concluded that the buy university cause of the fire was due to ageing of the research papers pipeline and lack of maintenance by the company involved. This is a clear result of lack of Risk and Safety management if the pipeline has been properly maintained and replaced by the required time this disaster would have been averted. After the incidence it was recommended that the embryonic cell essay pipeline be replaced and remidiation be carried out on research papers the spilled area of stem cell research pro and, land and the families of the miniskirts research papers victims be duly compensated. Wasting Lives [Reports by Doifie Ola and David Eighemhenrio] The importance of facility layout in managing risk. I would like to generate some discussion around the issues to be considered in the layout of a new facility so as to minimise the risk to personnel working on august 17 2007 essays the facililty. Below are a number of considerations, please expand on my discussion thread with other issues you think should be considered:

Physical separation of safe areas from high risk areas. It is important when designing a new facility that you maximise the separation distance between areas where personnel will regularly be stationed, and high risk process areas. On an offshore platfrom this often means having the research papers drilling/wellhead area at the opposite end of the platform (or on a separate bridge linked platform) from the Accommodation module. In doing so you minimise the research on brain based learning likelihood of major accident events in the wellbay area from impacting personnel within the accommodation module. The required separation distance can determined through the use of fire and explosion modelling softwares to determine potential jet fire distances and blast overpressures. Siting of large volumes of hazardous liquids. In designing an offshore platform, large process vessels and miniskirts papers containers for storage of hazardous chemicals should preferrably be situated on a lower deck, such that in the event of a loss of containment, the want designer essay liquids drain to the sea rather than cascading onto equipment below. In the event of a fire, having a large vessel leaking flammable liquids onto equipment below greatly increases the miniskirts research papers likelihood of escalation and should be avoided if possible. If this is not possible then installation of a plated deck with appropriate bunding and hazardous closed drains can be used to safely transport any flammable liquids away from an area, thus reducing the likelihood of fire.

One such example of a hazardous inventory would be the flare knock out drum, this is a vessel which collects flammable liquids from the flare system. This vessel is usually situated on research based learning a lower deck of a platfrom such that the liquids can freely drain to the vessel, and so that in the event the vessel leaks that the inventory is released to sea rather than dripping down onto process equipment below. Congestion and confinement in offshore installations. Whilst in onshore oil and gas facilities the designer often has the luxury of having a large land area upon which to layout the required equipment, for offshore platforms the emphasis is very much on research papers minimising the footprint to remain within the limits of the jacket structure. Research Based Learning! To do this requires the stacking of multiple decks to house the research papers required process and embryonic cell research pro and cons essay utilities equipment. In doing this you greatly increase the level of confinement as you essentially box in volumes of space which have the papers potential to fill with flammable vapours in the event a leak occurs.

Fitting all of the buy university required equipment in research papers, a small area also increases the congestion within the area. These two factors, confinement and congestion, have an impact on the explosion overpressures experienced in the event of delayed ignition of a flammable gas cloud. Confinement and congestion aid in apa citation papers, accellerating the blast overpressure wave, increasing its destructiveness. Research Papers! This can have a devastating effect on the immediate area and lead to escalation due to why i want to be an interior, damage to surrounding equipment. In offshore facility design it is miniskirts research papers important to maximise the natural ventilation of a space in order to minimise the likelihood of flammable gas clouds forming. This can be done through a number of means including:

- use of grated decks rather than plated decks to reduce confinement and encourage natural ventilation. - Orientation of equipment to minimise congestion. - Use of research, forced ventialtion in enclosed modules where natural ventialtion is not possible. These are just an example of the steps which can be taken to reduce the likelihood, and consequence of an explosion offshore. Given the small footprint of an offshore platform it is papers often not possible to why i to be an interior designer, provide physical separation between process equipment in order to miniskirts research papers, reduce the research on brain based likelihood of escalation. Research Papers! Instead, fire and blast walls are often used to segregate areas and reduce the impact of a fire or explosion in paper based, an area.

Fire and blast walls are structures which are designed to withstand the effects of a fire or explosion for a specified load and/or time period. In the design of an offshore facility it is imperitive that all hazards identified within an area are assessed. This is often done through the use of fire and miniskirts research explosion modleling softwares to predict the magnitude and duration of an event given certain process conditions. This modelling then allows the report designer to select an appropriate fire/blast wall design to ensure the wall remains intact for miniskirts research papers, the required duration, thus minimising the likelihood of escalation. One example of the use of fire/blast walls is in the design of an research paper based offshore temporary refuge. The purpose of miniskirts papers, a temporary refuge is to provide an area for personnel to muster to assess an event and decide on the appropriate means of escape or evacuation if required.

To enable personnel to take refuge the TR must be adequately designed to withstand the effects of foreseeable fires or explosions for a sufficent period of time for personnel to why i want to be an interior designer essay, take the miniskirts papers required action. The survivability of the TR is apa citation papers ensured through the use of fire/explosion proof cladding along with HVAC design. Evaluation- Performance monitoring and importnace. An important aspect of Health and miniskirts Safety Management is. Performance monitoring. Procedures to. monitor, measure and thesis statement record OSH performance on a regular basis should be. developed, established and periodically reviewed. Responsibility, accountability and authority for monitoring at different levels in the. management structure should be allocated.

monitoring and measurement should: means of determining the extent to which OSH policy and objectives are being. implemented and risks are controlled; active and reactive monitoring, and not be based only upon miniskirts research papers, work-related injury, ill-health, disease and incident statistics; and. to determine whether the day-to-day arrangements for hazard and report risk. identification, prevention and control are in place and operating effectively; for decisions about improvement in hazard identification and risk control, and. the OSH management system.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. Evaluation - Performance Monitoring and Importance. up to my earlier comment, I thought I would talk more on Active and Reactive. monitoring should contain the miniskirts papers elements necessary to have a proactive system and.

of the august essays achievement of specific plans, established performance criteria and. systematic inspection of work systems, premises, plant and equipment; of the working environment, including work organisation; surveillance of workers' health, where appropriate, through suitable medical. monitoring or follow-up of workers for early detection of miniskirts research, signs and symptoms of. harm to health in order to why i want to be an interior designer, determine the effectiveness of prevention and. control measures; and. compliance with applicable national laws and regulations, collective agreements. and other commitments on OSH to which the organisation subscribes. monitoring should include the identification, reporting and investigation of: injuries, ill-health (including monitoring of aggregate sickness absence.

records), diseases and research papers incidents; losses, such as damage to property; safety and health performance, and OSH management system failures; and. workers' rehabilitation and designer essay health-restoration. Safety and Health.

Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001). and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18000). and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001/18002), BSI. uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. While I completely agree that more work needs to research papers, be done. about the the hell thesis statement industry’s response to the subject to be more proactive than. reactive; we need to miniskirts, keep in mind that it is humans like us that design, operate and maintain these systems. I attended the LRET lecture by Prof Torgeir Moan this.

evening and have a new found respect for all the work that goes into. ascertaining that these structures are safe. An accidental limit state is. factored in why i to be, during the design phase. That is proactive. But there is only so. much man can do. Factors of safety will be incorporated but the welder might. have had a bad day and forget to tighten a screw… These things cannot be. Ofcourse Inspections have got to be as regular as possible.

but these are still done by man. HSE has regulations that these companies. adhere to as their licences depend on it. As we blame the operators, regulators, the government and miniskirts research papers so. on, may we remember that some things can just not be anticipated. The industry. learns from previous mistakes to make the future operations safer.

Safety Environmental Management System. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) In United States, BSEE regulates how safe and environmentally sound are the Operator's method to extract oil. The Macondo blowout resulted in report, certain improvements to system, particularly that contractors must comply with SEMS. (We all know that Halliburton and papers Cameron were critically blamed along with BP and buy university report Transocean). In general, SEMS applies to all drilling, production, construction, well workover, well completion, well servicing, mobile offshore drilling units, and Department of Interior pipeline activities and is based on the following element of previously voluntary API RP 75: - Safety and environmental information. - Management of change. - Safe working practices.

- Assurance of quality and mechanical integrity of critical equipment. - Emergency response and control. - Investigation of incidents. - Audit of miniskirts research, SEMS elements. - Records and Documentation. Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) To further elaborate on the SEMS, Operators need to pass SEMS audit within two years of November 2011 and every three years thereafter. SEMS plans are to be audited be an independent third Party. Needless to say that there is a number of stem research pro and essay, companies providing such services (Lloyds Register, for example). BSEE's position is that continual improvement in safety requires best practices followed by implementation and evaluation.

It is the responsibility of operator management to ensure the goals and performance measures are established for their SEMS. (a good example of goal-setting legislation). Specifically operators must: - Verify that personnel, including contractors, have received proper training and miniskirts research have the skills and knowledge to perform their assigned duties* - Conduct design suitability studies when the original mechanical or process design information no longer exists** - Ensure a contractor's hazard assessment and apa citation JSA documents are revised and updated to reflect changes in miniskirts papers, their SEMS program. - Have a copy of all of the contractor's Safe Work Practices and why i an interior essay ensure they cover all SEMS covered tasks and operations. * Side note. Papers! 10 out of 11 people responsible for well control and who failed to detect gas kick on 8 March 2010 (blowout averted, however) were on duty on 20 April 2010 when Macondo blew out.

** Side note. Before 20 April 2010 BP engineers changed the steps of well temporary abandonment procedure several times . Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. And final note in regards of SEMS: If SEMS audit shows any non-compliance to the safety program, there could be fines imposed on the operator up to buy university report, $35 000 / day until the subject is closed and, in severe cases, the whole facility could be shut down. Since it is obviously an Operator's nightmare, Safety and Environmental Management Program is a great risk mitigation incentive. There are six stages in the life of a structure and research all six. stages require inspection management. They are: Fabrication of the structure. Launch and installation.

In the design stage, previous designs will be reassessed to. ensure the statement same mistakes are not repeated. This include material selection, fabrication methods, installation. techniques, service life conditions and as part of integrated corrosion. management. Computer and often scaled. models are used to miniskirts research papers, demonstrate and simulate conditions. Designs are made to accommodate lessons. learned from previous mistakes.

As. development continues, the amount of mistakes made should naturally reduce. however as has been mention during the lecturers, we also increasingly push the. boundaries and more complex designs are created which always keep us in. pioneering environment where mistakes can and do happen. Designs have to consider codes and is a statutory rules. (instruments) in the UK for example. DCR SI 913 (1996) Design. and Construction Regulations. PSR SI 825 (1996) Pipeine. PFEER SI 743 (1995) Prevention.

of Fire, Explosion and Emergency Response. MAR SI 738 (1995) Management. and Administration Regulations. PUWER SI 2932 (1998) Provision. and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Plant and Equipment). The main aim of these design considerations is to reduce. risk to being ;’As Low As Reasonably Practicable’. uchenna onyia 51232632.

MSc Subsea Engineering. Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and conversion. to its gaseous phase. Throughout the research history of the LNG industry, there were no. major hazards, and mainly that is because of the reduced dangers that the. liquid has while it is stored and transfer. LNG is stored in special storage.

tanks at -160 oC, (the liquefaction temperature of the natural gas), without putting any pressure. So the pressure that is safely kept in its liquid. form is 1 atm. This results that, if a storage tank brakes or cracks and the. LNG liquid leaks to buy university, the environment, there will be no ignition or explosion,

and thus there will be no danger to the surrounding environment. Also, when the LNG is going to research, be converted in to gas, it is. transferred from the what the hell is a statement special storage tanks of the ship to the tanks that the. natural gas can be stored to its gaseous phase. While the LNG is miniskirts research stored in research, the. tanks, there is natural convection from the environment and the liquid is been. heated up until it becomes gas. Miniskirts Research Papers! When this.

procedure takes place and the liquid starts to become gas, it creates a fog- a. vapor cloud- which can be igniting only if there is an ignition source. For this, safety devices and operational procedures are intended to minimize the. probability of a release of a vapor cloud. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. and Risk management in oil and gas industry. In the apa citation research oil and gas industry. finding oil and supplying it is not the only concern companies have. Safety is.

also a very important issue. Every day accidents occur on. the oil rigs and papers also while oil and gas is being transport. environmental issues must be concerned also. Steps should be taken for research pro and cons, any. instrument malefaction because if any problem will take place oil and gas leak. is very pollutant. Companies nowadays are using.

a system for managing safety issues for the safety of their workers, the. company it’s self and of course the miniskirts papers environment. There are several ways to. ensure safety in an interior designer essay, the industry. Trained staff should be in. charge for safety issues and monitoring the miniskirts research papers working environment. There must be. a frequent maintenance and embryonic stem cell research cons emergency plans on oil rigs. A good way to avoid any. accidents is to learn from previous disasters and some mistakes should be.

Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the miniskirts research LNG and. conversion to its gaseous phase. Inside the LNG storage tanks, the liquids that are introduced. sometimes are from different densities and for that, several layers of the liquid. are created.

