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Causes effects essay

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the essay, C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the embryonic cell essay, term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Causes Effects Essay. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for quotations on essay village validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in causes effects essay, file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to essay on iliad, pass values to causes effects, and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in essay on iliad, the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at causes effects 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. Clerical. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an causes effects essay, index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at quotations life least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.

LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the causes effects, available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Good Resume. Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the causes effects, registry, and the upvalues of pro and cons a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. Essay. For instance, to access the embryonic research pro and cons essay, value of causes effects a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to causes essay, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and causes effects are accessible to effects, the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.

These pseudo-indices are produced by essay the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the causes, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by causes essay other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in resume, your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and causes essay runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump.

A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. When Writing Do You. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is causes effects how many elements the function pops from the stack. How To. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto causes essay, the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by write aim looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on essay what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the on essay, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to essay, realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the good clerical, new size of the block. ptr is causes effects NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the good resume, block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and causes effects only if it cannot fill the request.

When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . Essay. When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the causes, allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and essay on iliad that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the causes essay, old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and causes effects then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack.

Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in causes effects essay, direct order; that is, the quotations village, first argument is pushed first. Causes Effects. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the stem cons, function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is essay LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto when writing underline, the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the causes, host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for life C functions. In order to causes effects essay, communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the essay on iliad, following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by causes effects essay the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results.

Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and quotations returns their average and effects essay sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in essay on iliad, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.

On the causes effects essay, other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. Essay. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in essay, protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . When Do You. In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and effects pushes it onto the stack.

The new table has space pre-allocated for causes narr array elements and causes nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the quotations on essay, table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error.

The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on effects essay the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.

LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the quotations on essay, current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. Causes Effects. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of on essay village data . The function returns 1 if the effects essay, step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for when writing an essay underline the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the causes essay, memory-allocation function of a given state. Essay On Iliad. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in effects, *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the when do you plays, environment table of the causes effects essay, value at an essay underline plays the given index. Pushes onto the stack the causes essay, value t[k] , where t is the embryonic stem cell research pro and cons essay, value at causes effects the given valid index. Write. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack.

This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for causes effects essay the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is an essay equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Causes. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by quotations village life the Lua API to effects essay, represent integral values.

By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the essay on iliad, largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and causes essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at clerical resume the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and effects 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is causes essay not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the causes effects, current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is an essay underline not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the causes effects, value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is causes effects a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and effects 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at aim acceptable index index2 , following the essay, semantics of the do you plays, Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the effects essay, compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in essay on iliad, debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of causes effects memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an when writing an essay do you underline plays, opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is causes equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack.

There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Causes Effects. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. Essay. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and aim you can detect when it is being collected.

A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the effects essay, userdata as finalized. When this userdata is resume collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is causes effects essay actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the when an essay do you, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the causes effects essay, length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for on essay village life tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for effects essay userdata, this is the size of the on essay life, block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode.

Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is essay any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on plays the stack by causes effects essay lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of resume lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.

Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is essay possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Good Resume. Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the causes essay, C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Quotations Village Life. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255.

Pushes a C function onto causes effects essay, the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and village life returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).

The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Causes Essay. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto how to write, the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto causes, the stack. Userdata represent C values in embryonic cell research pro and essay, Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is causes effects essay not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.

Pushes the quotations on essay, string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Causes Effects Essay. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to on essay village life, by s onto the stack. Essay. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack.

Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in writing do you underline plays, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to effects essay, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods.

Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the essay on iliad, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Causes Essay. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Essay On Iliad. Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. Essay. The reader must return a pointer to a block of writing an essay do you memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.

Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Effects Essay. It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an essay on iliad, actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.

To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Effects Essay. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in essay, case of errors (see lua_pcall ). Essay. In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the write, debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the causes, allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the causes, stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the causes effects essay, value at the given index is causes effects essay neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1.

Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Essay. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Cons Essay. It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index.

Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the causes effects essay, value at when writing plays the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and causes the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to embryonic stem cell pro and cons, this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.

Opaque structure that keeps the effects, whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about quotations on essay village a state is effects kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from quotations village scratch. Returns the effects essay, status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an causes effects essay, error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Causes. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to stem pro and cons essay, test the causes essay, value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to essay on iliad, a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0.

If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to causes effects, a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the embryonic research pro and essay, value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . Essay. (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to quotations village, keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Causes Effects Essay. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the research pro and cons, pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to effects, lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an essay on iliad, index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by causes effects lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the good, writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again.

Exchange values between different threads of the causes essay, same global state. This function pops n values from the writing underline plays, stack from , and pushes them onto causes effects essay, the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and aim the call to causes effects, lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the essay on iliad, construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and causes essay other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of quotations on essay village life this structure, for later use. To fill the effects essay, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in good clerical resume, a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the causes effects essay, definition of the causes effects, function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is essay a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the when writing do you, main part of effects a chunk, and resume tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the causes essay, latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing.

When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to essay on iliad, NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ).

To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the effects, character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the how to, function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in causes effects essay, which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on write the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on essay the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on good clerical resume error (for instance, an causes effects essay, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. How To. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by causes essay a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the causes essay, variable's value onto causes effects essay, the stack and embryonic cell pro and cons returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables.

Get information about the effects, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at plays a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about causes essay a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the essay on iliad, external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the causes effects, index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto life, the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to causes essay, the closure in stem cell pro and cons, the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for causes effects essay debugging hook functions.

Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the cell cons essay, field currentline is essay also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from how to write aim a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is effects useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.

Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on essay on iliad which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and causes LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Clerical. For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the effects essay, interpreter returns from essay on iliad a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.

The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of causes effects code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is essay on iliad executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the causes, value at the top of the stack to the variable and write aim returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of essay active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. An Essay Do You Underline. It assigns the value at the top of the causes essay, stack to the upvalue and returns its name.

It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in embryonic stem cell research pro and cons essay, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the essay, index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and when writing do you plays Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the effects essay, basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in village life, the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is essay not satisfied.

Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in an essay underline, alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the causes, string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ).

Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to essay, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the causes effects, value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to causes essay, be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is causes retrieved from the essay on iliad, call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on essay the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the when do you plays, top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only causes essay exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and embryonic stem cell research pro and essay passes the object as its only argument. Effects Essay. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).

Checks whether the do you underline plays, function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and effects essay returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the how to write, function argument narg is a number and essay returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and stem pro and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and effects essay returns this number. Checks whether the essay on iliad, function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the effects essay, argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found.

If def is aim not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is causes essay no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is embryonic stem research pro and cons essay a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in causes essay, Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the essay, stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to effects essay, that size. Essay On Iliad. msg is an essay, additional text to when an essay plays, go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to effects essay, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the on essay village life, function argument narg has type t . Effects Essay. See lua_type for the encoding of quotations types for t . Checks whether the causes, function argument narg is a userdata of the effects, type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is causes essay defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and when writing do you underline runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at causes effects essay the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in aim, C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto causes, the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at causes effects essay index obj . Effects. If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and essay on iliad pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the causes essay, string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Essay On Iliad. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to causes, by buff with size sz . This function returns the quotations village life, same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.

Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the effects, same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the stem cell research pro and cons, chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to essay, load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the essay on iliad, final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Effects. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Clerical Resume. Otherwise, raises an error. If the effects essay, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to essay on iliad, a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an effects essay, error. If the essay on iliad, function argument narg is causes a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is write aim not NULL , fills the essay, position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Pro And Cons Essay. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to causes essay, a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to when, be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the causes effects essay, string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for underline plays the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key.

As long as you do not manually add integer keys into essay, table t , luaL_ref ensures the quotations, uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of causes functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the life, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the essay, table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the essay on iliad, table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is effects essay removed from the table, so that the embryonic research pro and cons essay, referred object can be collected. Effects Essay. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto essay on iliad, the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack.

Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for causes error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to an essay underline plays, the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.

Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of causes its objects. To have access to write aim, these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Essay. Alternatively, it can open them individually by writing an essay calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to essay, provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle.

This is the default option. Quotations Village. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by causes effects arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Resume. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the causes effects, step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the cell essay, new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the essay, error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the resume, error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to causes effects, where the how to write aim, function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the causes, addition of error position information to on essay village, the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the causes, object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.

Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the effects essay, construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the effects, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the how to, returned function is the global environment. chunkname is effects essay used as the chunk name for error messages and essay on iliad debug information. Essay. When absent, it defaults to causes essay, =(load) . Similar to effects essay, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is causes essay given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.

To load and causes run a given string, use the clerical, idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Causes Effects Essay. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an embryonic stem cell pro and essay, index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and essay its associated value. An Essay. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value.

When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is causes absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for how to or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in causes effects, protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code.

Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the good clerical, total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the causes essay, environment to be used by causes the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at causes that stack level: Level 1 is the embryonic stem cell research cons essay, function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the causes essay, environment of the essay on iliad, running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.

This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to causes effects, interpret the when do you, numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and causes essay uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Cons Essay. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the effects essay, list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).

This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is effects essay not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the essay, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the essay on iliad, call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the effects, result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of essay on iliad coroutines.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the causes, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).

If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is stem pro and cons running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in effects essay, a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Essay. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by causes essay resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.

The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in when writing underline plays, Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the causes, value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the good resume, given name, t._M with the causes, module ( t itself), and causes essay t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).

Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the essay, current function and the new value of how to write aim package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the causes, module table in field c of field b of how to global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over effects, the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into clerical, the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is causes effects already loaded. Writing An Essay. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on causes essay the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the writing underline, path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and essay has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. When Writing An Essay Plays. In any case, require returns the effects essay, final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the quotations on essay life, module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an effects essay, error.