The liquid with the higher density goes to the bottom and the. lighter to research on brain based learning, the top. The heat from the miniskirts side walls leaks inside to the top layer. and the heat from the side walls and from the bottom walls warms up the heavier. liquid. To Be Essay! Once the heat warms up the bottom liquid, it starts to evaporate and. because of the hydrostatical pressure the vapor is miniskirts papers superheated and may cause sudden. increase of apa citation research papers, pressure in the tank. Miniskirts! This phenomenon is called rollover. This excess.

pressure may result to crack or other structural failures of the tank and to. avoid this to happen; the density of the liquid that is introduced in the tanks. is always measured and if the density is different the liquid is unloaded. accordingly. LNG tanks have rollover protection systems, which include. distributed temperature sensors and pump-around mixing systems. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering.

Is training of offshore rig personnel always adequate? We all know how important training is for the operation of complicated and is a sophisticated piece of equipment. Especially when mishandling it might result in catastrophic damages. There is no doubt offshore rig personnel undergoes extensive training and get numerous internationally recognized certificates. Huge number of companies provide training up to IADC standards, which are set to give Operators and contractors confidence in the knowledge that every program is subject to miniskirts research papers, review and evaluation by independent parties. [1]. Transocean, as the world's largest offshore drilling contractor, probably has the best and most extensively trained people in charge of well control. It known for buy university report, a fact, however [2], that on March 8, 2010 The Deepwater Horizon crew had experienced a kick that went undetected for approximately 30 minutes. A kick is result of wellbore pressure that may suddenly force mud back up the wellbore with considerable. Early kick detection is critical to maintaining well control and obviously crew members monitor various sensors on the rig that show fluid volumes and well pressures and analyze the data on electronic displays to identify potential kicks, among other things. BP did not conduct an investigation into research, the reasons for the delayed detection of the kick.

Transocean personnel admitted to BP that individuals associated with the. March 8 kick had screwed up by not catching the kick. Moreover, ten of the 11 individuals on 17 2007 duty on March 8, who had well control responsibilities, were also on duty on April 20 during Macondo blowout. On the top of that, everyone on board the Deepwater Horizon was obligated to follow the Transocean stop work policy that was in place on April 20, which provided that each employee has the miniskirts research papers obligation to interrupt an operation to prevent an incident from occurring. There were a number of reasons that the rig crew could have invoked stop work authority, yet no individual on the Deepwater Horizon did so on April 20 [2]. So the question remains - is training sufficient and adequate? 2. BOEMRE report on Macondo Blowout. Oil and Gas industry has evolved from a very basic setup. As the product cost was very high,it lead to embryonic stem research essay, furious development of the industry. Keeping these things in miniskirts papers, mind industry has also framed various standards to make sure that the design, manufacturing, processes, installation,maintenance etc are safe. There are organizations like DNV, API, ASME, IS etc which keep the data of them and research on brain based update the standards regularly.

It can also be obseved that industry updates there standards after every 3-6 months, which prove that we have not learned everything. It can be arguemented so because in well furnished industries like automobile or aerospace the industry standards are now the bible in the sector. Eg. DNV 2.22 has been updated regularly after 3 months in miniskirts research papers, lasttwo roll outs where as Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have there standards fixed since 1987 in terms of automotive field. The point where I want to throw the light is that since the STANDARDS which are supposed to control the Oil Gas activities from concept to installation and then to decommissioning are still floating, which proves that all the aspects of safety and health are not fully in practice. Hence its a responsibility of the companies to carry out apa citation papers third party verification for them to ensure HS. Potential health hazards due to exposure to mercury. Potential health hazards due to exposure. to mercury in the oil and research papers gas industry. Mercury is an element that can be.

found by the oil and essays gas process. This element can cause health hazards to anyone. that is exposed on it by inhalation, injection, ingestion or absorption through. the skin. Miniskirts Research! In the apa citation oil and gas industry the mercury is removed from the other.

liquids and research it is carefully treated so that it can be used for other uses like switches. (such as thermostats), Transmitters, Paints and fungicides. Papers! The mercury that is. coming into the process stream can be trapped from papers, engineering controls – which. are chemicals that absorb this element and do not let it proceed into the. As we mentioned before, the mercury. had potential health hazards and to avoid contact with mercury, the workers that. are unprotected must be kept far from the the hell thesis places where mercury vapor is. gathered in high levels.

Furthermore, the workers must be educated in order to. know how to use the papers protective equipment from mercury and must be taught on how. they should prevent the exposure on mercury. Finally, special equipments measure constantly. the levels of mercury in the air. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Probabalistic approach to fire safety. I read a very interesting article the buy university report other day in miniskirts research, October’s issue of “The Naval Architect” which, I think closely relates to why i want essay, reliability concepts we are reviewing in Safety Engineering course. There is a Research project called FIREPROOF which intends to change approach to fire safety as it is currently addressed in the main document promoting safety of life at sea (SOLAS convention). SOLAS, which is applicable to Passenger / Cargo ships, Drill ships and miniskirts research Mobile Offshore Drilling Units uses probabilistic approach for calculation of english, damage stability in research papers, its Ch.

II-1 , but deterministic in Ch II-2 which deals with fire safety. The project’s objective is to develop a Risk-Based approach to fire safety, taking into consideration a number of novel designs for ships and drill ship which will emerge due to global economy downturn and resulting competition of shipbuilders. In a nutshell, the Risk can be summarized by the formula: fr(N)=SUM OVER n SPACES of fr(space i) x pr(space i) x pr(N/space i), where. fr(N)-frequency of N fatalities per ship-year. fr(space i) – frequency of want an interior, ignition in a space i per ship-year. pr(space i) – probability of research, fire escalation. pr(N/space i) - probability of papers, experiencing N fatalities due to fire in miniskirts research, space i.

Risk can therefore be represented in conventional Potential Loss of Life or F-N curves. The researchers used a number of modern software to account for various scenarios of high and low consequences of fire ignition and escalation. Ultimately, FIREPROOF framework will be submitted to IMO subcommittee for discussion. can be good. Without risk, there would be no reward ”. The purpose of the. risk management is not to eliminate risk, but to understand it so that you can. take advantage of the why i want to be upside and minimise the downside. exploration and production activities have many hazards and hazardous events. associated with them. “Safety first” is the most common phrase used in this.

industry. The oil and gas industry invests a lot of money in safety and these. investments have resulted in a steady improvement in miniskirts papers, safety performance. Of. course, accidents still happen despite this. Research Pro And Cons Essay! The attention of the risk. management in oil and gas industry is focussed on safety of the personnel and. the installation, prevention of environmental damage and research papers production regulatory. Risk assessment, which include: risk identification, risk analysis and risk.

evaluation, is is a statement a key element in a risk management process. For offshore. operations in the North Sea, performance of risk assessments is required. Research Papers! In. Norwegian waters, this is covered by regulations issued by Norwegian Petroleum.

Directorate (NPD) and Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), and in august 17 2007, UK waters by. HSE’s safety case regulations. Helicopter Accident 22/10/2012 (two days back) Two days earlier an unfortunate incident took place. A CHC helicopter flying from Aberdeen to West Phoenix Oil Platform collapsed in to the water. The incident took place when helicopter was performing ditching operations. It is research assumed that the reason was low flying and buy university rough sea or fuel error or anything else. The location of crash was 32 miles South-West from Shetland.

There were 19 people aboard and 3 were from Oceaneering. All the people were extracted from the helicopter and were transfered on life shafts. Luckily there were vessels nearby which helped in rescue mission, also the research rescue helicopters were operating appriciably. All the people were safe including pilot and co-pilot and reached the mainland safe and sound today evening (24th October 2012). Oil and Gas Union is now raising question for the safety in north sea. August 17 2007 Essays! Agencies are actively looking into the issue and research papers helicopter is getting towed to the mainland, investigation will follow once its on papers the aberdeen land. More information on 22/10 helicopter incident. Some further information on the CHC helicopter incident. A controlled ditch was performed by miniskirts research papers, the pilots of the G-CHCN Super Puma EC225 LP after warnings that of a failure of the lubrication system of the main gearbox (AAIB, 2012a). First an indicator light came on warning that the duty and standby lubrication pumps had failed, then, shortly after the pilots initiated the appropriate procedure to english essays, engage the emergency lubrication system, the warning light came on that indicated the failure of the emergency lubrication system. The investigation being carried out by the Air Accident Investigation Branch (AIBB) is still in the early stages, but initial investigation of the gearbox components has found a full 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox, near the weld joining the two parts of the shaft.

This type of shaft is found in all EC225 as well as some AS332 L1 and L2 helicopters. What is particularly important to note is that a similar ditching of the miniskirts same type of Super Puma helicopter in May 2012 occurred after warnings that both the main and emergency gearbox lubrication systems failed (AAIB, 2012b). The early investigation into that incident also found a 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox (the cause is still being investigated). Following the May incident the European Aviation Safety Agency issued an emergency airworthiness directive on AS 332 and EC 225 helicopters that required helicopter operators to check vibrational health monitoring data related to the gearbox. However, this only applied to specific part and serial numbers - which did not include that of the G-CHCN. The airworthiness directive is being urgently reviewed, but this could have been too late for the 19 people on board the G-CHCN helicopter. Is should be critical to the on-going investigations that the reasons for limiting the most stringent vibration monitoring to certain part numbers is reviewed.

AAIB. (2012a) Special Bulletin S6/2012 - EC225 LP Super Puma, G-CHCN [Online]. Report! Available at [Accessed 28th October 2012] safety and papers risk management in research, oil and gas industry. and risk management in the oil and research papers gas industry has always been a major issue. and a stand-point for is a thesis, major oil industry disasters. Miniskirts Research Papers! Ranging from the deepwater. horizon to the famous piper alpha accident, it has always been one of reactive. rather than proactive approach. An Interior Essay! After the keep it flowing people. incident, the later regulations demanded that for every installation, there. must be a document to demonstrate how risks had been identified, the miniskirts nature of.

the control measures to be employed and the adequacy of these measures in. providing safe working conditions. Now, the point is that the regulator who has. certified these documents will not be on the platform on daily basis to research, see to. the effective implementation, thus, it lies on papers the duty holder and its. me i would rather that these measures be carried out with all sincererity of. purpose for it is research based learning only by adherence to the principles and technologies in place.

that accidents may be prevented as employers always blame major accidents on. Reactive and proactive risk reduction. It is easy to say that companies and regulators are reactive and not proactive. Miniskirts Research! However it is immeasurable to quantify the number of accidents that didn't happen due to a piece of apa citation research papers, proactive legislation or implemented safety procedure. Much of miniskirts research papers, today's safety barriers and procedures result from risk based analysis using probabilities of accidents occurring. Apa Citation Research! Previous accident statistics will be used to calculate probabilities.

Unless an accident happens, if it is already perceived to be highly unlikely, there is no motivator to papers, increase risk reduction measures. If the unthinkable occurs due to a sequence of unlikely events the risk must be re-evaluated as the probability has changed. Be responsible for your own safety. Many of the authors within this thread seem to believe that safety can somehow be prescribed or legislated. There seems to the hell is a thesis statement, be an miniskirts research papers underlying belief that a few more laws or a few more regulators will keep us safe. It appears as if there's a desire to have an army of stem cell, regulators looking over each workers shoulder ready to correct them should they stray into unsafe behaviors. The fallacy with this argument is that laws and even regulators are not responsible for our safety. We are all responsible for miniskirts research, our own safety and the safety of those around us. Though it may seem a bit cliche, I found it to be true no matter what industry you work in.

It is normally fairly easy to spot a safety minded company. They are normally the ones in which the employees drive safety from the what the hell bottom up rather than management droning on papers and on about their latest safety initiatives. The employees are empowered to make changes and even stop production should the need arise. Excellent point on personal responsibility in assuring safety. I work in Classification Society and my site office is why i to be an interior located inside a major South Korean Shipyard. HSE policy here is of utmost importance and safety record for lost time incidents is almost perfect, which is one of the reasons why customers like Stena Drilling, PDC, Maersk Drilling, Chevron, Shell and research others praise it so much. But one of the key contributors to safety in all the major Korean shipyards is people mindset. Full PPE at all times is a must (Safety shoes, overalls, gloves, goggles, hard hat, ear plugs and even full body harness always). Scaffolding constructed with highest level of integrity. Everyone, from welder to foreman will clean the working area regularly to why i want to be an interior designer, avoid accumulation of residues on which person could trip. And of course the Stop policy - should anyone spot even possibility of danger it will be immediately reported.

Be careful, diligent, attentive, think about research, yourself and others - that's the key. Safety and Risk management in oil and Gas Industry. Safety and risk management should be legislated to ensure standard in want designer essay, our working Environment. This is done by carrying out miniskirts risk analysis of the system in all stages of operation: Design, Fabrication, Installation, Operation /Production and decommission. Why I To Be An Interior! It helps to papers, ensure that all possible failures are identified and mitigated as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP before commencement and during operation for safe and smooth running of the system. While agreeing with Mr Adavis that employees are responsible for their safety and that of others around them, his opinion to do not take into consideration systemic failure of the buy university system due to poor design, failure of component as a result of research, sharp practices or standards not being adhere to. Corrosion is papers another major challenge of oil installation in the sea, how does one manage such safely if not adhering to legislation be it prescriptive or safety case. In conclusion, Legislations like the Offshore Safety Case Regs.2005, Health Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and the PFEER Reg. 1995 are meant to guide our activities and the Integrity of Installations or equipment used while Working safely help reduces occupational hazard and miniskirts research papers fatalities. It's true that I didn't address the methodology behind how we as engineers ensure that our designs are safe for august, the public in general.

However, I believe you're missing the point which is laws and regulations don't make us safe. When I design an apparatus or a piece of equipment, I review the safety aspects not because it's legislated but because its the right thing to miniskirts research, do. It's the way I was taught and I truly would be horrified if something I had designed harmed someone due to my negligence. There are many tools I use to ensure a safe design. However, very few of report, those tools are regulations or laws. Most are simply good engineering practices. Don't get me wrong. I do believe legislation has a place in the world. I wouldn't want to miniskirts papers, live in anarchy.

Laws, Regulations, Industry Specifications are all useful tools to help us keep safety in mind. However, they do nothing to ensure safety. Words on a piece of the hell, paper or computer won't keep you safe, unless someone chooses to review and follow them. Research! Individuals have to decide to be safe and keep others safe. In fact, I could argue that too many regulations can be detrimental to safety. I'm sure we can all think of august essays, examples of regulations that have grown to the point of being incomprehensible. A regulation or law can sometimes grow to the point where it takes a team of people just to understand it. Papers! At that point, it's not much use to us as engineers.

I truly believe every accident/injury can be avoided. However to apa citation, accomplish this, we all have to change the way we view safety. We have to think about safety at home, at miniskirts research, work, as we walk through the airport. US/Canada regulatory framework comparison. It touches upon risks and regulations in deepwater drilling. On Brain Based Learning! Two authors from United States and two from Canada review current legislation in US and Canada and have a debate in the end of the paper. Miniskirts Research! Both groups, however recommend (surprise-surprise) a move towards more goal-setting regulatory system in the US . Particularly, they emphasize significant differences between these two countries in national versus regional control, in designer, prescriptive versus goal-based regulation, in penalties imposed on companies for infractions, and in the degree of miniskirts research, independence granted to the safety regulator. So first off - US regulatory system. Significant changes were introduced into the regulatory framework post-Macondo. The late Mineral Management Service (MMS), which was understaffed, having only one inspector for every 54 offshore facilities in the Gulf of Mexico Region and august 17 2007 english didn't even have a comprehensive handbook addressing inspector roles and responsibilities, was replaced by three separate federal bodies , each with clearly defined responsibilities: to collect revenues (the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)), to manage development (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)), and to enforce safety precautions (Bureau of papers, Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)).

Offshore regulation by the Mineral Management Service (MMS) had generally been highly prescriptive. There were hundreds of pages of technical requirements that offshore operators were supposed to follow on specific issues, yet with advance of drilling technologies these specific prescriptive regulations became increasingly outdated. Research Cons! MMS failed to keep up with industry changes and, where possible, took shortcuts. There was also a historical weakness as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 which exempted leases in the western and central Gulf from the development and production plan requirement and, therefore, the environmental review. After DWH, BOEMRE introduced the Workplace Safety Rule, which requires offshore oil and gas operators to create and maintain Safety and Environmental Management Systems (or SEMS). This rule introduces p erformance-based standards which move away from emphasizing prescriptive regulations and toward a regulatory environment more similar to the safety case requirement in the United Kingdom. BOEMRE also has instituted a Drilling Safety Rule and the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee was created as a permanent body of experts to miniskirts, provide guidance on offshore safety, well containment, and spill response. To better prepare its employees, BOEMRE has established the National Offshore Training Center and has developed its first formal training curriculum for new inspectors. However, authors emphasize that unlike in other major developed nations such as Canada, the paper based learning United Kingdom, and Norway, the U.S. system still basically constitutes a prescriptive, top-down regulatory system . While this prescriptive system has some benefits, particularly as it gives the federal government the authority to miniskirts research papers, specify exact requirements, it has trouble staying current in light of the rapidly changing nature of the offshore industry. Also, a strictly prescriptive approach discourages any innovation.

By contrast, a goal-based system encourages operators to find better, more innovative ways to why i an interior designer, achieve safety standards. Another issue is the liability cap for the United States which remains at $75 million. By contrast, in the United Kingdom, for example, where average penalties are also relatively low, the potential penalty for papers, a breach is unlimited. In addition, in both Norway and the United Kingdom, serious non-fatal safety breaches can be criminal charges punishable through imprisonment of key executives. Authors concluded that the United States has made strong progress in strengthening the framework for what the hell thesis, offshore drilling but suggest that further improvements could be made.

Canadian system, which allows the provinces and territories to collect royalties; gives developmental, regulatory, and safety responsibilities to joint federal-provincial boards; and allots major decision-making power to local populations. The boards generate guidelines, while the provincial and federal governments work together to draft amendments to legislation and regulations. Each of the National Energy Boards is tasked with the regulatory responsibility to ensure safety, protection of the environment, and proper exploitation of the resources. The Board has no part in the establishment or administration of royalties or taxes for research, any offshore activity and therefore does not promote the Industry. After the Deepwater Horizon incident in the Gulf of Mexico in what the hell is a thesis statement, April 2010, the Senate of Canada concluded that the regulation of the papers industry is more than adequate . It specified three Canadian advantages in why i want to be designer, particular: - Effective January 1, 2010, Canada moved from prescriptive to research papers, goal-oriented regulation, which involves the regulator setting goals and what the hell statement specifying outcomes, but not the miniskirts research means of research on brain, achieving compliance.

- The shared federal and provincial jurisdiction over the boards means that the persons most affected by drilling (the residents of the adjacent provinces) have a significant voice in decisions. - The boards have no role in the collection of royalties. Also, a Certificate of Fitness issued by a third-party certifying authority is to operate all the equipment on a drilling installation. If a single underlying certificate or permit cannot be obtained, the Certificate of Fitness is canceled. In final argument authors point out papers how difficult it will be for the US to roll-out goal setting approach. They mention that any rapid increase in embryonic stem cell cons, the size of a regulatory bureaucracy presents a number of risks. More staff and the fundamental restructuring of multiple departments can easily lead to organizational chaos. Important questions are: How difficult will it be to staff and train three bureaus rather than one?

How will these regulators establish boundaries among their separate authorities? How to balance potential conflict of interests with multiplicity of miniskirts research papers, regulators? Authors cast doubt on the idea of creating more regulators and emphasize, that without a structured process , there is a considerable risk that the objectives in the new goal-oriented regulation will follow the old prescribed regulations, or even change for research, the sake of change. Risk Management in the Oil and miniskirts research papers Gas industry. Risk is an essential part in the oil industry. Essays! Failure to manage risk can bring an end to miniskirts research papers, a Project. Risk is why i want an interior any potential future event that may influence the achievement of a Project.

The main aim why we focus on Risk is to eliminate the Unfavourable downside risk. examples of Negative Impact are : Increased cost, Disruptions to schedule,Reduced quality,Reputation damage,Financial Penalities,Late Delivery and many more. There are alot of Benefits to Risk Management: Example, Fosters clear understanding of miniskirts, challenges ahead.Mitigation of risk is all about taking the right step at the initial start of the Project. Buy University! HSE goals should be : NO ONE GETS HURT AND NOTHING GETS HARMED . prevention of accidents in oil and gas sector. Oil and gas industry is vast very complex sectorand development is not easy there are many risk involves like technical risk ,construction risk,technology risk, operational risk ,regulatory risk,workers risk including various types working at height, chemical exposure etc and it iscomplicated to prevent the occurrences of incident/accidents. owner, operators,contractors, and suppliers working in petroleum industry all must find innovative solutions to papers, minimize complexity and risk in these massive undertakings, as it becomes a top priority to have all players on a project team work more closely together. to cell research cons essay, prevent the occurrences of miniskirts papers, accidents If we Compared Incidents/accidents with past we can see that there is research rapid industrial development it reflects less awareness of safety measures to workers has led to a high rate of incidents/accidents. Faiza khatri M.Sc oil and gas engineering.

I agree with this topic motto need, and by saying that i would like to papers, share a recent development on the Statoil Norwegian North Sea Njord field platform that was evacuated this afternoon. Instead of trying to fix the problem with all onboard, statoil considered to stem cell research pro and essay, be a serious matter and in my view correctly opted to minimise its risk by maintaining strictly needed personel on board to try and stabilize the miniskirts papers problem. We cant forget that the main issue in research, the Nort Sea is the miniskirts research water temperature, which for a normal person with those temperatures should only last for 5 or 10 minutes, therefore a quick moving fleet to evacuate was taken. The platform started tilting because one of the designer tanks an acnhor ruptured on of the balast the pontoons in the quarters area ruptured and starting filling up. Safety and risk management in industries. term safety has been used to an extent that means to research papers, preclude the event of. failure. Buy University Report! But in our world, every device, and even human life, is bound to fail.

No matter how long it takes, the life of everything comes to an end. Thus, it. has become a necessity that when one event is miniskirts papers about to fail/end, it should not. lead to the end of other events which had a, perhaps, longer time before its. In the oil industry, much care. has been taken to research paper learning, ensure that certain known factors do not cause events that. are likely to bring to miniskirts research, an end, an otherwise long-living event. There have been. major failure events that have happened in the past and these are what have.

shaped the oil industry. Some of the hazards have been prepared for because. according to human and research paper based learning computational estimates, those were likely to research papers, happen. But. for those that there have been no previous knowledge, they are likely to be a. huge burden and more likely to happen. events are more likely to have able bodied resolutions to research paper on brain based learning, them than others. But.

the oil and gas industry is more reactive to major incidents. Miniskirts Papers! Although the. industry is quite old, it has not faced all possible hazards that are likely to. occur. In this regard, all institutions in charge of generating ideas to solve. major risks have resorted to buy university report, not being “prescriptive” in their ways of handling. safety and risk.

is usually the duty of business owners to evaluate every possible hazard and. risk at a worksite so as to inform their employees the possibility of papers, danger. This directive is very well advised. It goes to benefit the government and also. help managers and owners of businesses to correctly protect those who are. helping them generate wealth. from HSE Lectures, EG50S1 and EG501D.

Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and gas Industry: The Oil and buy university gas industry can be. said to miniskirts, be divided into three different sections i.e. upstream (exploration and. appraisal), midstream (production and want designer essay transportation) and downstream (refining, petrochemical and research papers decommissioning).From the early days of till date, this. industry has faced and still facing various safety and risk concerns in its. various sections. Over the paper on brain learning last four decades several accidents have occurred as. a result negligence, equipment failure, improper training of staffs etc. Miniskirts! As a result.

of these accidents, several laws have been passed in different regions in research, the. hope to prevent and eliminate these occurrences, despite these laws put in. place by the governments of different nations these events keep occurring e.g. the Gulf of papers, Mexico Oil spill in 2011 resulting in the death of 11 personnel’s. Comparing the UK Health and. safety Legislation to that of the Norwegian government, that of the UK. government is built on a prescriptive approach i.e. it specifies the safety. measures to be carried out but does not give room for improved safety, innovation, changing industrial processes and it requires constant updating. But that of. the Norwegian government is more of a goal setting approach i.e. it gives room.

for the identification of hazards, risk assessment and taking steps to. eliminate them. This other approach has its advantages and disadvantages but it. has been a better method used to prevent the occurrence of accidents in various. industries and it has given a better result than the prescriptive method.

Going through several papers. before writing this piece, I noticed other sectors of the oil and gas industry. were neglected, there was more focus on the offshore section of the upstream. section, but this doesn’t leave out the fact that there have been several accidents. in other sections which have occurred onshore. Due to recent accidents in this. industry, I feel more countries should use the stem research pro and cons goal setting approach. legislation currently in use by the Norwegian government to reduce the amount. of accidents occurring in this industry. 1) November 2008, J.S. Munro,

An Overview of Regulating Offshore and Onshore Major Hazards. 2) March 2011, ERM, Sustainable. Solutions for the Oil and papers Gas Industry. Today's risk management system is HSE which assesses companies' performance on managing different types of risks. Why I Want To Be An Interior! However, a new system may hopefully replace HSE in the future according to the report of International Association of Oil Gas Producers (OGP).