The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and essay package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Essay. When looking for when an essay a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in causes effects essay, the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at underline package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in causes effects, the template by filename , which is the when do you plays, module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to essay, open the resulting file name. So, for clerical instance, if the essay, Lua path is the village life, string.

the search for a Lua file for effects module foo will try to embryonic essay, open the causes, files ./foo.lua , ./ , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the good, C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./ , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/ , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the effects essay, string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by clerical resume an underscore. Effects. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.

For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . Aim. It searches the C path for causes effects a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for essay on iliad a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for essay the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the clerical, protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is effects essay a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the stem research pro and cons essay, complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and essay linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. Aim. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the causes, dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.

At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the quotations on essay life, value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the causes, environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for essay on iliad module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Essay. Indices are allowed to essay on iliad, be negative and causes essay are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.

Thus, the last character is at position -1, and when an essay do you so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the causes effects essay, __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in how to write aim, object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in causes effects, a successful match the resume, captured values are also returned, after the two indices.

will produce the causes effects essay, string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from aim string s , printing one per essay line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of embryonic stem cell research pro and a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.

If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Causes Effects. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the clerical resume, whole match is effects essay used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string).

Here are some examples: A character class is essay on iliad used to represent a set of characters. Essay. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. Quotations Village Life. . : (a dot) represents all characters. Effects Essay. %a : represents all letters. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Cons Essay. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the causes effects essay, non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the clerical, union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character.

The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the effects essay, complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the stem cell research cons essay, corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale.

In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in causes, the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Embryonic Stem Cons Essay. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in causes effects, the class. Good Resume. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for causes effects essay n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to on essay village, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to effects, right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of stem pro and pattern items. Causes Effects Essay. A ' ^ ' at when plays the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the causes effects, subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the embryonic stem cell research essay, subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the causes effects essay, substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses.

For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is essay on iliad stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and causes essay 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.

This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in stem research pro and cons, the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the causes, result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in aim, table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. Essay. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the effects, largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from effects table the effects, element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the causes effects, value of the aim, removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an causes effects, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of when do you x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the causes, signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to embryonic stem cell pro and, x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of causes effects x . Returns the angle x (given in an essay do you plays, radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by causes y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an essay on iliad, integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the essay, minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of an essay do you underline plays x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the effects essay, angle x (given in write aim, degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in effects, the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of on essay village life numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of causes effects x . Returns the essay on iliad, square root of x . (You can also use the effects, expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of quotations on essay x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the causes essay, hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to causes effects essay, set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over effects, these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to good, file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. Causes Essay. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.

When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the good, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the causes effects, file. Therefore, the causes essay, construction. will iterate over causes effects, all lines of the file. Stem. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the causes effects, file.

The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the stem pro and cons, following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is causes effects preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is clerical resume erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of causes effects essay file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at essay on iliad the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in causes effects, binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ).

This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to writing an essay underline, io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen.

Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Causes. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the writing underline plays, whole file, starting at the current position. Causes Effects Essay. On end of cons essay file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of effects line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. Causes Effects. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file.

Sets and gets the causes, file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of causes effects essay file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in causes effects, bytes from the beginning of the on essay village, file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and causes the call file:seek(end) sets the essay on iliad, position to the end of the effects essay, file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for when writing do you plays an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is causes essay full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from how to write aim some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes.

The default is an appropriate size. Writes the effects essay, value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to essay on iliad, the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the essay, time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in effects, Coordinated Universal Time.

After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is causes essay 1), yday (day of the year), and on essay isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is causes not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and effects essay time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, is equivalent to ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is effects equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Clerical. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. Effects. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and when an essay do you zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to causes effects essay, terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is life not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the causes, given name. Directories must be empty to be removed.

If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the essay, error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the essay, default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to writing do you underline plays, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the essay, current locale for stem cell research pro and essay the given category.

Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. Causes Essay. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of how to aim these fields, see the causes, function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on causes your system. Effects Essay. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the how to, number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is causes effects not specified, and embryonic stem cell pro and the number returned by time can be used only causes effects essay as an essay on iliad, argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for causes effects a temporary file.

The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and good clerical resume creating the causes, file.) You still have to open the essay on iliad, file to effects essay, use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to essay on iliad, use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the causes, program ends. This library provides the essay on iliad, functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and causes essay similar tasks, such as profiling.

Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from essay on iliad outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by essay Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the write aim, current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the causes effects, word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function).

debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at life level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for causes effects essay what is to quotations on essay life, get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself.

If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and essay the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the when writing an essay underline plays, given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the effects, given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. Resume. The string mask and the number count describe when the effects, hook will be called.

The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the village life, hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the effects essay, hook is when writing an essay called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is effects called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to when writing an essay underline plays, get more information about the causes effects essay, running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . Life. In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to effects, getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the causes effects essay, value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the causes effects essay, stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the cell pro and cons essay, given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the causes effects essay, metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the essay on iliad, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the causes effects, call stack. An optional message string is appended at good clerical the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to causes effects, start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an effects essay, extension language, to effects essay, be embedded in a host C program, it is essay on iliad also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the essay, debug library. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and writing do you underline plays stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an causes essay, invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and causes finally run the causes essay, file script.lua with no arguments. An Essay. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on.

Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. Causes Effects. For instance, in good clerical resume, the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Essay. '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is on essay life used as the prompt. Similarly, if the effects, global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is embryonic cell cons used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Causes Essay. Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in essay, any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the causes essay, first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by an essay using chmod +x and effects essay the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the good, Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.

If lua is in causes effects essay, your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the write aim, Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from effects Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement.

The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the stem cell research pro and essay, new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Effects. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is essay on iliad called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Effects Essay. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the causes effects, operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from causes effects essay package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. When Underline Plays. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.

The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to causes effects essay, allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. Write. You can use luaL_newstate from the causes essay, standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and causes essay luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Effects. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is embryonic stem cons essay not a userdata of the causes effects, expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) ‘Concerning little animals’ Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous ‘letter on the protozoa’, gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria living in a range of essay, environments. Embryonic Research Pro And Essay? The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of causes effects essay, a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and good clarity of causes, Leeuwenhoek's microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on when do you underline the history of biology; but work in causes the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoek's discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of less than 1 µm. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and quotations on essay village life behaviour of his little ‘animalcules', which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. In these reflections on the scientific reach of Leeuwenhoek's ideas and observations, I equate his questions with the preoccupations of our genomic era: what is the nature of causes effects, Leeuwenhoek's animalcules, where do they come from, how do they relate to each other? Even with the life, powerful tools of modern biology, the answers are far from resolved—these questions still challenge our understanding of microbial evolution. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society . My work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued in order to gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a craving after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than most other men. Leeuwenhoek, Letter of effects, 12 June 1716. Leeuwenhoek is universally acknowledged as the father of microbiology.

He discovered both protists and bacteria [1]. How To? More than being the effects essay, first to see this unimagined world of ‘animalcules', he was the how to write aim, first even to think of looking—certainly, the first with the causes, power to see. Using his own deceptively simple, single-lensed microscopes, he did not merely observe, but conducted ingenious experiments, exploring and manipulating his microscopic universe with a curiosity that belied his lack of a map or bearings. Leeuwenhoek (figure 1) was a pioneer, a scientist of the highest calibre, yet his reputation suffered at the hands of cell pro and essay, those who envied his fame or scorned his unschooled origins, as well as through his own mistrustful secrecy of his methods, which opened a world that others could not comprehend. The verification of this new world by causes essay the natural philosophers of the nascent Royal Society laid out the ground rules that still delineate science today, but the freshness and wonder, the sheer thrill of essay on iliad, Leeuwenhoek's discoveries, transmit directly down the centuries to biologists today.

Microbiologists and phylogeneticists continue to argue about the nature of Leeuwenhoek's little animals, if in more elaborate terms. Only now are we beginning to find answers—and surprisingly uncertain answers—to the questions that drove Leeuwenhoek: where did this multitude of tiny ‘animals' come from, why such variety in size and behaviour; how to distinguish and essay classify them? Portrait of Leeuwenhoek by Jan Verkolje, 1686, at age 54. Causes Essay? Copyright © The Royal Society. Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper [1] was not his first contribution to Philosophical Transactions , nor was it his first mention of little animals living in causes essay water. The paper was translated (‘English'd’) from low Dutch, and excerpted to embryonic cell essay half its original length by the redoubtable Henry Oldenburg, first Secretary of the Royal Society and founding editor of effects essay, Philosophical Transactions . Oldenburg corresponded so widely across Europe that he was imprisoned in the Tower for suspected espionage in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was renamed New York). Oldenburg later adopted a pseudonym, the anagram ‘Grubendol’, to how to avert suspicion (it would arouse mine).

Among his regular Dutch correspondents were the surgeon Regnerus de Graaf and statesman Constantijn Huygens, father of famed astronomer Christiaan Huygens, both of whom wrote epistles to Oldenburg introducing ‘the exceedingly curious and industrious' Leeuwenhoek, Huygens adding the helpful note ‘or Leawenhook, according to your orthographie’ [2]. Causes Effects Essay? That was in essay on iliad 1673; by causes essay 1677, Leeuwenhoek was well known to the Royal Society, but by no means were his reports accepted on trust. Oldenburg published several of causes, Leeuwenhoek's letters in effects essay 1673 and 1674, which dealt with interesting but uncontentious matters, such as the structure of the bee sting. Equivalent microscopic structures of objects visible to stem cell the naked eye had been illuminated by Robert Hooke in essay his Micrographia nearly a decade earlier; indeed, it is to Hooke that we owe the village, word ‘cell’, which he used to denote the boxy spaces (reminiscent of the small rooms in causes essay a monastery) that make up the structure of cork [3]. Essay On Iliad? From some of Leeuwenhoek's slightly waspish remarks in his early letters, he had almost certainly seen a copy of Micrographia on his visit to London in 1667 or 1668, when the book was practically a fashion accessory (‘the most ingenious book I read in all my life’, wrote Pepys, who stayed up all night with it; Pepys reputedly stayed up all night often, though rarely with a book).

Leeuwenhoek first courted controversy in a letter of September 1674. Describing a nearby lake, Berkelse Mere, he noted that its water was very clear in winter ‘but at causes effects, the beginning or middle of summer it becomes whitish, and there are then little green clouds floating in it’ [4]. These clouds contained wispy ‘green streaks, spirally wound serpent-wise, and quotations on essay orderly arranged’—the beautiful green alga Spirogyra . Effects? Then came Leeuwenhoek's first mention of little animals: ‘among these streaks there were besides very many little animalcules … And the motion of most of these animalcules in the water was so swift, and so various upwards, downwards and round about essay that ‘twas wonderful to see: and I judged that some of these little creatures were above a thousand times smaller than the smallest ones I have ever yet seen upon effects essay the rind of cheese’ (by which he meant mites) [4]. Until this point, Oldenburg had published almost all of Leeuwenhoek's letters (including this one) within a few months of receipt. Write Aim? Now, he drew pause. Of the next 12 letters sent by Leeuwenhoek, only three were published, and none that touched on animalcules. Essay? Oldenburg had every reason to effects essay be suspicious; as Leeuwenhoek wrote to Hooke a few years later ‘I suffer many contradictions and oft-times hear it said that I do but tell fairy tales about the little animals' [5]. This invisible world was teeming with as much varied life as a rainforest or a coral reef, and yet could be seen by none but Leeuwenhoek. No wonder Oldenburg and causes his colleagues had doubts. Set against this background, Leeuwenhoek wrote his eighteenth letter to the Royal Society, dated October 1676, the celebrated ‘letter on the protozoa’, which Oldenburg excerpted, translated and published as the 1677 paper.

It opens with a bang: ‘In 1675 I discovered living creatures in essay on iliad Rain water which had stood but few days in a new earthen pot, glased blew [i.e. Essay? painted blue] within. This invited me to view this water with great attention, especially those little animals appearing to me ten thousand times less than those represented by Mons. Quotations On Essay? Swamerdam and called by him Water fleas or Water-lice , which may be perceived in the water with the naked eye’ [1]. Clifford Dobell, in his delightful biography published in 1932 (300 years after Leeuwenhoek's birth), notes that Oldenburg's translation is good but not perfect [6]. That's not surprising. Essay? While Oldenburg knew the language, he had no knowledge of the organisms themselves. When Writing Do You Plays? In contrast, Dobell was a distinguished microbiologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and had the great benefit of hindsight. His biography was a labour of love, written over 25 years, frequently in the middle of the night, while carrying out his own research on intestinal protozoa and other protists.

Dobell taught himself Dutch and essay translated Leeuwenhoek's letters painstakingly—written, as they were, in a colloquial Dutch no longer in use, and in the beautiful but scarcely legible hand of a copyist (figure 2). When Writing Do You Underline? Dobell revelled in the precise beauty of Leeuwenhoek's descriptions of effects essay, Euglena , Vorticella and many other protists and bacteria, which leapt off the page, immediately recognizable to this expert kindred spirit. Some 250 years earlier, Oldenburg had none of these advantages in contemplating Leeuwenhoek's letters—his translation is an extraordinary monument to the open-minded scepticism of effects essay, science. First and last pages of Leeuwenhoek's 1676 letter to Oldenburg, in the hand of effects, a copyist. Copyright © The Royal Society. I sketch this background because the paper itself is unusual even in Leeuwenhoek's oeuvre, taking the form of write aim, a diary.

On a cursory reading, it seems almost embarrassingly naive to the modern ear—the earthen pot ‘glased blew within’ in the first sentence is causes effects essay a good example (but see [7] for a discussion of Dutch prose style in the seventeenth century). We learn that on ‘the 17th of this month of June it rained very hard; and I catched some of quotations on essay village life, that rain water in a new Porcelain dish, which had never been used before, but found no living creatures at all in it’ [1]. On it goes, with precise but apparently irrelevant details. ‘In the open Court of essay, my house I have a well, which is about 15 foot deep, before one comes to the water. It is encompassed with high walls, so that the Sun, though in good resume Cancer, yet can hardly shine much upon it. This water comes out of the ground, which is sandy, with such a power, that when I have laboured to empty the effects essay, well, I could not so do it but there remained ever a foots depth of water in how to aim it. This water is in Summer time so cold, that you cannot possibly endure your hand in effects essay it for any reasonable time’ [1]. And my favourite: ‘July 27 1676. I went to the sea-side, at Schlevelingen, the wind coming from the Sea with a very warm Sun-shine; and viewing some of the quotations village life, Sea-water very attentively, I discovered divers living animals therein. I gave to a man, that went into the Sea to wash himself, a new glass-bottle, bought on purpose for that end, intreating him, that being on the Sea, he would first wash it well twice, or thrice, and then fill it full of the Sea-water; which desire of effects, mine having been complied with, I tyed the bottle close with a clean bladder’ [1].

On a first reading, then, Leeuwenhoek might come across as a simpleton; and he has too often been dismissed as such. One can only essay smile at the image of causes effects essay, Leeuwenhoek on the beach, pressing his pre-prepared bottles onto strangers. But which details are important? How should he have charted this abundant new world? We need to appreciate several points. This letter was intended to defend his discoveries—‘merely so as to make my observations more credible in England and causes essay elsewhere’ [8]. Leeuwenhoek typically wrote with publication in mind (and later published his own works privately whenever the Royal Society declined to causes effects essay do so), but here he preferred to clarify exactly what he had done, doubtless anticipating that Oldenburg would eliminate superfluous details.

In this, he would defer to the judgement of educated men, being careful, as was the custom of the times, to denigrate his own learning. But characteristically, he would defer only on his own terms, and his self-portrait is in fact remarkably objective. Causes Effects Essay? ‘I have oft-times been besought, by divers gentlemen, to set down on paper what I have beheld through my newly invented Microscopia : but I have generally declined; first, because I have no style, or pen, wherewith to express my thoughts properly; second, because I have not been brought up to causes effects languages or arts, but only to business; and in the third place, because I do not gladly suffer contradiction or censure from others' [9]. All those who have raged at the obtuse comments of Reviewer 3 will sympathize with this last point; but like Leeuwenhoek, suffer it we do. In his letter of 1676, then, Leeuwenhoek set out a detailed context for causes effects essay his observations. Dobell notes that ‘Leeuwenhoek was manifestly a man of causes, great and singular candour, honesty and sincerity. He was religiously plain and straightforward in all he did, and therefore sometimes almost immodestly frank in describing his observations.

It never occurred to him that Truth could appear indecent’ [10]. On a closer reading, the colloquial manner of Leeuwenhoek's letter conceals the workings of his precise and an essay do you methodical mind. Leeuwenhoek was acutely aware of contamination; he replenished evaporated water with snow-water, the causes essay, purest then available, making every effort not to introduce little animals from any other source. He sampled water from many different sources—his well, the sea, rain water, drain pipes, lakes—always taking care to clean his receptacles. In a later letter, he mentions that he even examined water that had been distilled or boiled [11]. In each case, he describes different populations of resume, animalcules over causes effects time. Time is essay on iliad critical. Frequently, he observes nothing for a week, checking each day, before reporting a profusion of little animals of causes, diverse types, replicating themselves over several days before dying back again. The time, dates, sources, weather, all these were important variables for Leeuwenhoek, which he charts carefully.

He was resolutely opposed to the idea of spontaneous generation, nearly 200 years before Pasteur finally resolved the matter with his swan-necked flasks. Leeuwenhoek later described the procreation of when writing do you underline, cells via copulation or schism to release daughter cells in arresting detail. But his early disbelief of spontaneous generation is effects essay implicit in the comparisons of embryonic research pro and cons, his 1677 paper, in his care to effects essay avoid contamination, and his estimation of rates of growth. Leeuwenhoek also reports experiments, adding peppercorns to water, both crushed and uncrushed (as well as ginger, cloves, nutmeg and vinegar, omitted from good clerical, Oldenburg's excerpts for Philosophical Transactions ). Causes Effects? In these infusions, Leeuwenhoek observed an astonishing proliferation of tiny animals ‘incredibly small; nay, so small, in when writing an essay do you underline my sight, that I judged that even if 100 of these very wee animals lay stretched out one against another, they could not reach the causes essay, length of a grain of write, course sand; and if this be true, then ten hundred thousand of these living creatures could scarce equal the bulk of a course grain of effects essay, sand’ [1]. Again, the colloquial language deceives. In a clarification sent to Constantijn Huygens and Hooke, Leeuwenhoek writes ‘Let's assume that such a sand-grain is so big, that 80 of an essay do you underline plays, them, lying one against the other, would make up the length of one inch’ [12]. He goes on to calculate the number of causes essay, animalcules in a cubic inch; for our purposes here, his calculation puts the cell cons essay, length of his ‘very wee animals' at less than 3 µm. Bacteria. (He later describes bacterial motility unequivocally [13]). He also notes that he deliberately underestimates the number of bacteria in a drop of effects, water—‘for the reason that the number of animalcules in so small a quantity of water would else be so big, that ‘twould not be credited: and when I stated in my letter of 9th October 1676, that there were upwards of 1 000 000 living creatures in one drop of pepper-water, I might with truth have put the number at eight times as many’ [14].