The Operating Management System (OMS) is currently been developing by a joint OGP-IPIECA Task Force. It is updating and expanding the papers guidance which had already been published in 1994. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Pro And Cons Essay! The OMS aims to research, decrease the probability of papers, adverse consequences by providing a consistent approach to miniskirts, risk management by: Consolidating, in one place, the company's knowledge and requirements to safely and responsibly manage its assets and activities. Setting out report a systematic process to be used throughout a company, with clear accountability, so that planned activities are carried out research as intended. Measuring the success in implementing these activities. The revised OMS guidance is planned coming out at report, the end of this year. Miniskirts Research Papers! It will provide a flexible framework that companies can adopt, in why i designer, a manner appropriate to research papers, their risks and business approach. OMS and the iied: shared value, shared resposibility.

A very relevant comment Liu Yishan: I clicked on your link and found a mountain of information about the OMS and to be an interior designer an iied report. I particularly found the iied document: “shared value, shared responsibility” of interest. It highlights that employee and contractor influence towards safety is increasing within the research papers oil and why i essay gas industry affecting the environmental and social responsibilities of large organisations. The future vision of this document aims towards removing the research papers “tick-box” mentality which hinders the the hell thesis statement implementation of good practice standards. However, I imagine that it would be very difficult to change many opinions away from thinking and operating the research papers “tick-box” system.

This organisational change of behaviour would have to extent all the way down to the individual employees and contractors who (I have already mentioned) have a growing influence in their own methods of working. Change would be a slow process, even with our current safety culture. MSc Subsea Engineering. Preventative measures are the most effective means of minimizing the probability of why i want designer essay, equipment failure and its associated risk. Miniskirts! Protection systems are not substitutes for well-designed and well-maintained detection, warning and research papers shutdown systems. However, they can protect the structure and process equipment, limit damage to these facilities and prevent escalation of fire.

Examples of Risk reduction measures implemented on existing installations include; prevention, detection, control, mitigation, and EER (Evacuate, Escape. For risks lying below the maximum tolerable, but above the miniskirts research papers broadly acceptable level, it is august english essays expected that: 1. the nature and level. of risks are properly assessed and the results used properly to determine control measures; 2. the residual risks are not unduly high and miniskirts kept ALARP; and. 3. the risks are periodically reviewed to ensure that they still meet the ALARP criteria. Duty holders should not assume that if risks are below the paper on brain based maximum tolerable level, they are also ALARP. This should be demonstrated through: 1. application of miniskirts, relevant good practice and apa citation research papers sound engineering judgment; and. 2. consideration of what further measures can be adopted to reduce risks ALARP.

In essence, the duty holder’s ALARP demonstration should address the question “What more could I do to reduce risks, and why haven’t I done it?” The degree of rigor of the ALARP demonstration should be proportionate to the level of risk associated with the installation. In choosing between design options, duty holders should: 1. consider risks throughout the whole life-cycle of the project; 2. choose the option which achieves the lowest level of residual risk, provided grossly disproportionate risks are not incurred; and. 3. confirm that the residual level of risk is no greater than that achieved by the best of existing practice for comparable functions. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Barriers to the development of a safety culture. management of miniskirts, safety and 17 2007 risk in the oil industry is an issue of great concern. With public concerns and activities of various pressure groups; there has been.

a drive in research, the industry to thesis statement, achieve near to miniskirts research papers, perfect safe operations. This I believe. can happen by practicing a safety and maintenance culture. Based! Safety Culture is. seen by research, many as a way of buy university, ensuring high levels of safety performance in. organisations, in contrast to the systematic engineered management of hazards. and effects. They are mostly defined by values, beliefs, common working. practices and response to miniskirts research papers, unusual situations. Statement! However, the development of.

safety culture experiences so many obstructions and I discuss a few of them. CULTURES: The levels of bureaucracy and papers red-tapes that exist in the oil. industry and health and safety regulations pose a great challenge which most. people are oblivious of. An organisation that has struggled to become proactive. may easily revert, especially in the face of success. At such levels of success. and development, hierarchical structures begin to what the hell is a thesis statement, break down under high tempo. operations.

This is miniskirts papers mostly experienced when an organisation tries to transit. from ‘reactive to generative’. AND THE LAW: This may come as a surprise to most of us but the regulator is. also a form of barrier. Regulators are more inclined to the ‘letter than the.

spirit of the law. This can mean that regulators will not support experimental. improvements, which is typical of a proactive industry. Rather, they may set. high standards which are hard to meet and this can be an obstacle for safety. FAILURE: A cultural change is embryonic cell research pro and cons very drastic and doesn’t happen overnight. Changes in top management may prevent the advancement of miniskirts, safety culture in an. organisation as priorities may also change. IS HARD: It is very difficult for august 17 2007 essays, personnel to accept new situations which are. different from the normal standard procedures of operation.

This makes it. impossible for a new convention or code of practice to implemented or enforced, or in most cases take longer periods before they are incorporated into the. practice of miniskirts papers, a well organised safety culture will to a very large extent manage. risk in the oil and gas industry.

Though this may at times prove difficult and. costly, a good management practice can ensure they are well enforced. I recently attended an report SPE. organised event where one of the Rig Managers at papers, Archer Ltd. shared some of report, the. practices the operators emphasise to improve safety and reduce risk in the. risk-prone environment that they work. Below are the points he. highlighted and referred to as ‘Focusing on papers Tempo’ Adjust the pace of operations to fit the least. proficient member Operate within the limits and capacity of the.

equipment Make the time to carry out necessary inspections. and maintenance All tasks shall be risk assessed, planned and what the hell statement discussed. The reason I bring this up is. because we have been so focused on research papers what has not been done and are not appreciative. of the fact that with every setback or accident, the industry learns and puts. measures in place to make sure the occurrence of buy university, these unfortunate incidents is. The point to drive home from the. above listed points is this: In the miniskirts papers everyday operation of the oil and gas.

production facilities, the what the hell thesis workers and everyone involved realises the eminent. risks associated with their operations. Therefore extra care and caution is. taken by miniskirts research papers, every member of the papers team because one slip-up could lead to a potential. While regulations are made, it is. very important to remember that the observance of miniskirts research, these to is a, the letter by all. involved is the key to minimising the research papers occurrence of accidents and improved.

I see that all my colleagues have with enthusiasm covered much of the august 17 2007 aspects of Safety in research papers, the Oil and Gas Industry and research based learning I’d like to briefly refer to the safety training of the individual worker within this industry. The minimum safety requirements are covered by the acronym ‘MIST’; this is the Minimum Industry Safety Training and the expectation is that all workers are trained to competently undertake their professional duties, while being fully aware of the miniskirts research following main points with respect to safety: 1) To understand the august english hazards of working in an off shore environment. 2) To be able to work safely and follow all the safety regulatory measures. 3) To be able to papers, assess the papers risks involved with their work. 4) Understanding the permit to work system. 5) A working knowledge of platform integrity.

6) Manual handling. 7) Control of miniskirts papers, Substances hazardous to health (COSHH) 8) Working at height. 9) Mechanical lifting. These points are often referred to as the 9 Elements of MIST. More advanced training covers Basic Offshore Safety Induction and embryonic stem cell cons Emergency Training, known by the acronym ‘BOSIET’, this covers how to exit a helicopter in an emergency situation, known as HUET, training of personal survival in emergency situation, training to miniskirts papers, use Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Crafts or life boats (TEMPSC) and life rafts, how to provide first aid following an august essays escape, basic knowledge on how to fight fires using fire extinguishers and miniskirts research papers self-rescue breathing apparatus and english essays training on Emergency Breathing Systems (EBS)

This training usually takes place over a period of time and the expectation is not that the new employee will be fully BOSIET trained prior to commencing work; however this should be completed at miniskirts research, the earliest opportunity. Research Pro And Essay! MIST on the other hand is a prerequiset and all employees must be MIST trained (or inducted) prior to commencing work! Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Some common factors are sheared in Major Accidents : ? The general values and the approach to safety and miniskirts research risk management. For example a Paperwork Culture where all efforts are made to prove the system is safe, but actually doing nothing to what the hell is a, make it safe. ? High and low accident rates depend mainly on management commitment to safety. ? Major accidents are usually occurred when major changes are made, while procedures stated in the related books are not followed and executed properly. ? Investigations on prior accidents are usually focused on Operator error or Technical Failures. Management and systematic factors are usually ignored.

While errors made by human is a symptoms of a safety but it is not a cause by itself. ? In the design of research papers, a system, safety is based on operational components to prevent hazards to the system. While controlling injuries to the personnel is focused through occupational safety. While the combination of both factors will be at risk as safety hazard. But remember, Lack of safe behavior enforcement will result an accident. Safety risks in oil and gas industry. The safety risks in oil and gas. industry mainly consist of explosion caused by fire, leakage of toxic substance.

and pungent odour by chemical reaction. For facilities for oil and gas industry. work under high pressure and high temperature, there exists great fatalness for. fire and explosion to occur, so fire and explosion is high potential risk for. factories and surroundings. Apa Citation! Most of the chemical materials for refinery are.

toxic and any leakage by equipment malfunctions or disoperation could result in. people venenation. Pungent odour means. that the stench from chemical materials and catalysts for crude oil exploration. and refinery may be connected with the chronic harm to operators. Safety and research papers risk management in the industry. Accidents hardly originate from august essays, just single cause.

What we see when an research papers accident happens is the event that finally occurs at the time of the research paper based accident, such as component failures and miniskirts papers human errors. Causes such as supervision failures, poor assessment, lack training and poor communication, may not have immediate effect. These causes therefore remain latent until some additional factor drives the situation over board. These latent failures are signs of apa citation research papers, weak or faulty organisational structures and lack of procedures. Key steps in safety management therefore are prudent hazard identification, assessing the hazards and making sure the appropriate policies and procedures are implemented, proper supervision, training and miniskirts research above all commitment of management to buy university, reduce the related risk. Safety and risk management in the oil and miniskirts papers gas industry.

The main objective of safety management in any industry is to address the cause of accident and take action to break the accident causation link. This can be achieved by identifying and preventing potential failures through hazard identification, analysis of the hazard, devising control measures, implementing the control measure and monitoring it. It is important to periodically review the whole prevention measure to assess its effectiveness vis-a-vis the accident records before and after the implementation. Also technological advancement requires safety measures to august essays, be systematically reviewed periodically to factor in equipment and/or process modifications. The success of safety and miniskirts risk management greatly depends on employers’ or management commitment to safety and communication.

For example, a decision which requires resource allocation for personnel training can only on brain based learning, be implemented with the consent of the employer/management. The processes taken place in an oil refinery from the crude oil input till the final products output are so complicated that it is considered an industry with too many safety regulations compared with others. There are managed thousands of cubic meters of flammable liquids every day in an average capacity refinery, either crude oil and products or other chemicals. Miniskirts Research Papers! The main processes that are performed are crude oil desalting, then its distillation, reforming process, solvent extraction and dewaxing and finally waste treatment. Analyzing the what the hell thesis dangers, first of all should be considered the crude oil and its products sensitivity to any flame source with the continuous fear of igniting a major accident after leakage during the process. Some hydrocarbon gases are denser than air and tend to be concentrated into the refinery’s drainage system, into pits or any underground areas and access to research papers, those places require safety measures to be taken. Another dangerous gas is hydrogen sulfide which can cause death even if it is inhaled in low concentration and it remains usually in vapor space of crude oil tanks. In addition, other dangerous gases produced or used in a refinery are hydrogen which is explosive, inert gas which can cause lack of oxygen, carbon monoxide which is poisonous, chlorine which is fatal, pyrophoric iron sulfide which is research extremely flammable and many other process chemicals. As we can understand from the above concise analysis the safety procedures must be strictly followed by the refinery’s personnel every day in every routine job otherwise the probability of a major accident is highly increased. 1)National Center for Manufacturing Sciences.

Petroleum Refining Impacts, Risks and Regulations. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is research known to be a multifaceted global industry which makes a huge impact on all aspects of our lives. One of the top priority and key focus of the english industry is to reduce the number of injuries/death (dangerous occurrences) and research papers hydrocarbon releases (oil spillage). Health, safety and environmental issues have risen enormously in the oil and gas industry's agenda which reflects both increased pressure by the society/public and more complex operational challenges faced in the industry. Although the apa citation industry generally works with high pressure, high temperature and miniskirts research papers flammable fluids and in some cases at very hostile operating environments, it has been discovered that for the past few years as compared with other industries such as construction, mining and transport, the oil and gas industry safety's performance has been better. For example, in 2009, the hours of work across the industry rose, and and a 26% improvement in lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) was recorded as well as an 11% improvement in total recordable injury frequency rate (TRIFR) (1).

Also, in terms of safety management issues, the areas where all regulated oil and thesis statement gas companies must look into and invest both effort and resources in research papers, order to ensure continual improvement of safety and environmental protection include; 1. Corporate leadership and embryonic stem cons safety culture - the papers company's senior leaders should be responsible for overseeing the safety of the company's operation which is vital to the society. The way the organization manages risk as well should also be an important aspect handled by the senior leaders (2). 2. Effectiveness of management systems - the responsibilities of individuals to to be an interior essay, ensure the organization's safety, security and environmental protection goals are achieved, should be clearly communicated by the company's management system(2). safety and risk management in miniskirts, oil and gas industry. Safety and what the hell thesis risk management approach is largely goal-oriented in the offshore oil and gas sector.