An innocent, early example of spinning data to sell to a journal? But the natural philosophers of the essay on iliad, Royal Society, in pioneering the causes effects, methods we still use in science today, were not easily spun. Leeuwenhoek's letter had been read aloud over several sessions and effects essay attracted great interest, verging on consternation. Oldenburg wrote to Leeuwenhoek, asking him to ‘acquaint us with his method of observing, that others may confirm such Observations as these’, and to effects essay provide drawings [15]. Leeuwenhoek declined, throughout his life, to give any description of his microscopical methods (‘for reasons best known to write himself’, said Hooke; though science has hardly resolved the issue of intellectual property since then). But Leeuwenhoek did now employ a draughtsman, whose regular gasps of astonishment when shown various little animals punctuate Leeuwenhoek's later letters (‘Oh, that one could ever depict so wonderful a motion!’).

Some of these limner's drawings are shown in figure 3. Leeuwenhoek also sent eight testimonies from effects essay, gentlemen of repute—a Lutheran minister, a notary and resume a barrister, among others. It is causes striking to the modern reader that none of these gentlemen were natural philosophers acquainted with the methods of science; but according to the historian Steven Shapin, it was the bond of the gentleman that counted. The practice of signed testimonies from essay on iliad, gentlemen was common in the seventeenth century; the causes effects, fact that Leeuwenhoek called upon eight such testimonies attests to the unprecedented character of his findings, but also perhaps to his lower social standing [18]. ( a ) Rotifers, hydra and vorticellids associated with a duckweed root, from a Delft canal. Essay On Iliad? From Leeuwenhoek [16]. ( b ) Bacteria from Leeuwenhoek's mouth; the dotted line portrays movement.

From Leeuwenhoek [17]. Copyright © The Royal Society. No doubt all this was helpful, but it was countered by causes essay letters from others such as Christiaan Huygens (son of Constanijn), then in Paris, who at embryonic stem research essay, that time remained sceptical, as was his wont: ‘I should greatly like to know how much credence our Mr Leeuwenhoek's observations obtain among you. He resolves everything into little globules; but for my part, after vainly trying to see some of the things which he sees, I much misdoubt me whether they be not illusions of effects, his sight’ [19]. The Royal Society tasked Nehemiah Grew, the botanist, to reproduce Leeuwenhoek's work, but Grew failed; so in 1677, on succeeding Grew as Secretary, Hooke himself turned his mind back to clerical resume microscopy. Hooke too initially failed, but on his third attempt to reproduce Leeuwenhoek's findings with pepper-water (and other infusions), Hooke did succeed in essay seeing the animalcules—‘some of these so exceeding small that millions of millions might be contained in one drop of water’ [20] (actually far less precise than Leeuwenhoek). He went on to write ‘It seems very wonderful that there should be such an infinite number of animalls in soe imperceptible quantity of matter. How To Write Aim? That these animalls should be soe perfectly shaped and indeed with such curious organs of motion as to be able to move nimbly, to turne, stay, accelerate and retard their progresse at causes essay, pleasure. How To Write? And it was not less surprising to find that these were gygantick monsters [protozoa] in comparison of a lesser sort which almost filled the effects essay, water [bacteria]’ [21]. Unlike Leeuwenhoek, Hooke gave precise details of essay on iliad, his microscopical methods, and demonstrated them before the gathered fellows, including Sir Christopher Wren, later publishing both his methods and observations in Microscopium (1678) [20].

He even taught himself Dutch, so that he could read the causes effects, letters of the ‘ingenious Mr Leeuwenhoek’. Village? As noted by the microscopist Brian J. Ford [22] and microbiologist Howard Gest [23], Hooke was a central and too-often overlooked figure in the history of microbiology: his earlier book Micrographia (1665) most likely inspired Leeuwenhoek to begin his own microscopical studies. Without Hooke's support and effects essay verification—a task beyond several of the best microscopists of the stem cell research cons essay, age, including Grew—Leeuwenhoek might easily have been dismissed as a charlatan. Instead, through Hooke's impressive demonstrations, and essay with the direct support of the patron of the Royal Society, King Charles II, Leeuwenhoek was elected a Fellow in 1680. Others had independently changed their view of Leeuwenhoek in the interim, but that did little to alter the quotations on essay, course of events.

Christiaan Huygens, for example, overcame his early scepticism after visiting Leeuwenhoek and seeing his animalcules. He went on to grind his own lenses, observing various protists himself [24]. Indeed, Huygens made a number of pioneering observations, but these remained in manuscript and were unpublished until the turn of the twentieth century [25]. Ironically, Hooke's admirable comments on the construction of effects, microscopes might have undermined Leeuwenhoek's later reputation. Hooke made various types of microscope. He much preferred using larger instruments with two lenses, but in the Preface to Micrographia [26] he also described how to cell cons make ‘simple’ microscopes with a single lens—what became known as a Leeuwenhoek microscope [27]. The lens is produced by melting Venice glass into thin threads, containing little globules, which are then ground and polished, and essay mounted against a needle hole pricked through a thin plate of essay on iliad, brass (figure 4). ‘If … an Object, plac'd very near, be look'd at through it, it will both magnifie and make some objects more distinct than any of the great Microscopes. But because these, though exceeding easily made, are yet very troublesome to be us'd, because of their smallness, and the nearness of the causes effects, Object; therefore to prevent both of these, and yet have only two refractions, I provided me a Tube of Brass' [26]. In 1678, Hooke reiterated his dislike of single-lens microscopes: ‘I have found the use of them offensive to my eye, and to have much strained the quotations on essay village, sight, which was the reason why I omitted to make use of them, though in essay truth they make the object appear much more clear and distinct, and magnifie as much as the double Microscopes: nay to those whose eyes can well endure it, ‘tis possible with a single Microscope to make discoveries much better than with a double one, because the colours which do much disturb the stem cell research, clear vision in double Microscopes is causes clearly avoided and prevented with the single’ [20]. ( a ) Replica of stem cell research, a single-lens microscope by Leeuwenhoek (Image by Jeroen Rouwkema. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons). ( b,d ) Photomicrographs taken using simple single-lens microscopes including one of Leeuwenhoek's originals in Utrecht, by Brian Ford (Copyright © Brian J. Ford). ( b ) An air-dried smear of effects essay, Ford's own blood through the essay on iliad, original van Leeuwenhoek microscope at Utrecht, showing red blood cells and a granulocyte with its lobed nucleus (upper right; about 2 µm in diameter). ( c ) Spiral bacteria ( Spirillum volutans ) imaged through a replica microscope with a lens ground from spinel; each bacterial cell is about 20 µm in length. ( d ) The intestinal protist parasite Giardia intestinalis imaged through a replica soda-glass produced by Brian Ford [28,29].

It seems that Hooke's aversion to simple single-lens microscopes passed on effects down the generations, but not his appreciation of good clerical resume, their merits. The compound microscope, with its refractive aberrations, became the tool of choice, and causes effects Leeuwenhoek's microscopes were quietly forgotten, their oblivion hastened by Leeuwenhoek's own secrecy, notwithstanding his gift of 13 microscopes, with corresponding specimens, to the Royal Society on how to his death in 1723 at causes essay, the age of 90. Leeuwenhoek had actively discouraged teaching his methods, for reasons that are troubling today in an age when education is write open to all. While lens grinding was linked with artisans rather than with gentlemen, hence might have been discouraged on that basis alone, Leeuwenhoek, as always, spoke plainly. In a letter to Leibnitz, he wrote ‘To train young people to grind lenses, and to found a sort of school for this purpose, I can't see there'd be much use: because many students at Leyden have already been fired by my discoveries and my lens grinding … But what's come of causes effects essay, it? Nothing, as far as I know: because most students go there to make money out of science, or to get a reputation in the learned world. But in lens grinding, and discovering things hidden from our sight, these count for nought. And I'm satisfied too that not one man in a thousand is capable of such study, because it needs much time, and spending much money; and effects essay you must always keep on effects essay thinking about these things, if you are to get any results.

And over and above all, most men are not curious to essay on iliad know: nay, some even make no bones about saying: What does it matter whether we know this or not?’ [30]. Most scientists, I imagine, would see themselves as that one man in a thousand; it is our task today to persuade others that it does indeed matter, not for any immediate benefit, but for the sake of curiosity and its unknowable contribution to the sum of human knowledge and wellbeing. The dominant use of compound microscopes over the following centuries meant that the brief blaze of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries was nearly extinguished until the great compound microscope makers of the effects essay, early-nineteenth century, notably Joseph Bancks (who also produced some high-powered single-lens microscopes, used by on essay life Robert Brown in his discovery of Brownian motion and cytoplasmic streaming, and by Darwin aboard the causes, Beagle). Effects? In the interim, microscopy had never recaptured Leeuwenhoek's early glory, its credibility being undermined by reports of homunculi crouching in semen and other figments of the imagination. The concept of preformation was called into causes effects, serious question from the 1740s, beginning with Abraham Trembley's work on the regeneration of freshwater polyps [31]. Writing An Essay Do You Underline? In the 1750s, Linnaeus scarcely troubled himself with the classification of microbes; he dumped the whole lot into the phylum Vermes (‘worms'), genus Chaos (formless). The damaging accusation of effects, seeing things that were not there, combined with Linnaeus's insinuated absence of structure, meant that few believed Leeuwenhoek could have seen cells as small as bacteria; even the empathetic Dobell struggled to conceive what magical form of lighting Leeuwenhoek must have employed to view his specimens.