This means that high level performance is required in specifics and various types of analysis method carried out to spot the best possible arrangements and the key performance indicators for measurement of success is pre-agreed upon. These places on one hand the duty of care on miniskirts papers the duty holders and on the other hand personal responsibility on the employees as well for their own safety. One of the main challenges is the concept of acceptable risk criteria. I believe that the introduction of why i want an interior essay, pre-determined acceptable risk criteria may give the wrong focus – meeting these criteria instead of an overall whollistic approach towards identifying everything that may go wrong and taking a cost effective measure to its solution. This will involve: identifying the relevant decision attributes (costs, safety, health, hazard); dealing with uncertainties at different project phase; balance between project risk and management portfolio; formulation and use of goals; criteria and requirements to stimulate performance and ensure acceptable safety standards; use of cautionary principles like the miniskirts research papers ALARP.

Thus, the focus should be on meeting overall safety objective which should be stipulate using observable quantities (such as the frequency of occurrence of a particular type of accident no matter how small it may seem) Aven T. and Vinnem J.E (2007) risk management with applications from the why i to be an interior offshore petroleum industry, 1st Edition, Springer series in miniskirts research, reliability engineering, Springer: London. Bad Procedures Followed by Inexperienced Professionals. As per a blog article on buy university report professional societies the feed was stating that: The young engineers who step in to industry tend to miniskirts papers, find the easy way. As the company procedures and to be standards are difficult to follow than the bookish calculations, hence they have a denial tendency towards the standards. They follow the terminology that calculations are done in a way that nearly meets XYZ Standard but not exacltly, which is a very unethical practice. We must understand that one wrong assumptions which passes from our hands may create a huge accident for people on site. Standardization Organization#039;s Responsibility.

As Oil and miniskirts papers Gas industry is developing at based, a very faster rate hence the research papers scope of the standardization industry is also expanding at report, same rate. Miniskirts Research Papers! Where as with more company profits, people tend to ignore updating the safety procedures. But its the report good fortune of the miniskirts research papers industry that controlling societies like DNV, API, LLoyd's etc. are updating the standards and validation documents at a very faster rates. Recently Det Norske Veritas has updated its offshore procedure control documents and classified the august structures into various categories which gives a very good control to design and approval professionals to papers, do their job more accurately. Its very remarkable unlike the controlling authorities in apa citation, other engineering sectos. Black Elk Energy Fire (Where do we throw the papers blame to?) In relation to oil and gas safety the why i to be designer essay recent incident that took place on miniskirts research papers an oil platform operated by Black Elk energy in the Gulf of Mexico can be said to be one of senior managerial negligence to safety conduct. The incident; a fire which begun while workers were using a torch to why i want an interior designer essay, cut an oil line critically injured at least four and miniskirts research as of date has left three dead. Coming from reports this is the fourth incident associated with Black Elk in august 17 2007 english essays, nearly two years with recent incidents drawing heavy fines including a suit being filed against them (March 2012) by a rig worker for creating unreasonably dangerous conditions on the platform. In September 2011, the company paid a fine of research, $307,500 after the Federal Bureau of Ocean Energy Management found that Black Elk let a well go longer than the buy university required six months without being tested for leakage.

In February 2011, a battery charger caused a fire on miniskirts research papers a Black Elk rig in buy university, the Gulf of Mexico when the battery shorted. My reasoning is this: even after the Deep Water Horizon incident its obvious that further work needs to be implemented on oil drilling safety. Though previous incidents didn't claim lives this new accident has caused fatalities and I believe a finger should be pointed at the senior management of Black Elk. Papers! It was reported that the rig drilled from an what the hell thesis statement already estabnlised well unlike the Deep Horizon rig which was exploring in deep water. So far no evidence of oil spills relating directly to the incident has been reported but in the light of this one will have to ask if the required regulatory bodies didn't carry out proper inspection on the oil lines before welding began. Reports say that production seized as of mid-August and the oil which ignited the research fire was that trapped within the pipeline network thus pointing fingers to research, the inspection unit for miniskirts research papers, not complying with the set hydrocarbon content limit in pipelines before any welding job can take place. Well I can't be too sure as to why the company exposed the lives of these rig workers to such hazards but whatever reason it might be it sure will have a demeaning effect on the face of apa citation papers, Black Elk and even more on the Safety Regulatory bodies considering the short time lapse between this and the Macondo incident. Also this goes to show that this regulatory bodies don't pay full attention to small incidents as I expected safety retrictions to be heavy on Black Elk following the number of suits filed against papers them in paper based, the span of two years. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and risk management in miniskirts research, the oil and an interior essay gas sector is one of the very important aspects in the industry as accidents in the sector affects people’s property, health and the environment. As a result there is papers a drive for report, high safety and reliability in the oil and gas sector. Also there are usually huge financial losses associated with the accidents in this sector. The piper alpha disaster and the macondo incident in the Gulf of Mexico together with other accidents in the sector have shown this. Safety most times in miniskirts research papers, the sector is governed by the legislation which most times are made as a result of previous accidents. The legislation can be prescriptive or goal setting. The prescriptive legislation prescribes the exact actions to be taken to ensure safety in certain situations while the embryonic cons essay goal setting legislation ensures that each hazardous situation is individually analysed and the best preventive steps taken to ensure safety. Risk management has to do with risk analysis and decision analysis. The risk analysis involves assessing the probabilities of an event occurring using different tools like statistical inference, probability models, reliability theory and expert judgment and also assessing the consequences of the events occurring. With the risk analysis done, different decision to reduce the impact of the miniskirts accident event are analysed and the best decision taken to manage the risk. Embryonic Cell! This is how risk is managed in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and operational risk factors in miniskirts, the oil and gas industry. A number of hazardous risks are inherent in oil and gas operations. Some have little probability of occurrence but may pose catastrophic effects if they do occur. What Is A Statement! For example, the BP oil spillage in the Gulf of Mexico. Miniskirts Research! Safety and operational risks in occurrence may impact the what thesis statement oil company's cash flows, financial position, prospected projects, goals, and liquidity. Miniskirts Research Papers! Key safety and operational risks include: Process, personnel safety, and environmental risks. Oil and gas companies are faced with an want designer essay extensive range of health, safety, security and environmental risks due to the nature of the business. Materialization of any of these risks could lead to miniskirts, legal action and financial loss as well as injure the research on brain based learning company's reputation.

This category of safety and operational risk encompass risks posed by natural disasters as well as technical systems failure which could cause loss of research, containment of hazardous fluids leading to research on brain learning, fires and explosions. Thus, failure to offer safe working environments for employees and general public could give way to regulatory actions and research papers legal liabilities. Furthermore, due to the uncontrollable location of exploitable reserves, oil and gas operations may be carried out in environmentally sensitive locations which are protected by strenuous environmental and safety laws. Therefore, the effects of a spill, explosion, and papers other hazardous incidents in such locations may prompt sanctions such as penalties, and even the risk of revoking the licence to operate in that and subsequent locations . Oil and gas companies face security threats which largely depend on the country they are operating in. Nonetheless, acts of violence, sabotage, terrorism and disruption of property act to impede and delay operations of companies. Breaches in security are more common in developing countries and could also arise due to political unrest. Security risks are considered to papers, greater detail in subsequent sections of the august essays report. Oil companies risk harming and losing customers as well as polluting the environment if they fail to meet the quality specifications of their products. Miniskirts Papers! In such a scenario could lead the company to incur sanctions from buy university, regulatory bodies as well as some degree of financial loss. Also, transportation of produced hydrocarbons involves grave risks. Loss of containment leading to fires and explosions could occur during hydrocarbon transportation despite the miniskirts chosen mode of transport.

In June 2012 as reported by the New York Daily News, a tanker transporting crude oil products in Nigeria exploded and claimed 95 lives, injuring another 50 people. A similar event occurred in Congo claiming 200 lives. This reveals the buy university report level of risk involved in transporting oil products and the severity of the potential impact of such risks occurring. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas sector. Safety in the oil and miniskirts research gas sector is measured using certain safety indicators. Some of paper on brain, which includes: Fatal accident rate, serious injury rate, individual risk, lost time injury frequency rate, annual fatality rate, potential loss of research papers, life and societal risk. These measures give us different insights to the safety performance in the sector and help us take decision to reduce the risk in the industry. The risks in the industry are classified in different levels due to the level of research, impact they would have if an accident event occurs.

In the industry, each risk is papers reduced to a region of embryonic stem research pro and cons, ALARP which is as low as reasonably practicable. This is the region where the risk is tolerable only if cost of risk reduction is grossly disproportionate to the improvement gained by research, spending the money to august 17 2007 english, reduce the risk. If there is miniskirts research a risk which cannot be reduced and its probability of occurrence is high and it has a high negative impact, then, the risk cannot be justified and is avoided. Also in the industry, the 17 2007 risk assessment matrix is used to determine the level of safety. SAFETY RISK MGT. IN OIL GAS INDUSTRY. The identification of safety culture as a main contributor to industrial accidents has started to research papers, have a deep effect on the way risk and safety are managed within the oil and gas industry. It proposes that the occurrence of accidents can be projected on the basis of certain factors that are suggestive of the embryonic stem cell organisation's ‘state of safety'.

Presently, the oil and gas industries are now facing its toughest set of challenges in terms of risk, safety and compliance regulations. Today's corporations (oil gas industry) are not just weighed on their economic performance but also on miniskirts their capability to manage many different types of risks. A robust track record in managing these risks and providing safety measures are frequently mentioned as an indicator of essays, a well-run company. High standards of operational controls, implemented thoroughly across assets, assist mitigate these risks. The current Macondo blow out incident in the Gulf of Mexico has conveyed sharp emphasis the need of the oil and gas industry to effectively identify and manage the miniskirts research papers risk from major accidents. Buy University! Delivering effective key hazards management has never been easy, and the consequences for failure, in terms of impact on human, reputation and papers assets are becoming more extreme. Conclusively, safety cases and regulations are required for oil and embryonic research pro and essay gas operations (both onshore and offshore). The principal aim of the regulation is to lessen the risk from research, major accident hazard, to the health and safety of the workers employed.

The Safety case is a document that gives confidence to both the duty holder and HSE that the duty holder has the capability and means to control major accident risks effectively. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in why i want to be essay, these hazards and research papers offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in august 17 2007, oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents.

Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Research! Risk management in what the hell thesis, an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. Miniskirts! References: SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

The recent disaster in oil industry and research on brain based learning subsequent investigations in these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in miniskirts papers, this industry. Based! In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents. Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and research Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: SPE Middle East Oil and buy university report Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry.

The exploration, development and production of oil and gas involve activities that are carried out in risk environments. Overtime, major and minor accidents from safety related issues such as fatalities, severe injuries, loss of properties etc has occurred in the industry; this occurrence has aided formation of miniskirts, sterner safety regulations in the industry. Safety management in the industry relies on accidents models to understand, reduce risk and improve safety practices. The use of accident models is considered the most efficient means of studying occupational hazards. There are various types of accidents models that can be used namely:

•Early Accident Model – provides the process of accident occurrence. •Quantitative and Statistical Accident Model – provides the august english entire estimate of research papers, accident likelihood. •Comparison Model – used to compare conditions in a case system with existing/ongoing reference system. •Swiss Cheese Model. Irrespective of this models,management systems must incoporate the continuous awareness of safe practises to staff. Safety and why i want designer essay Risk Management is challenge oil and gas industry must contend with an array of health and research papers environmental concerns throughout its range of operations. In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industry need to implement effective safety management systems to help protect its workers, the august 17 2007 english general public and the environment. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to miniskirts research papers, offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.

The safety and Risk management encountered is as much as making sure that opportunities are missed, it provides a framework to improving decision making. It involves identifying risks, predicting how probable they are and how serious they might become, deciding what to buy university, do about them and implementing these decisions. Safety and miniskirts research papers Risk analysis and subsequent risk mitigation provides financial information to potential lenders, promotes equity providers for project scenario. It improves project or business planning by buy university report, answering what if questions with imaginative scenarios. Safety and risk management in research, oil and gas industry provides alternative plans and an interior appropriate contingencies and consideration concerning management as part of risk response.

Decisions are supported by thorough analysis of the data and estimate can be made with greater confidence both technical and miniskirts papers financial. Safety and Risk management in oil and 17 2007 essays gas industry is one of the most important issues facing oil and gas organisation today. Safety and Risk management can be considered as the research papers sustainability of a business in the environment it is in. It can be applied effectively to oil and gas projects like any other investment project. The results of what the hell is a thesis statement, risk and safety analysis, both sensitivity and probability can identify the quantitative effect on a project economics should such risk occur. It creates confidence in decision making; potential losses and gains can be identified and research papers managed. Common factors that cause major accidents in Oil and Gas Industry are: lack of apa citation papers, safety culture among the workers, lack of real commitment to safety by supervisors, inadequate hazard analysis (example Job Safety Analysis) and design for safety, Inadequate learning from prior events, confusion between occupational and system safety and belief that process accidents are low probability. Leveson .N.G (2011), ‘Risk management in miniskirts research papers, the oil and gas industry [online] available at [accessed on 8 December] earlier submission leads me to identification of one of the research pro and cons essay functions of safety and risk management.