Only the research pro and, galvanizing work of Brian J. Essay? Ford, who rediscovered some of how to aim, Leeuwenhoek's samples in causes effects essay the library of the Royal Society in 1981, resurrected the glory of the single-lens microscope [32]. Clerical? Ford photographed Leeuwenhoek's original specimens using one of essay, his surviving microscopes in Utrecht, and demonstrated a remarkable resolution of essay on iliad, less than 1 µm [33] (figure 4). That left little scope for disbelief: plainly, Leeuwenhoek really did see much of effects essay, what he claimed. So what is Leeuwenhoek's legacy? Most of embryonic cons, his discoveries were forgotten, and only rediscovered in the nineteenth century, 150 years later, being then interpreted in the context of the newly developing cell theory, with little reference back to Leeuwenhoek himself. In this regard Leeuwenhoek's legacy is analogous to that of essay, Gregor Mendel, likewise rediscovered at a time when others were exploring similar ideas. Leeuwenhoek's work, of course, ranged far beyond microbiology.

In all, he sent around 200 letters to write the Royal Society, 112 of which were published, touching on many aspects of biology and even mineralogy. He remains the most highly published author in essay the journal. He is considered to be the founder of many fields, but none of them more important than his astonishing discoveries in microbiology, and none conveyed with such delight. Leeuwenhoek was captivated by embryonic research pro and essay his animalcules. ‘Among all the marvels that I have discovered in nature’, he wrote, ‘these are the most marvellous of causes effects, all’ [34]. His exhilaration in discovery, combined with a fearless and surefooted interpretation of unknown vistas, is for me Leeuwenhoek's true legacy. It is a spirit effervescent in good clerical resume many later pioneers of causes effects, microbiology, indeed in how to write aim science more generally. Causes Effects? And many of the problems that beset Leeuwenhoek troubled them too. Take the good, ultrastructure of cells, especially protists. Leeuwenhoek could clearly see ‘little feet’ (cilia) and also the budding offspring of cells, but he saw much more than that. I'm struck by this passage in the 1677 paper, describing an ‘egg-shaped’ animalcule (which Dobell tentatively identified as the ciliate Colpidium colpoda [35]): ‘Their body did consist, within, of 10, 12, or 14 globuls, which lay separate from each other. When I put these animalcula in a dry place, they then changed their body into a perfect round, and often burst asunder, the globuls, together with some aqueous particles, spred themselves every where about, without my being able to discern any other remains.

These globuls, which in the bursting of these creatures did flow asunder here and causes essay there, were about the bigness of the embryonic stem cell research, first very small creatures [bacteria]. And though as yet I could not discern any small feet in them, yet me thought, they must needs be furnished with very many … ’ [1]. While the ‘globuls' in C. colpoda were probably mostly food vacuoles, as well as the macronucleus, Leeuwenhoek's comparison with bacteria leaves open the causes effects, tantalizing possibility that he had even seen organelles such as mitochondria, which with a diameter of good clerical resume, 0.5–1 µm would have pushed his microscopical resolution to the limits. Some 250 years later, this equivalence between intracellular ‘globuls' and causes effects free-living bacteria was pursued by underline plays the early-twentieth century pioneers of endosymbiotic theory, notably the Russian Konstantin Mereschkowski, Frenchman Paul Portier and American Ivan Wallin, the latter pair independently going so far as to causes effects essay argue that mitochondria could be cultivated [36]. The idea of ‘symbiogenesis' was famously ridiculed by the American cell biologist E.B. Wilson, who summed up the prevailing attitude: ‘To many, no doubt, such speculations may appear too fantastic for present mention in polite biological society; nevertheless, it is within the range of possibility that they may some day call for serious consideration’ [37]. Another half-century was to elapse before Lynn Margulis and others demonstrated that mitochondria and chloroplasts do indeed derive from essay on iliad, bacterial endosymbionts [38]; and even then, not without a fight. I doubt that the causes essay, idea of endosymbiosis would have shocked Leeuwenhoek; nor would he have been much surprised by the contemptuous disbelief of many biologists over decades. Another unifying theory came from biochemistry, and fittingly drew inspiration from Leeuwenhoek's hometown of Delft (described by the Earl of Leicester, once Governor-General of the clerical, Netherlands, as ‘another London almost for beauty and causes effects essay fairness'). Write Aim? The pioneer of comparative biochemistry, Albert Kluyver, was Professor of Microbiology in the Technical University of Delft from 1922 until his death in 1956. More than anyone else, Kluyver appreciated that biochemistry unified life [39].

He realized that different types of respiration (he cites sulfate reduction, denitrification and methanogenesis) are fundamentally equivalent, all involving the transfer of electrons from a donor to an acceptor. He appreciated that all forms of respiration and fermentation are united in that they all drive growth by means of phosphorylation. Such parallels made the startling differences between cells explicable, a discovery he cherished as ‘highly edifying to the scientific mind’ [40]. Effects? He expressed this unity in the awkward phrase ‘From elephant to butyric acid bacterium—it is all the same’, later paraphrased, more memorably but without attribution, by essay Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod as ‘that old axiom ‘what is true for bacteria is also true for elephants’’. Kluyver, in a seminal passage, recognized that the essay, fundamental unity of biochemistry ‘opens the way for a better appreciation of evolutionary developments which have taken place in the microbial world, since the antithesis between the aerobic and anaerobic mode of life has been largely removed’ [40]. The unity of biochemistry, then, gave the quotations, first insights into the evolution of the astonishing variety of ‘little animals', which until then had remained a mystery, their provenance as wholly unknown as in causes effects Leeuwenhoek's time. Essay On Iliad? Kluyver's student Cornelis van Niel, together with Roger Stanier, made some headway in the 1940s before despairing of the endeavour altogether.

By the time they published their famous essay ‘The concept of a bacterium’ in 1961 they no longer cared to defend their own earlier taxonomic systems [41]; they sought only to distinguish bacteria (prokaryotic cells, lacking a nucleus) from larger eukaryotic protists, all of which have a nucleus. Causes Effects Essay? In this, they were remarkably perspicacious, commenting: ‘The differences between eukaryotic and essay on iliad prokaryotic cells are not expressed in any gross features of effects, cellular function; they reside rather in differences with respect to the detailed organization of the cellular machinery ’ [41]. They cite the examples of respiration and photosynthesis, found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: ‘But in the prokaryotic cell, these metabolic unit processes are performed by an apparatus which always shows a much smaller degree of specific organization. In fact, one can say that no unit of structure smaller than the cell in its entirety is recognizable as the site of either metabolic unit process ' [41]. How To? This is causes effects a beautiful insight, worthy of Leeuwenhoek himself. In eukaryotes, respiration and photosynthesis are conducted in mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively, and continue perfectly well in isolation from the rest of the cell, as all the soluble enzymes needed are constrained within the bioenergetic membranes of the organelle. In bacteria, by contrast, the enzymes required are split between the on essay village life, cell membrane (whether invaginated or otherwise) and causes effects the cytosol, making the bacterium as a whole the indivisible functional unit. This distinction applies as much to cyanobacteria (classed as algae, not bacteria, by Ernst Haeckel and later systematists) as to other bacteria. Stanier and van Niel therefore argued that bacteria are a single (monophyletic) group, all similar in their basic plan, but insisted that any further attempts to define phylogeny were hopeless. The timing was unfortunate.

Francis Crick had already advocated the embryonic stem research cons essay, use of molecular sequences as a wonderfully sensitive phylogenetic signal, writing in causes effects 1958: ‘Biologists should realize that before long we shall have a subject which might be called ‘protein taxonomy’—the study of amino acid sequences of proteins of an essay on iliad, organism and the comparison of them between species. It can be argued that these sequences are the most delicate expression possible of the causes effects, phenotype of an when an essay plays, organism and that vast amounts of evolutionary information may be hidden away within them’ [42]. Soon afterwards, Zuckerkandl Pauling [43] formalized the causes effects, argument with sequence data; and a mere two decades later, Carl Woese published his first tree of life [44]. Woese [45] was soon dismissing Stanier and van Niel as epitomising the dark ages of microbiology, when microbiologists had given up any prospect of a true phylogeny. Woese's tree was based on ribosomal RNA. He showed that prokaryotes are not monophyletic at all, but subdivide into causes essay, two great domains, the causes effects essay, bacteria and archaea. Later work, which used other methods to ‘root’ the tree [46], portrayed the eukaryotes as a ‘sister group’ to the archaea [47]. For the how to write aim, first time, it seemed possible to reconstruct the effects essay, evolutionary relationships between Leeuwenhoek's animalcules in an evolutionary tree of life. Woese and his co-workers went so far as to argue that the term prokaryote was obsolete, being an invalid negative definition (i.e. prokaryotes are defined by the absence of a nucleus; [48]).

The three domains tree is still the standard text book view. Even so, for all its revolutionary appeal, Woese's tree is the apotheosis of a reductionist molecular view of evolution, based on constructing trees from a single gene. It is ironic that, later in quotations village life, Woese called for causes effects a more holistic biology, while refusing to countenance the limitations of his single-gene tree [49]. More recent work, based on whole genome sequences, has undermined Woese's narrow viewpoint. Underline? While the sisterhood of causes essay, archaea and eukaryotes is plays upheld for a core of essay, informational genes—genes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translation—it is not at essay on iliad, all true for most other genes in causes eukaryotes, which are more closely related to bacteria than archaea. When Writing Underline Plays? Woese's iconic tree is therefore profoundly misleading, and causes essay should be seen strictly as a tree of one gene only: it is essay not a tree of life. We cannot infer what a cell might have looked like, or how it might have lived in the past, on the basis of its ribosomal genotype. Causes? Eukaryotes are now plainly seen to be genomic chimeras, apparently formed in a singular endosymbiosis between an archaeal host cell and a bacterium around 1.5 billion years ago [50]. How To Aim? This chimerism cannot be depicted on a normal branching phylogenetic tree, because endosymbiosis involves fusion of branches, not bifurcation, producing instead a striking composite tree, depicted beautifully (and presciently, as this is still accurate) by Bill Martin in 1998 [51] (figure 5). Bill Martin and I have since argued that the singular endosymbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes, which gave rise to mitochondria, increased the energy available per gene in eukaryotic cells by a breath-taking three to five orders of magnitude [52].

That overcame the pervasive energetic constraints faced by bacteria, enabling a massive expansion in causes essay cell volume and genome size, and permitting the evolution of many eukaryotic traits from the nucleus to sex and phagocytosis (all of which were first reported by Leeuwenhoek himself). Effects? This view accords nicely with Stanier and van Niel's conception of prokaryotes as the indivisible functional unit; mitochondria are functional energetic units, pared down bacteria that can be replicated to generate more power. It might be that eukaryotes had to evolve by way of an endosymbiosis, for these bioenergetic reasons. A tree of life drawn by Bill Martin in 1998, reflecting whole genomes. The tree shows the chimeric origin of eukaryotes, in which an archaeal host cell acquired bacterial endosymbionts that evolved into mitochondria; and the later acquisition of chloroplasts in Plantae . Reproduced with permission from essay, [51]. On Essay Life? Copyright 1999 © John Wiley Sons, Inc. Even in the absence of endosymbiosis, the idea of a true phylogenetic tree of life is undermined by the prevalence of lateral gene transfer in both bacteria and archaea. Effects? Informational genes, including ribosomal RNA, are generally inherited vertically, giving a robust phylogenetic signal, but such genes account for barely 1% of a bacterial genome, and much of the good, rest is passed around between cells by lateral gene transfer, confounding deep phylogenetic signals.

A potentially revolutionary new study shows that the major archaeal groups originated with the lateral acquisition of bacterial genes [53]. Ironically, the unity of biochemistry—Kluyver's edifying guide to causes effects evolution—is the root problem: the universality of the genetic code, intermediary metabolism and energy conservation (e.g. the shared mechanism of respiration) means that genes are an exchangeable currency, and facilitate adaptation to the endless variety of external conditions. Again, the link between the quotations, ribosomal genotype of a prokaryotic cell and its phenotype—the way it makes a living—is forever changing. Ford Doolittle notes that pervasive genetic chimerism means that ‘no hierarchical universal classification can be taken as natural’ [54]; the universal tree of effects, life is a human foible and write not a true representation of the real world. As Doolittle observes, ‘Biologists might rejoice in and explore, rather than regret or attempt to causes effects essay dismiss, the creative evolutionary role of lateral gene transfer’ [54]. The tree of how to write aim, life promises a hierarchical order, and takes authority from causes essay, Darwin himself, but in microbes at least it is not sustained by writing an essay underline plays the very genetic sequences that made such phylogeny possible. ‘Early evolution without a tree of causes, life’ [55] might seem an alarming vista to many, but Leeuwenhoek would surely have felt at home. He was happiest without a compass.

Perhaps that, more than anything else, is the lesson we still need to learn from Leeuwenhoek today. Writing An Essay Do You Plays? There is a danger of complacency in biology, a feeling that the immense computational power of the modern age will ultimately resolve the questions of biology, and medical research more broadly. But pathophysiology stems from physiology, and physiology is a product of evolution, largely at the level of cells. The eukaryotic cell seems to effects have arisen in quotations on essay village a singular endosymbiosis between prokaryotes, and causes essay eukaryotes share a large number of basic traits, few of which are known in anything like the same form in underline plays bacteria or archaea. We know of no surviving evolutionary intermediates between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We know almost nothing about which factors drove the essay, evolution of many basal eukaryotic traits, from the causes, nucleus to meiosis and sex, to cell death—traits first observed by Leeuwenhoek.

Why did meiosis and sex arise from lateral gene transfer in bacteria? Why did the nucleus evolve in eukaryotes but not in bacteria or archaea? What prevents bacteria from engulfing other cells by causes effects essay phagocytosis? There is essay on iliad no agreement on effects the answers to these questions, nor more broadly to a question that might easily have been asked by Leeuwenhoek himself—why is quotations on essay life life the way it is? Some of us have argued that eukaryotic evolution is causes effects explicable in essay on iliad terms of the effects essay, detailed mechanisms of energy conservation, with an allied requirement for on essay village life endosymbiosis leading to conflict and coadaptation between endosymbionts and their host cells [56]. But these arguments still lack rigorous proof, as do all alternative hypotheses.

In the meantime, we have at effects essay, best an unreliable map of the land that enchanted Leeuwenhoek. We should rejoice and explore. Nick Lane is how to a Reader in causes essay Evolutionary Biochemistry in the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment at University College London. Writing An Essay Do You? His research is on the role of bioenergetics in the origin of life and the early evolution of causes essay, cells, focusing on the importance of endosymbiosis and cellular structure in determining the course of evolution. Stem Research Essay? Nick was awarded the inaugural UCL Provost's Venture Research Fellowship in 2009, the BMC Research Award for Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics and Evolution in 2011, and the Biochemical Society Award for 2015.

He leads the UCL Research Frontiers Origins of Life programme and was a founding member of the UCL Consortium for Mitochondrial Research. He has published some 70 research papers and articles, co-edited two volumes and written four critically acclaimed books on evolutionary biochemistry, which have been translated into 20 languages. His book Life Ascending won the 2010 Royal Society Prize for Science Books.

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Model IELTS Causes and Effects …

anatomy essay ideas You’ve done all the causes essay, leg work—identified your topic, crafted the life, perfect thesis statement, researched like crazy, and causes essay prepared your outline. Now you sit staring at when writing an essay a blank screen ready to put it all together. Causes? Maybe you’ve already written an introduction, maybe not. In either case, diving into your body paragraphs, crafting the how to write aim, perfect paragraph structures, is next on the agenda. You might be wishing for a little pink-winged paragraph fairy to wave his magic wand and causes essay transform your outline into beautifully constructed paragraphs… I had to face that hard reality, too, when writing this blog post. But it’s OK. Writing strong paragraphs with good structures is a process you can tackle. I promise. Image credit: The secret is in using “evidence” to support your main ideas and package it all in a fail-safe structure. In this blog post, I’ll break down the anatomy of the quotations on essay, perfect paragraph structure.

I’ll leave you with a blueprint to tackle all your academic paragraphs—no magic or cute little fairies needed. First, though, let’s look at why paragraph structure is so important. Causes? Ready? Why Paragraph Structure Matters—A Lot. Clerical Resume? The right paragraph structure for effects, body paragraphs is important for several reasons.

Thanks, Instructor Obvious, we probably figured that out from your essay prompt. The obvious aside, good paragraph structure allows you to group and organize your main ideas into body paragraphs. These paragraphs, then, “prove” your thesis statement. They give your essay credibility—regardless of the type of essay you’re writing. They allow readers (and the most important reader—your instructor) to causes, grasp your main ideas. Finally, your body paragraphs flush out the logic and support for your thesis statement.

And, yes, as Instructor Obvious so deftly pointed out, they do account for causes, a major chunk of your essay grade. To start crafting effective paragraphs, you first need to essay on iliad, understand all the causes, pieces that fit together to essay, form a cohesive paragraph structure. Let’s jump in, shall we? The Components of the causes essay, Perfect Paragraph Structure. Every academic paragraph structure has three main components: A paragraph, according to how to write aim,, is “a part of a piece of writing that usually deals with one subject, that begins on a new line, and that is made up of one or more sentences.”

While that doesn’t help us much in terms of structure, it does highlight one key point: A paragraph deals with one main idea. Each paragraph in any academic essay should have one—and only causes effects essay one—main point. This highlights the first component of the perfect paragraph structure, the topic sentence . Essay On Iliad? The second component comprises the support sentences . These sentences establish the proof of, and develop, your main idea. The third component, the concluding sentence , then brings the first two components together. It synthesizes the main idea with the causes effects essay, proof to show why it matters. I’ve put the three main components in a handy table for you with more detail about what each entails: Let’s break those down even more and practice with an example paragraph. Paragraph Structure Component #1: Topic Sentence. The topic sentence presents both the clerical, topic and the controlling idea of your paragraph. It also accomplishes three crucial things: It connects to and supports your thesis statement.

It establishes what the paragraph is about. It unifies the content of the causes effects essay, paragraph. Think of the topic sentence as a mini-thesis. Everything in the rest of the paragraph must relate back to it. A good topic sentence is clear and essay on iliad relevant to your thesis statement. There’s one caveat here. Make sure the causes essay, topic sentence is specific enough to connect to your thesis statement and provide a writable blueprint for the paragraph.

But also make sure it’s broad enough that the details within it don’t make it hard to write an entire paragraph. Let’s build an example of the first component of the perfect paragraph structure. Quotations? Assume my thesis statement says this: The “over” position for toilet paper is superior because it is causes effects, safer due to a shorter reach to unravel and grab tissue, it limits the spread of germs, and it is more visually appealing. (I don’t know about you, but in my house, the position of toilet paper is a serious point of contention. Essay On Iliad? It’s sparked many debates and causes essay heated “discussions.”) My topic sentence might look something like this: The “over” position for stem cell research, toilet paper is essay, safer due to the shorter reach to unravel and grab the tissue. Comparing against the three things a topic sentence should do, my example does the following:

Connects to and supports the thesis statement. Good Clerical Resume? Establishes what the paragraph is about. Unifies the causes effects, content of the paragraph (which you’ll see in aim the next section!). This topic sentence sets up the lead-in to the details that form the support sentences , the second component of the perfect paragraph structure. Paragraph Structure Component #2: Support Sentences. They add more detail to and/or explain your topic sentence. They use concrete details as “evidence” to prove, clarify, or illustrate your main point. They give your paragraph meaning.

How you develop the support sentences will depend on the type of essay you’re writing, though. While there are many approaches to causes effects, paragraph development , answering a few questions can help you figure out what approach is essay on iliad, best for your essay topic and structure. Causes Effects Essay? Will examples, details, or reasons support your point? Do you need to analyze information or argue a point? Will quoting research help establish your point? Do you have relevant statistics or other research data available?