For safety and risk management implementation in an industry to be successful a safety policy and procedure in place – this is a corporate statement and miniskirts guidelines, documented, that clearly expresses the essays employer’s or management commitment to safety in the industry. The statement must clearly define the safety goals of that industry. The policy must state the miniskirts papers importance of safety in all aspect of the industry’s operations. Report! It must identify individually, the miniskirts research papers hierarchy of personnel with corporate responsibility right from the board level, and it must clearly describe the safety standard established. It must also indicate employer’s readiness to provide the necessary resource in terms of funds and time to promote safety. The procedure must provide sufficient guidelines to the way the industry conducts every aspect of its operations. Functions of Safety and Risk Management. In addition to safety policy and the hell is a procedure, other functions of safety and risk management are: 1. Cordial management/labour interaction – A two way communication at all level must be. established. This will encourage good safety culture in that industry.

2. Effective hazard management mechanism – There must be a prudent hazard identification. system, risk assessment and a commitment to fully implement preventive and. mitigating actions. There must be a way of measuring and reviewing the. effectiveness of this mechanism.

Safety appraisal – A means of monitoring and. reviewing safety performance over a period of time. This should answer. questions like; has the safety plan been adopted, fully implemented? Is it. achieving its goals? Is it improving the safety performance of the organization? Risk Management in miniskirts papers, Subsea Projects. In this blog i want to zoom in a bit and concentrate on two main activities we conduct when assessing riks on essay subsea projects . On each subsea project , a Technical risk analysis is miniskirts research performed by Contractors for all the items (system/subsystem/equipment) part of their supply, with the objective to identify, assess and mitigate the technical risks that could impact system availability and production efficiency. This study is used to feed into the Maturity Assessment required for determinining the Qualification tests required on the project.

2) Operational risk analysis : A specific operational risk analysis is performed by Contractors, in order to systematically investigate all potential risks that could occur in operation on Subsea Facilities, during the installation phase (including transportation), offshore operations (including commissioning, inspection and maintenance) and normal production (for technical risks occurring during operations). For each risk, Contractors determine cause / consequence / frequency / criticality, and embryonic stem cell cons essay propose specific mitigation actions in order to minimise the impact of the identified risk. The operational risk analysis consider the following parameters: a) Main operational phases. b) Subsea installation and Tie-in, d) Intervention / Maintenance. e) Normal production (including “start-up” and “shut down”). Main risks categories considered are : 1) Production impact of the failure. 2) Equipment damage. 3) Severe injury or Fatality,

4) Hydrocarbon and/or chemical release to sea. Just yesterday a helicopter taking personnel from Aberdeen to an offshore installation was forced to return to the airport (Joseph, 2012). This comes not long after the papers ditching of a helicopter in the North Sea (please refer to my previous post for details). Discussing the buy university issue with friends and research family it seems that these high profile incidents have made some people believe that travelling by helicopter is very risky and something they wouldn't like to what statement, do. This got me thinking, is the actual risk of helicopter travel the same as the perceived risk? An HSE (2004) safety review of offshore helicopter use compared the research papers fatality rates for different types of transport over the period 1992 - 2001.

The fatal accident rate for offshore helicopter travel was 4.3 per billion passenger kilometres, which is roughly on a par with travel by car with a fatal accident rate of 3. Rail transportation is english effectively ten times safer with only miniskirts papers, 0.04 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres, and report air (fixed wing) travel even safer with a fatality rate of only 0.01. Research! However, cycling and walking are both have much higher fatality rates than helicopter travel at 42 and 58 respectively. Want Essay! Motorcyclists are at greatest risk with 106 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres. Over the period 1995 to miniskirts, 2002 the fatal and buy university report non-fatal accident rates per 100,000 flying hours in the UK continental shelf region were 0.14 and 1.10 respectively. This is much lower than the miniskirts equivalent worldwide rates of 0.57 for fatal accidents and 1.10 for non-fatal accidents. So it can be seen that the helicopter travel in the UK is safer than the global average. Statistically, offshore helicopter travel is report safer in the UK than the worldwide average. Also, for the same number of passenger kilometres there are approximately ten times fewer deaths in the UK when travelling by helicopter than walking - something to think about next time you walk to class! Joseph, A. (2012). ‘Helicopter makes emergency landing at Aberdeen Airport', Evening Express, 08 December Evening Express [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 09 December 2012].

HSE (2004). UK Offshore Public Transport Helicopter Safety Record (1976 - 2002) [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 28 October 2012]. Safety and Risk Management a Questionable Subject. Following all comments (positive and no positive approaches) in this forum I would say that the effectiveness of safety and risk management in miniskirts papers, the oil and gas industry and the roles of the embryonic stem research pro and essay parties involved in this process are questionable subject. This argument being based the major accidents the industry has experienced such as: the Piper Alpha disaster 1988, Texas City refinery explosion 2005, Gulf of Mexico oil spill 2010, and the Venezuelan refinery explosion 2012.

All of miniskirts research papers, them resulted in more than hundred casualties and the hell thesis statement material damages. This is an indication that although investigations have been carried out and research papers actions taking to paper on brain learning, improve safety culture and new regulations have been developed, the industry still need to make a significant improvement in safety and risk management. Miniskirts Research! Examples from other industries with high potential risks must be followed. Industries such as the nuclear or aviation industries have learnt and are managing those risks and implementing safety as part of the organizational culture which can be demonstrated by their safety records. Certainly something is not going well in this process of managing risk and safety in this industry. It would mainly due to different causes such as organizational, cultural and regulatory issues. Some of the players are not fulfilling their roles leaving some gaps which have affected the effective implementation of the safety and why i want an interior designer essay risk management process. The gaps of miniskirts research, this process result from people failing to apply proper designs for safety or follow procedures or there are not policies to reinforce these processes. Embryonic Stem Pro And Cons Essay! There are some organizations in research, which the safety culture does not have strong basis or lacks of appropriate safety engineering concepts. Other organizations have those strong bases, but either there is not commitment and ownership or lack or reinforcement and responsibility to use them.

On the other hand, there are some organizations that have those strong policies and a safety culture which is implemented, followed and reinforced within the why i an interior organization resulting in a continuous improvement process for miniskirts research papers, recognising and assessing risks and managing safety. Some of the main causes identified in the oil industry which have resulted in failing to implement the risks and buy university safety management are: lack of commitment of research, leaders and employees to use safety and risk management as part of their culture, lack of paper, implementing effective management of research, change processes or sometimes a no existence of them at all, inadequate learning and reporting systems to paper on brain, disseminate the learnings and improve the safety awareness, inadequate risks assessments or paperwork cultures with not effective implementation of miniskirts papers, mitigations, lack of enforcements of safe behaviours, safety policies and standards, lack of sense of liabilities and weakness on regulatory control and reinforcement. Things can be as good or as bad as we want to see them, however, most important is to think about the ways how we can encourage the use of an interior designer essay, safety and risk management processes. How those processes can be successfully implemented through good leadership and cultural changes or how we ensure companies maintain high levels of compliance of safety standards and regulations. All those initiatives can be implemented by: Increasing awareness through policies and formal training and certification.

Implementing effectively incident investigation techniques. Ensuring safety policies and procedures are followed and operating standards are met. Using a formal and probe system for management of research, change. Apa Citation Papers! Creating liability through new regulations and official control. Most of the work completed in miniskirts papers, the uk offshore sector are modifications to 17 2007 english, existing platforms. As such there is research a requirement to assess the impact to the existing platform by conducting continuous reviews form concept through to final installation and commissioning. The normal process (non fast track jobs) is to why i want to be an interior, complete a concept select study, then into Front End Engineer and research Design (taking one of the concepts forward) through detail engineering and want to be designer essay design into fabrication and construction to final commissioning and hand over. The normal approach is to have a Hazard management plan for the project that details how the project is going to manage the hazards through the project life cycle by Environmental identification and design reviews, risk assessments, and regulatory compliance demonstration. Design reviews techniques include but are not limited to, Hazard Identification HAZID, Environmental Impact Identification ENVID, Hazard and Operability studies HAZOP Workpack Risk assessments, Constructability reviews, PUWER reviews. Brown Field Engineering and Design.

During the Concept stage and miniskirts research dependant on the information available it is useful to is a statement, complete course HAZID’s, ENVID’s, Inherently safe design (ISD) reviews. Miniskirts Papers! During FEED you’d look at Fire and cell essay Gas philosophies, Blast design philosophies, HAZID’s, ENVID’s, ISD (better to conduct ISD workshop as early as possible so that the outcomes can be incorporated into the design), HAZOP’s (May be better to leave to the end of FEED start of Detail Design so that the design is mature enough to review), any fire blast studies should be kicked of to allow the outputs to be affectively incorporated into the design. In detail design, if they haven’t been completed at an acceptable level HAZID’s, ENVID’s, HAZOP’s SIL reviews, will be completed. With a Hazard Management plan in place and completed during the complete lifecycle of a project it is expected that measures will be in place to manage all hazardous associated with the project. Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA) is. a new concept focuses on managing risks in a dynamic environment clearly has. its place in a dynamic industry like oil and gas industry. It is important for organisations. to recognise that work environment do change and some changes may occur at a. high frequency or with some degree of unpredictability. Research! DRA is not an exclusive.

tool but should be incorporated into a broader risk management programme. DRA. is largely an on the spot decision making process and should be considered for. managing dynamic situations in which the an interior employee may find themselves in. Thus DRA. relies heavily on the behaviour and competency of personnel and part of making. the personnel competent relies on received and past experience. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

Factors such as severe. temperatures and pressures within the Oil and Gas industry are some of the. leading causes of research, major risks and its attendant consequences. The size and buy university the. complexity of the research papers Oil and Gas facilities are also contributing factors to the.

risks. Also playing a part are the more. inhospitable routines, deeper waters and colder climates. have been put in place by the industry to avoid the severe negative. consequences from major accidents. Some companies have rigorous process in. place to identify major hazards, and assess and manage the risks if it occurs.

It cannot be emphasized enough that there is no single better way of managing major. Several health and. safety measures, operational management systems are being adopted by embryonic cell pro and cons essay, the. industry in order to deliver good safety and operational performances. Risk Management is a PM#039;s primary job. Working as a project manager in the oil and gas industry is basically 95% risk management, and rightfully so. This is a highly complex and dangerous industry, and our goal on every project is no injuries to people and no harm to the environment.

In order to accomplish this goal, risk management has to research, always be on the mind of the project manager. This is especially true when managing project on august 17 2007 essays the bottom of the ocean. I think that this focus on risk management has truly taken shape over the past few years, which is a good thing for all the new facilities, but there are a lot of research papers, old facilities where it will take many more years for them to get caught up. I have been a project manager in embryonic stem cell essay, this industry for approximately 7 years and have managed about 25 different projects, with a total expenditure exceeding $250 million, and not one of my projects have been to increase production, but instead they were mitigating a risk of one form or another. I know the industry has a bad reputation regarding safety, but I've witnessed first hand all the research time and money which is spent on embryonic cell research cons a daily basis in order to try to papers, produce oil and research pro and cons essay gas in papers, a safer manner. Safety and risk management can, to a great extent, be influenced by an interior designer essay, the attitude of workers in an organisation. It has been clearly debated that risks are defined in cultural terms. Miniskirts Research! As people. mingled with others, they accept the definition of risk by their association. with group(s) within the organisation.

To become a member of a group within the. organisation requires conformity. Meaning a member who refuses to conformity is. counteracted and shunned. The desire to be accepted and respected is the report pressure. behind yielding to this demand. Usually this happens unconsciously due to miniskirts, lack. of knowledge, information and advice. Apa Citation Research Papers! The values and norms of the association/union/group. form the basis for the apparent realities of miniskirts research papers, their members.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. The purpose of the HAZOP is to try and establish any operability problems that could lead to an undesirable consequence. The process system is 17 2007 essays reviewed systematically, dividing it into discrete nodes an analysing against guidewords that have been agreed in a pre-determined Terms of Reference. The HAZOP team is built up from an papers experienced multi discipline group of engineers that are familiar with the HAZOP process. The outcome of the HAZOP will result in a number of actions being put onto various people within the review group.

All actions are required to be acted on, and responses agreed and signed off prior to the design being implemented. All completed actions that affect the process design will be incorporated. In oil and gas industry, most of the existing entry training systems for a certain position which involves potential injury risks are only conducted before each employee initiating his/her job. But according to some statistics, a considerable portion of injuries related with lack of papers, awareness of papers, mistakes during working and august 17 2007 wrong operating habits. To reduce the risks involved in these types of miniskirts research, issues, a regular skills checking or testing system is critical together with strict entry training.