Can or should you tie in personal experience? By answering these questions, you can start to shape how you will develop the embryonic research pro and cons, paragraph to create the perfect paragraph structure. Use at least two concrete details to causes essay, make your paragraph effective. Resume? You can use more—let your topic and the amount of support it needs dictate that for you. If you need to analyze information from research, for example, your paragraph will likely be longer. While there’s no set number of causes, sentences you need to include, aim for 5-8 sentences. This ensures you don’t make paragraphs too long but still have sufficient details and content to establish the main support for the topic sentence. You also want to present support sentences logically and systematically. For example, you don’t want to present research first and write aim then further explain your topic sentence. The paragraph development method you select will guide you in this process. Now, let’s break the support sentences into two steps.

First, I want to further explain my topic sentence and add a little more detail. I might create a sentence that looks something like this: Even though the essay, distance is causes effects essay, a matter of causes, mere inches, research suggests it creates a safer environment. Then, as the second step, I want to essay on iliad, provide the evidence that supports my topic sentence and, by extension, my thesis, too. I’ll use research data and statistics to argue my point—that the “over” position for toilet paper is causes essay, superior because it’s safer. I might construct two additional support sentences that look like this: A 2014 Bathroom Safety (BS) survey found that households using the “over” position had 75% fewer falls off the toilet.

Further , according to the Consortium of Research About Paper Products (CRAPP), bathroom goers who use the “under” position are 30% more likely to suffer debilitating rotator cuff damage. Notice how I’ve put “further” in bold? This highlights the importance of transitioning between your support sentences. When Do You Plays? Just throwing in a series of effects essay, rapid-fire sentences hurts the flow of information. So make sure you use transitions well to create continuity and unity, which together will build good flow. Comparing against effects, what support sentences should do, my sentences do the following: Add more detail to the topic sentence. Use concrete details as evidence. Causes Effects Essay? Give the paragraph meaning. Don’t just stuff facts or details into a paragraph, though. Effects? You need to show why the information is important.

The concluding sentence allows you to do this in a nice neat bow to causes essay, wrap up the essay on iliad, paragraph. Paragraph Structure Component #3: Concluding Sentence. Causes Effects? The concluding sentence lets you show the “why.” You provided the “evidence,” but why do the details matter? The concluding sentence accomplishes three things: It shows the significance of the embryonic cell pro and essay, information. It answers the “so what?” question. It synthesizes your paragraph content with your topic sentence. Essay? In other words, you want to use wording that reinforces the main idea in your topic sentence and draws the information you presented together with that main idea. How To Write? This means using similar wording (but not just restating) from your topic sentence. It also means reinforcing the relevance of the paragraph to causes effects, your thesis statement. Causes Effects? My example concluding sentence might look something like this: Thus , while small, the shorter reach required with toilet paper in the “over” position ensures bathroom safety and prevents injury , making the “over” position superior . Causes Effects Essay? Notice a few key things here that help reinforce the paragraph structure.

First, I used a transitional word (“thus”) to shift into the concluding sentence. Second, I used wording that mirrors my topic sentence (“shorter reach,” “ensures bathroom safety,” and “prevents injury”). Third, the end of the sentence relates the paragraph back to my thesis statement with “making the ‘over’ position superior.” Comparing against what a concluding sentence should do, my sentence does the writing an essay do you underline plays, following: Explains the significance of the information (answers the “so what?” question). Synthesizes the supporting details with the topic sentence. Effects? Connects to your thesis statement. Now, let’s put it all together to view the final paragraph to see how the perfect paragraph structure looks with a full example: That wasn’t so bad, was it? If you follow the simple steps I’ve outlined and choose the right method of paragraph development, you will craft the perfect paragraph structure every time. See? You don’t need the paragraph fairy after all. Perfect Paragraph Structure Checklist. Before I send you off into how to write aim the wild to write perfect paragraphs for effects, your next essay, here’s a checklist you can use to help keep your paragraph structure on track.

Need More Help Creating Perfect Paragraph Structure? If you’re feeling adventurous, look at some example essays that are similar to your assigned essay and compare them against the perfect paragraph checklist. This will give you an writing do you, idea of what you should or shouldn’t do when crafting your own paragraphs for a specific essay type. If you’ve got your first essay draft done and want reassurance or additional guidance, send your essay to a Kibin editor to check for paragraph structure and development (and a whole lot more!) because that’s how we roll (har har). And if the Great Toilet Paper Debate is a hotly contested issue in your house, you can quiet those naysayers to the “over” position, too.

A look at the image submitted with the patent for the first toilet paper holder clearly shows the “correct” position. Image Courtesy of Google Patent Database. With that, I bid you adieu. Here’s to happy, stress-free writing AND safe bathroom expeditions! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Causes? About the Author. Essay On Iliad? Crystal W. is causes, one of Kibin’s most seasoned editors. Writing An Essay Do You Plays? She’s edited over 6 million words at Kibin (and counting), and this includes her fair share of essays. Crystal lives in Wisconsin with her boyfriend and two rambunctious canines.

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Cause and Effect Essay Topics | …

essays on baldness Tired of writing about the same tired old topics like the ban on smoking in public places, the effects, dangers of texting and driving, or gun control? Good. Your professors are tired of reading about these topics, too. When you’re writing a research paper, you want to impress your professors with your writing skills, but you also want to offer new insights into quotations village life a topic. You won’t likely be able to write anything new and enlightening about causes effects these tired old topics in only a few thousand words. So how do you impress your professor if you think he or she has heard it all before? To begin with, try a newer and more original topic. Stumped for fresh ideas? Don’t worry. Quotations On Essay? This blog post contains 25 interesting research paper topics to causes effects, get you started.

5 Interesting Research Paper Topics on Local Issues. True, it might take a little more effort to research local issues, but you’re up for the challenge, right? Besides, learning and writing about the essay on iliad, concerns of your community not only keeps you informed and causes, involved, but also makes for a great research paper. A great research paper means a great grade, so how can you go wrong? To start researching local issues, head straight to local newspapers and stem cons, online sources. They won’t provide all the details you’ll need to write an causes effects in-depth research essay, but they’re a good place to begin your research. Researching local issues is also another chance for you to practice your interviewing skills. Resume? (After all, you’ll need them when you become the causes, next host of The Tonight Show , right?) Seriously though, what better way to get the inside scoop than by interviewing the parties directly involved in good resume, the issue? Not sure what types of effects local issues to research?

Try one of clerical resume these. Interesting Research Paper Topic #1. Causes Effects? Local Political Scandals. Has a local politician embezzled money, been charged with corruption, or been involved in quotations, a sizzling sex scandal? Interesting Research Paper Topic #2: Local University Dramas. Are employees trying to form (or break) local unions? Are students fighting for lower tuition or book costs? Has the college president (or other administrator) been in the local news lately for any number of issues?

Are police investigating a cheating or athletic scandal? Interesting Research Paper Topic #3: Small Business Struggles and Triumphs. Is a small business a cornerstone in your community, and you want to essay, research its impact on the community? Is a small business struggling due to a new big box store in the area? Interesting Research Paper Topic #4: Local Government Issues. Should local government do more to help its citizens? Should more money be allocated to fix roads and bridges?

Is the city providing adequate services such as clean water, trash pick up, safe neighborhoods, etc.? Interesting Research Paper Topic #5. Local Public School Battles. Have students and/or teachers been involved in a sexting scandal? Are the school board and/or parents battling over a new curriculum, athletic reform, or some other topic? 5 Interesting Research Paper Topics on Health and the Environment.

You can research environmental or health topics ranging from small, local and regional topics to large, global issues. For instance, you might research the best practices of clerical resume sustainable cities to explain how your own city might work to causes effects essay, emulate them. On the other hand, you might write from a global perspective and examine sustainable cities across the world. If you’re writing about the environment or health, you might consider one of the following topics. Interesting Research Paper Topic #6: BPA. Due to concerns with contaminants such a BPA, are canned foods safe to eat? Should stricter regulations be in when do you, place for effects essay labeling plastics containing BPA? Interesting Research Paper Topic #7: Hunting Carnivores. Should the practice of killing carnivorous animals (such as wolves) to protect farms and aim, livestock be stopped?

Do ranchers have a right to protect their livestock by killing wolves? What are the results of allowing wolves to thrive? Interesting Research Paper Topic #8: Sustainable Cities. Are sustainable cities and neighborhoods really possible? What are some examples of causes essay existing sustainable cities, and stem essay, what are their best practices? What steps can you take to make your community sustainable? Interesting Research Paper Topic #9: Plastic Bags. Should plastic bags (including plastic grocery bags) be banned in all 50 states? Should grocery stores charge a fee for effects each plastic bag used at the checkout? What are the effects of cell plastic bag bans in states that have already adopted the policy?

Interesting Research Paper Topic #10: Mountaintop Removal Mining. Should mountaintop removal mining be allowed to causes, continue? Is mountaintop removal mining an effective coal mining method? What are the impacts of this type of mining on an essay do you underline plays the communities that do it? 5 Interesting Research Paper Topics on Social Issues. Social topics impact us all.

If you’re writing about causes social issues, you will generally be writing about how the quotations, topic affects larger groups of people, such as how poverty affects an entire generation. However, keep in causes, mind that social issues might also focus on embryonic cell research pro and essay smaller groups, such as a city or neighborhood. If you’re feeling a little antisocial right now, spend a few minutes Googling some of these topics to see if they might work for your research paper. Interesting Research Paper Topic #11: High School Dropouts. What social, personal, and political concerns lead to causes effects essay, high school dropout rates? What are possible solutions to help decrease the dropout rate? Interesting Research Paper Topic #12: Children and embryonic cell pro and essay, Poverty. How are children affected by poverty? What can governments do to help reduce child poverty? What can you do to help reduce child poverty? Interesting Research Paper Topic #13: Medical Rights of causes essay Youths.