That means employees who take the potential risk related work, their skills or working routines should be checked and tested against the hell standard operation routines on a certain time base (such as one or two years’ time). In reality, a good example can be updating the driving license after a certain period of research, time. I believe this would help reduce the possibility of injury resulting from wrong operation routines in apa citation research papers, oil and miniskirts papers gas industry. I would like to discuss an idea regarding an offshore depleted oilfield. According to the legislation these offshore but also onshore facilities have to be decommissioned, encountering very high costs. So, I thought that their reuse for other purposes such as accommodating rescue teams would be a safety measure to mitigate dangers of remote offshore locations. In the UK for instance, continental shelf includes more than 400 offshore structures many of buy university report, which have already depleted their oil and miniskirts research gas reservoirs.

But these structures have potential life of many years. So in terms of increasing the safety of offshore processes some of these platforms could be converted into rescue team bases. These bases-teams would be equipped with high speed crafts and may be a couple of helicopters. The Hell Thesis! Hence, this would provide an immediate respond to the neighbors processing oil and miniskirts research papers gas in case of accidental incident. I believe the costs of stem essay, maintaining rescue crew in offshore locations, much closer than other onshore positions, can be afforded by many companies’ and this will decrease significantly the research fatality. So if companies are interested in having access to delivery of this kind of service they should invest annually in this effort to make North Sea safer working place.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety of the oil and paper on brain gas industry has some relationship with. the factory environment , the employees personal. qualities, and as well as the. prevention of fire and explosion safety. measures closely related to miniskirts research papers, oil and gas not only. provide convenience to embryonic stem cell research essay, people's lives , but also there are certain risks , it may cause. the disease and miniskirts papers trauma.

which caused by the property , factories, product or environmental damage. Leading to report, loss of. production or increase the miniskirts burden . So which can be. implemented through more perfect management system and improve the embryonic cell essay security. Zhang Yanan ID: 51233945.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. Safety and Risk Management During Design Stage. The process of HSE Risk Management starts right from the design stage where major accident hazards are identified and reduced to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) and to miniskirts, a tolerable overall risk. Research Papers! This approach allows early identification of concerns when more effective action may be taken and provides a clear understanding of the safety critical elements used to control and hazard scenario. It follows principles of inherent safety and the risk reduction hierarchy consisting of. • Elimination of the papers hazards. • Reduction by substituting with a lesser hazard. • Isolation of people from the hazard.

•Control of the hazard through procedures. Typically, a HAZID review is conducted at an early stage in order to identify major hazards and action appropriate control measures. At later project stages, more detailed reviews, such as HAZOP, are conducted. Hazards which cannot be eliminated through principles of 17 2007, inherent safety are managed through application of principle of research, layers of defence mainly consisting of the following; •Prevention of the release (though overpressure protection and prevention of ignition sources) •Detection of the release (through Fire and Gas detection systems)

•Control by what the hell is a statement, inventory removal to a safe location (emergency depressuring and flaring) •Mitigation (through active and passive fire protection) •Emergency response (through provision of escape routes, muster locations and ER equipment) The design of these defences is applied through the variety of reviews and risk studies by different engineering disciplines. Sanjay Vyas- Student ID - 51234203. M.Sc thesis in safety in oil gas engineering. I'm planning to start drafting my M.Sc thesisregarding safety in upstream oil gas. In fact I would like to make a bridge between HSE science technical aspects of offshore petroleum. My interested topic in HSE in drilling production and my goal is to take a step forward to prevent incidents such as BP horizon, piper alpha etc. Appreciate your supports in miniskirts research papers, recommendingsuitable topics for my dissertation.

Analysis is being terminated from a user subroutine 1 day 11 hours ago ***ERROR: USER SUBROUTINE UMAT IS MISSING 1 day 15 hours ago http://www.tamengineeringjobs 2 days 6 min ago Running the buy university UEL subroutine and input files blew in ABAQUS. Miniskirts Research Papers! 3 days 58 min ago Thermodynamics in thirtysome slides 1 week 1 day ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago invited speaker talk is announced --- JF Molinari from EPFL 2 weeks 9 hours ago Re: Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 1 day ago Comments on embryonic cell research the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 3 days ago. Each entry is © copyright 2006-2014 by the individual user and can be used in miniskirts research papers, accordance with the what is a Creative Commons License. iMechanica is powered by Drupal, and hosted at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

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10 Useful MX Player Tricks and Tips You Should Know. Research? There is no doubt in fact that, Android phone without MX Player is like a theater without screen. Every single user has this amazing app installed in research cons his phone. So what makes it unique and different from other media player apps? Why it's this much popular? The is because, MX Player provide better user experience , has simple UI (User Interface) and it can play any format video . Furthermore, this app is much more than a simple media player. It has hundreds of features and there is much more it can do for miniskirts research, you, rather than just playing HD videos. If you're new to MX Player, these are some of the embryonic stem cell pro and cons, basic tips which you should keep in mind while playing the video. Change volume: Swipe up and miniskirts research down the right-side of the screen to increase or decrease the volume respectively.

Change brightness: Swipe up and down the left-side of the want an interior designer, screen to increase or decrease the volume respectively. Lock screen: Click the lock icon to enable child lock. Forward video: Seek right to forward the video. Miniskirts Research? Pause video: Tap the play and pause button. August Essays? Zoom video: Zoom in/out the videos by pinching it with your thumb and fore finger To better understand these things, see the demonstration in below picture - Although MX Player can play any type and any format video (such as FLV, MKV, MOV, WMV, MP4, 3GP etc.,) but sometimes it got stuck due to miniskirts some technical reasons. In that case, you can switch to embryonic pro and essay different decoder mode in order to play the video smoothly.

Now click Settings and then tap Decoder option from the menu list. Miniskirts? Under Hardware decoder section, tick mark the Use H/W+ Decoder button. In the same way, tick mark S/W Decoder button under Software decoder section. Note that, you can also enable S/W audio. Is A Thesis Statement? After enabling them, go back to miniskirts research the media list and play any of your favorite video. At the top-right corner of screen, you'll find the apa citation papers, current decoder name.

If you want to change it, tap the miniskirts papers, option and then select different decoder as you per your own choice. I recommend using S/W decoder. Note that, there is no need to change the decoder at all. However, if any of them video isn't working or playing very slow, you try to play it in different decoder. It should be noted that, S/W and H/W+ decoder will drain more battery power. Basically, MX Player is a video player app only and august 17 2007 english it can't be used to play audio files. Miniskirts Papers? Imagine how it would be to use it as an audio player as well. Sounds good? Yeah, that's possible. Here's a step-by-step guide to enable this feature - Finally go back to the home screen and tap refresh icon to load new changes.

MX will automatically scan the Internal memory and SD card to research learning add all audio files. It's really annoying when you leave the MX Player app window and suddenly video stop working. Now you can enable background playback option which let you play just the audio part of research papers, video, even when the app is closed or when you're doing some other things. Follow these simple steps to enable it - Now whenever you'll play the audio or video in background, MX Player will push a new sticky notification with basic playback controls from where you can quickly change, forward and stop the audio or video at any time. Apart from why i to be an interior designer essay playing local files you have saved in your phone's memory, MX Player can also be used to miniskirts research play network stream.

That's pretty much easy. August English? As you'll click the video link in Android web browser, it will automatically launch the MX Player app to play it. The default theme of MX Player is miniskirts papers blue which is very good. But after a long use, it looks boring to see the same color each time. Fortunately, you can change the theme color ( not theme UI ) as per your own choice. Apa Citation? If you've some private videos that you don't want to miniskirts research papers add in your MX Player media library, the easiest way is to hide them by papers, blocking the folder path so that MX Player can't access them.

First of all, copy paste all the files in same folder and then move them to the SD card or any other location. Now follow these steps to block that folder - Good thing about MX Player is that, it can increase the volume up to research papers 200% . Normally it's 15 only want to be an interior designer essay, which is 100% but by volume boost feature, it can be increased up to 30 value (2x times). 9. Resume video from where you stopped. Miniskirts Research? It happens many times, you're watching a movie and accidentally closed the app. Next time when you'll open the video, it will start over again. However, MX Player has an option which let you resume the video from the same point where you stopped playing it earlier. 10. Customize files and folders view.

Last but not least, you can customize the files and buy university folders view in MX Player. For example, you can set the miniskirts research, hierarchy structure of august 17 2007 essays, folders and miniskirts papers select the video properties (such as file size, length, last played time, thumbnails etc,.) that you want to show in the media library. So these are some of the best tricks and tips of august english, MX Player app. Hope that you have enjoyed this tutorial. If you've some questions in your mind, don't forgot to ask me in the below comment box. Is there something else I have missed?

Vivek Chaudhary is a pro blogger, tech geek and young artist from India. Miniskirts Research Papers? He is the founder of this blog where he mostly writes about tech related tutorials. You can connect with him on: Facebook, Twitter, Google+ When I#39;m playing an mp3 song, while switching back, the sound interrupts for a second. Can I fix it? By the way, the old version didn#39;t have this. 9yce topic keep it up bro. i dont see seek option for video fast forward.please assist. Subscribe to our email newsletter receive updates right in apa citation papers your inbox. Miniskirts? Your email address is safe with us! Vivek is a professional blogger, tech geek and young entrepreneur from the hell statement India.

At Easy Code Way, he writes about tech related tricks, tips and how-to tutorials. He loves to share his knowledge and experience to help other people. Miniskirts Research Papers? [read more. ]

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you've spent any time doing SAT prep, you probably are familiar with what it’s like to research write an SAT essay. But what’s it like to be an SAT essay grader? Find out what essay graders look for, what the cell pro and essay, essay grading job involves, and effective SAT essay tips you should use as a result of research, this information as I bring you. August Essays! insights from real SAT essay graders. Note : The information in miniskirts research papers, this article is for the old (pre-March-2016) SAT essay, which was scored out of 12 and part of the Writing section. Because the buy university report, new SAT essay has been administered (and graded) so few times, there's not much information out there yet about the grading process for the new essay. We'll update this article as soon as the information comes out. feature image credit: The Lowdown by miniskirts, andy carter, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

Why does understanding the what the hell is a, essay grading job help you on the SAT essay? Well, if you know what the essay graders are looking for, then you can shape your prep (and write your essays) accordingly. An analogy for this situation: you are preparing for your road test (to get your driver's license), and want to make sure you will pass. There's no point in miniskirts research, becoming perfect at parallel parking if it's not even going to be on your road test (I still can't believe this is true for some states), especially if you neglect practicing your full stop at a red light/stop sign skills. While in the long run parallel parking might be useful for life, it's not going to what thesis statement help you pass the test. Similarly, on miniskirts research, the SAT essay, there are some things that your essay absolutely needs (specific examples) and others that are less important (perfect spelling). Buy University Report! And a great way to research papers learn what a typical SAT essay scorer looks for apa citation papers, in an essay is to go directly to the source. How Do You Become an SAT Essay Grader? The CollegeBoard requires potential SAT essay graders to meet all of the research, following criteria: Have at august 17 2007 least a bachelor's degree Teach or have taught a high school or college-level course that requires writing Have taught for at least a three-year period Reside in the continental United States, Alaska, or Hawaii Be a U.S. citizen, resident alien, or authorized to work in the U.S.

Have not worked for research papers, a test preparation company that offers SAT test preparation in the past 12 months. (This does not include working for Pearson Educational Measurement or The College Board) Have not received pay from embryonic stem research pro and cons students or individuals to assist with SAT test preparation within the past 12 months. (This does not include receiving pay from your school as part of your job responsibilities) SAT Essay Graders: Facts, Myths, and Strategies. Below, I’ve listed seven of the most important insights I found in various online articles on miniskirts papers, and interviews with real SAT essay scorers. The three sources I drew from included a I am a. ask me anything question and answer series, an article in the Washington Post titled The SAT Grader Next Door, and an interior essay, an opinion piece in the LA Times titled How I Gamed The SAT. 1. Fact: Essay scorers must grade 1 essay every 2-3 minutes.

Once they've completed their training, official SAT essay graders have to miniskirts research papers grade 20-30 essays an hour (which ends up being one essay every 2-3 minutes). If a grader starts to lag behind and take longer, she must retrain until she is back to apa citation papers that pace. Miniskirts Research Papers! Keeping the graders grading at research on brain based fast pace ensures that the graders are looking at the essays as a whole, rather than, for instance, getting stuck on miniskirts research papers, logical issues in one paragraph. Myth: Because they have such a short time to score your essay, graders won’t read your whole essay. As long as you have a good first two paragraphs the rest of your essay doesn’t matter, right? WRONG.

Remember, in order to research based even qualify to do this job you must have taught a course that requires writing and have been teaching for at least three years. Ask any English teacher and she'll tell you that you've got to be able to read and grade essays fairly quickly in order to miniskirts keep up with the job. On the SAT, the essay scorer's job is embryonic stem research pro and cons essay, even simpler than that of an English teacher because no comments are given (something that is very time-consuming). All the papers, essay scorer has to do is august english, read the essay and give it a numerical score. Strategy: Organize your essay so that the scorer can easily follow your logic. Taking the time to plan out the organization as well as the content of your essay really does pay off. Don't bury the lead and make the essay grader hunt for your main point and miniskirts research, line of reasoning: make your thesis statement easy to spot by putting it in your introduction (first or last line is what is a, best), and miniskirts, keep to a simple paragraph-per-example essay form . The five paragraph essay structure may be boring, but it will make it easier for a quick-reading grader to august essays understand your argument. 2. Fact: Essay graders don't care about minor grammar and miniskirts research papers, spelling errors. Because graders score the SAT essay holistically (based on overall impression) rather than point-by-point, they are instructed to ignore minor errors that they might otherwise correct.

In the an interior, context of the SAT essay, minor errors are ones that don't affect the meaning of the papers, essay or make it significantly more difficult to understand. In the examples given on the CollegeBoard websites, the 6-scoring essays each have 5-6 minor errors ; these errors were not counted against the students because they A) were so few and B) did not significantly affect the meaning of the essays. What makes the errors minor? Consider the following two sentences. The first sentence has some minor errors (comma use and stem research pro and, spelling issues).

When I was in middle school I relized that if I wanted to play something more interresting than Eine Kline Nactmusic, I would have to write it myself. Now take a look at this second sentence, which has some major errors (grammatical). When I was in miniskirts research papers, middle school, I realize that more interesting than Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, I have to write it to play it. The second sentence may not have any spelling errors, but the way it is phrased makes it difficult to embryonic stem cell pro and cons essay understand the papers, meaning. Even though some minor errors are allowable in top-scoring essays, the more errors you have beyond a certain point, the more your score will drop . And when you're trying to write an entire essay in 25 minutes, you're bound to make mistakes you don't even notice. The only buy university way to catch them is to go back and reread what you've written. Strategy: Leave yourself 2-3 minutes to read over your essay and revise it. The time you’ll spend will be well worth it, allowing you to papers catch missing words that affect the meanings of sentences and grammar errors that could drag your essay score as well as giving you time to rewrite words or phrases that are otherwise illegible.

This image is full of lies. And a nice pen, I guess. 3. Buy University Report! Fact: Variety in sentences and vocabulary and research papers, good transitions can be deciding factors in essay grade. All three of the what the hell, essay graders I drew from agreed that if they were waffling between two different scores, variety in sentence structures and vocabulary and good transitions (or lack thereof) could push an essay into the next score level (or confirm that it merited the lower of the two possible scores). Myth: Using advanced vocabulary (even if you use it incorrectly) will automatically get you a high score. Again, this comes down to a misunderstanding about what graders are looking for. Showing that you know advanced vocabulary is fine, but if you don’t make a good argument, or don't support your argument with specific examples, you’re not going to do well on this particular essay. One article described this as the research papers, plethora effect, since so many students misuse the word plethora, thinking that the SAT essay graders love that word. Here is a good summation of the situation, using quotes from a former SAT essay grader: “Strong argument, at embryonic pro and cons least three well-thought-out reasons supporting that argument, strong, relevant, specific examples for each reason, and miniskirts papers, a thorough analysis of the examples in relation to why i to be designer essay your reasons and core argument will get you to at least a 5…The 6th point comes through style--use of language, diction, syntax, vocabulary. As long as the research, words are use correctly and appropriately, though.

Randomly throwing in ANTIDISESTABLISHMENTARIANISM isn't going to win you any points.” (sources: e-to-the-x and e-to-the-x). Strategy: If you’re consistently getting a 4/6 or lower on your essay, work on august 17 2007 english, your arguments and support first, then grammar, THEN vocabulary. As all three sources said, having a strong argument, logical organization, and good grammar in your essay is more important than fancy wording. Research Papers! If you sacrifice grammar because you misuse a vocab word, your essay's scorers won’t be impressed. If you’re consistently getting stuck at a 5, THEN it might be time to work on sprucing up your vocabulary, varying your sentence structures, and improving your transitions. 4. August Essays! Fact: You can prepare for the SAT essay. Just as with the other sections of the SAT, it's possible to prepare for the SAT essay.

As the CollegeBoard says in the Practice the Writing Section chapter of the Official SAT Study Guide (Second Edition), You can never practice too much. Myth: You can write and memorize a few essays on a couple of research papers, different topics ahead of why i an interior designer, time, then just “steer” the actual SAT prompt towards those essays. WRONG. Working on research papers, set topic essays can be helpful because it gets you used to arguing in research paper on brain, the way you need to on the SAT, but replicating it when the research, topic is different will lose you points and, in the worst cases, cause you to get a 0 for writing off-topic. The pre-written nature of these essays is immediately apparent to most essay graders. In fact, when asked about the stem cell research cons, mistake that most affected the overall grade she gave SAT essays, an actual SAT grader responded: “Artificiality. Trying to shoehorn in a canned essay they've written and essentially memorized before, or canned, pre-prepared ideas, or throw in bit words without regard to appropriateness. It needs to sound natural, not contrived.” Strategy: Prepare (your own) sentence phrasings ahead of time and miniskirts research papers, come armed with specific examples. If you tend to is a thesis statement freeze up under pressure, then it's a good idea to miniskirts write out and buy university, memorize well-constructed sentences that can be used for a variety of prompts . Papers! Use this article on the 6 different types of SAT prompts to work on creating sentences that would work with every type of example.

For instance, for prompts in the form of Which is better, you could prepare a transition sentence like this: Another instance that demonstrates how [one thing] is more effective than [the other thing] can be found in [some historical or literary example]. Here's the apa citation research papers, sentence with the holes filled in for a prompt that asks Is cooperation better than competition? Another instance that demonstrates how cooperation is more effective than competition can be found in the dividing up of the miniskirts research papers, magnificent African cake by European colonial powers in the late 19th century. It is important that you prepare using your own words , rather than directly taking other people's essay skeleton templates; otherwise, you might have your entire test disqualified for embryonic pro and cons essay, plagiarism (more on miniskirts papers, that in this article about essay skeletons). English! Instead, practice explaining your own examples (which leads into the next fact). 5. Fact: You need to support your point with specific examples. The single most important piece of advice I have for students preparing for the SAT essay is to use specific examples . Research! Actual essay graders say that using 3 examples is best, but that just 2 will work if the examples are very strong. I personally tend to land on the side of advising two examples with stronger arguments, rather than more examples with weaker arguments.

Myth: Historical or literary examples are better than personal examples. While Klein notes in her article that higher scores seemed to go to writers who made sure at least one or two of their anecdotes were not personal,” this is not a cause-and-effect thing. Instead, the research papers, issue seems to be that students who use personal examples tend to go off-topic and papers, use a more informal tone , which means that the students who use personal anecdotes aren't receiving lower grades on their essays because of the kind of why i to be an interior essay, example per miniskirts, se; it’s the way these personal examples are presented that causes a drop in essay score. Take the prompt I used before, Is cooperation better than competition? Let's say that I want to use a personal example about working with classmates on english essays, a project to research support my thesis that cooperation is more effective than competition. Here's an example of an example that goes off-topic: I have experienced how cooperation is more effective than competition in apa citation research, my own life. In AP Macro, we split up into teams to do final projects on the stuff we'd learned. We got to choose our teams, but of course could only papers choose from other kids in the class. I ended up working with four other students: two good friends of buy university report, mine, a guy I'd gone to elementary school, and another girl who'd been my classmate since middle school. Miniskirts! It was a lot of fun, because we all joked around about what we were learning.

A lot of times our work sessions ended up involving YouTube videos about Ben Bernanke singing or other things like that, which made us all want to hang out more. We ended up all doing well on the project. While this example starts out strong, it devolves into reminiscing about the social aspect of the group project, rather than staying focused around the prompt (Is cooperation better than competition?). Strategy: Prepare your examples ahead of time. Pick out to be essay, a couple each of research, historical, literary, pop culture/current event, and august english, personal examples that can be used as examples of miniskirts research papers, many different things. If you draw a blank in one area (for instance, if you tend to know history better than books), then come up with more examples in paper based learning, other areas to compensate. Next, practice writing about these examples and explaining them in a formal way (particularly when it comes to the stories and examples from miniskirts research your own life). The more familiar you are with these examples, the faster you'll be able to paper based learning write about them (in a way that is relevant) on test day. If you're not sure what makes a good example, take a look at these six examples of examples. 6. Fact: Your essay does not have to be factually correct. This is a little known fact about the SAT essay that I really wish I'd known when I was taking the papers, SAT way back when.

Because SAT essay scorers do not have time to august essays fact check, they are not allowed to deduct points if you make a mistake about a date on an essay; in miniskirts research papers, fact, part of the report, training that SAT essay scorers go through involves teaching them to ignore factual inaccuracies (no small roadbloack for experienced teachers to research papers have to get past!). A corollary of this lack of fact-checking is that you can make stuff up on the essay . You can do things like write that the black plague was caused by penicillin, and the graders have to buy university take your word for miniskirts research, it. Myth: Filling up the page is more important that content. While it’s true that highest scoring essays are pretty much without exception more than 1 page long , that doesn’t mean that writing more automatically gets you a higher score. Correlation does not imply causation; the papers, reason longer essays score better is because the miniskirts, students who write longer essays are usually the is a thesis, ones who have more to say. You can't just write a short story instead of the prompt, or fill up the last 2/3 of your second page with “I want a pony.

I want a pony. Miniskirts! I want a pony.” Even less extreme tactics aimed at filling up the page (repeating yourself, drawing out your words and stem research cons, phrases, making your handwriting bigger) won’t affect your score positively and may actually end up costing you points (for lack of clarity or organization). Strategy: Make up examples and information that supports your point. Don't be afraid to confabulate (to make up facts and examples) - it's better to make up specifics than to miniskirts research have a factually accurate but vague example . Often, students who are afraid of research based, getting the facts wrong end up being too vague on their essays and don't write enough to research papers get a top essay score. When you make up facts and examples, however, you must make sure the apa citation, examples actually DO support your point . And just as with the previous strategy, be clear and miniskirts research, use a formal tone in your explanation – graders might be less convinced by buy university report, your personal example if you say it happened to a friend of yours named “Iha Teessays” or “Colonel Patchypants,” rather than to a more realistically-named “Sam Vimes” or “Juanita Callahan.” Colonel Patchypants, I presume?

7. Fact: 4-, 5-, and 6- scoring essays are the research, most difficult to buy university tell apart. All of the sources I consulted confirmed that actual SAT essay graders can have a hard time telling the top-scoring essays apart (although sometimes 6 essays are really easy to miniskirts research pick out, just because they are so outstanding). Buy University! Is the essay generally organized and focused, or well organized and papers, focused? Does it show strong critical thinking or outstanding critical thinking? These incremental differences can be difficult to suss out, particularly if an essay is very strong in some areas and less strong in others. Because SAT essay graders get penalized for scoring essays 1 point apart from each other (especially if it happens multiple times), they prefer hedging bets and scoring the middle of the range they think the essay is want designer essay, in. Miniskirts Research Papers! As one grader pointed out, if an why i want to be designer essay, essay is at miniskirts papers least at 4, a 5 would be the safest grade for an essay scorer to apa citation give because that score is within one point of a 4 OR a 6, whereas giving the essay a 4 could result in penalties if the other grader gives it a 6. Strategy: Work on getting your essay up to a consistent 4.

If you can consistently write a 4-scoring essay, then there is a chance that an essay grader might look at papers it and think Better give this a 5 to be on the safe side. To consistently write at least a 4-scoring essay, you must use specific examples to support your thesis and have an organized essay as well as write in standard written English grammar (no 4 instead of want, four or b/c instead of miniskirts research papers, because). For more information on report, essay scoring, read my article on the SAT essay grading rubric. Make sure your essay has a solid thesis statement at the beginning and clear organization overall Leave yourself time to revise so that minor grammar errors don't add up. Research! Vocabulary is not as important as strong arguments and clear explanations of examples Prepare some sentence phrasings/transitional phrases ahead of time (as long as the wording is your own) Prepare specific examples ahead of time. Research On Brain! Make up examples to support your point if you need to (but make the miniskirts papers, examples convincing and clear) Aim for at least a 4 to embryonic stem essay give yourself a chance to edge over into another scoring level. Discover more ways to improve your SAT Writing score with these SAT Essay Tips. Do longer SAT essays score higher? Read about how essay score is related to essay length.

Want to get serious about research papers, improving your SAT score? We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 160+ points, guaranteed . Exclusive to our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and give you customized feedback on how to improve your score. Report! This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on the Writing section alone. Check out miniskirts, our 5-day free trial and sign up for free: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in what is a, Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and miniskirts papers, loves advising students on how to buy university report excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.

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