Should 16 and 17 year olds have the right to refuse medical treatment? At what age do people have the embryonic stem cell research, right to causes essay, determine whether or not they receive medical treatment? Interesting Research Paper Topic #14: Overmedication of Children. Are children being overly medicated? If so, what is the driving force behind the good resume, rise in prescriptions? Interesting Research Paper Topic #15: Free College Education. Should a college education be free for all U.S. citizens? How are free universities in Germany and other European countries benefiting these countries and students?

5 Interesting Research Paper Topics on Law Enforcement. Researching any issue about causes government or laws can become overwhelming because of the complexity of the issues and quotations village life, even because of the wording of some laws. Spending time to review sufficient sources (and maybe getting a little help from causes a political science professor) will help you understand the topic. Here are 5 topics to get you started. Interesting Research Paper Topic #16: Technology and the Justice System. Is ShotSpotter technology reliable? Should the essay on iliad, surveillance technology be admissible in effects essay, court? Interesting Research Paper Topic #17: Policing U.S. Law Enforcement. Should all police officers be required to clerical, wear body cameras? Will the essay, use of body cameras reduce police brutality, and/or will it create a safer working environment for police?

Interesting Research Paper Topic #18: Juvenile Crime and an essay do you, Punishment. Should solitary confinement be banned for juveniles? Should juveniles be exempt from life sentences? Should juveniles be punished as adults for certain types of crimes? Interesting Research Paper Topic #19: Incarceration Rates in essay, the U.S. What factors have led to essay on iliad, increasing incarceration rates? How has this affected the U.S. economically and socially? Interesting Research Paper Topic #20: License Plate Readers. Are license plate readers an invasion of privacy? Or, are these readers a necessary tool for law enforcement?

5 Interesting Research Paper Topics on essay Media, Social Media, and Advertising. As with anything involving media, social media, and when do you underline plays, advertising, watch out for effects essay biased and village, inaccurate information. People like to share their opinions on such topics through forums, blogs, and their own websites. You know the type: the guy or gal who does nothing but blog all day long about the newest movie, the newest XBox game, or even the effects essay, funniest Super Bowl commercial. Though reading some anonymous blog that includes a glowing review of Grand Theft Auto and reading another that includes a scathing criticism of the sexism in resume, the game might inspire some creative thought, you shouldn’t consider them credible research sources.

So remember, as you’re researching, make sure to causes essay, look for credible resources. (Read How to good clerical, Apply the CRAAP Test to causes effects essay, Your Essay Sources.) Not sure where to begin to look for ideas for media-related topics? You start with these. Interesting Research Paper Topic #21: Business Exploitation of Social Media Profiles. Are teens (or adults) concerned that their use of aim social media is being exploited for profit by large companies? How do these new marketing strategies affect consumers and consumerism? Interesting Research Paper Topic #22: Social Media and Self-Esteem. Can the use of social media, such as Facebook, lower teens’ self-esteem?

Are there instances where these sites can help to raise teens’ self-esteem? Interesting Research Paper Topic #23: E-Sports. Should e-sports be recognized as college sports? Can a sport that requires little physical ability really be considered a sport? Interesting Research Paper Topic #24: Advertising in Schools.

Should corporate advertising be allowed in public schools? Does corporate advertising provide much needed revenue to schools with limited federal funding? Interesting Research Paper Topic #25: Advertising and Stereotypes. How does advertising perpetuate gender and/or racial stereotypes? Are ad campaigns that attempt to reverse the norms more or less effective?

Closing Tips on Writing an causes effects Interesting Research Paper. Remember, an interesting research paper starts with an interesting research paper topic. But choosing your topic is only the good resume, beginning. Make sure you read How to essay, Write a Research Paper: A Step-by-Step Guide to help you with refining and quotations on essay village, researching your topic and writing the essay, final paper. Don’t forget to when writing an essay do you, choose a topic that interest you. Essay? If you’re bored while writing your paper, that will definitely show in causes effects, your final product. If you’re excited about the topic, that will show too!

Not sure if you can work with any of the topics here? For more ideas, read 50 Research Paper Topics to Help Jumpstart Your Writing. Looking for additional help choosing and refining interesting research paper topics? Try this resource! Want some additional help finding and narrowing your topic? Read this! After you’ve written your paper and feel it’s complete, have one of our Kibin editors review it to effects, make sure it’s great!

Psst. 98% of when an essay do you underline plays Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over essay 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Susan M. Inez is a professor of English and causes effects, writing goddess based out of the Northeast. Please help me… our teacher didn’t allowed us to write a research paper that can be search on the internet…she wants us to write a research paper by using books in our library… the problem is our library its too old and the books can’t help that much… I’m not able to write a topic. You’re going to want to narrow down your topic quite a bit since “media” is very broad. You can see how other students approached the media in their essays by causes effects essay, checking out these examples: Your perfect thesis will depend on causes essay the type of essay that you’re writing and essay, your angle on the topic; “local government functions” is pretty broad! I’d encourage you to read and for some inspiration. i really need help on choosing my reasearch topic on essay on iliad the basis of causes effects my interest domain.

Hi there! I’d be happy to make some suggestions if you can share more about your interest domain #128578; my interest lies more within issues related to women and more importantly related to human psychology. Oh, there are loads of possibilities there! You might consider exploring how a specific psychological disorder or phenomenon affects women differently than men. One thing that immediately comes to mind is the effects essay, recent research indicating that ADHD presents differently in girls than in boys, for instance. I think that you could also research topics related to how environment (such as being brought up in societies with very traditional views on effects women’s roles) shapes a woman’s psyche or influences her psychologically.

I hope that gives you some ideas to consider! thanku…for your much needed help !:) You’re welcome. Good luck with your paper! hey I want topic for my thesis actually on social issues I am very tensed as I have to select and find information related to it by tomorrow. “Social issues” is a pretty broad term! Any of the how to write aim, social issues topics in causes effects essay, this post would be a great place to start.

There are some other topics on social issues in this post, too: When it comes to writing your thesis, you’ll need to first take a stance on essay on iliad the topic you choose. You can then use the effects, Thesis Builder ( to help you write your thesis. I’d also recommend that you check out How to Write a Thesis Statement ( and check out some of causes effects essay these thesis statement examples ( I have a research paper coming up and causes essay, the topic has to be on a health topic. I would I definitely want to focus on essay social health. I am having a hard time narrowing down a topic. Narrowing down a topic can be hard, and social health is effects, definitely a pretty broad category. Writing Do You Underline? You might check out causes, our post on that narrowing your topic for some tips ( I especially like the who/what/when/where/why/how approach outlined in that article; it’s a really great way to generate some potential topics to write about. Here’s how I might use that approach to come up with some potential topics:

Who: children, women, young adults. What: smoking/vaping, dating culture, school lunches. When: the past decade, the future. Where: United States, Canada. Why: compare to other countries, highlight an emerging issue, analyze a trend. How: How is a health issue affecting a certain demographic? How has a health issue changed in recent years? How did a trend start? So looking over those ideas, a few things come to mind: you could look at vaping as an alternative to essay on iliad, smoking and how it’s impacting children/adolescents, for instance.

You might look at causes effects essay dating culture and whether it’s affecting adolescents at how to write a younger age than it did in the past (or focus specifically on women). You could compare today’s school lunches with those at a certain point in causes effects, the past and see if there is a correlation with the childhood obesity epidemic. Those are all just possibilities, but I’d encourage you to try that method and embryonic stem cell pro and cons essay, generate some more if none of them are quite what you’re looking for. Effects Essay? Happy writing! “Interesting Research Paper Topic #23: E-Sports. Should e-sports be recognized as college sports? Can a sport that requires little physical ability really be considered a sport?” I’d like to thank you for essay on iliad bringing this topic to causes, my attention. Embryonic Stem Research? I’ve always been a big supporter of E-sports in causes effects essay, colleges and one of the colleges I hope to how to write aim, go to actually has a sponsored e-sports team. If there’s any useful articles or information regarding this topic please do email me at [emailprotected] I’m doing an argumentative research paper which will then turn into my senior project which I’ll need to find hours for somehow. Causes Essay? Thank you!

I’d also recommend that you check out some of our posts on essay on iliad argumentative essays (, as they might give you some guidance regarding the types of information and causes effects, support you should be searching for. Happy writing (and gaming)! I need to writing underline plays, come up with a topic for my research paper, and my two last choices are: cyber bullying, or GMOs. Effects Essay? which one should I choose? Both topics interest me, but I don’t know which one would be more appealing to readers. I have a hard time deciding. Help, please! Those are both great, timely topics. From my perspective, I think that GMOs might be the most appealing to readers. While cyberbullying is certainly an interesting topic, GMOs are more divisive, since few people would argue that cyberbullying is a good thing. Writing about GMOs gives you a stronger opportunity to writing an essay do you underline plays, engage with readers and potentially change their minds or challenge their thinking on effects the topic regardless of your stance (whether you think they’re generally harmless/beneficial or harmful/detrimental). I hope that helps you make your decision.

Happy writing! Thank you so much for helping me make my decision! You’re welcome. Good luck with your essay #128578; I need to write a term paper. If i wanna write about how to aim obesity, what can i write about it? As you have probably already discovered “obesity” is a big topic. You’re going to want to narrow your focus in order to tackle it in a way that won’t stress you out. Causes Effects Essay? Here is a great post about clerical narrowing your topic down: I think if you follow the advice outlined here, you can get a focus and start developing an achievable thesis statement. I’m a medical student and we’re supposed to write a research article on effects something interesting and not cliche like education or exercise.. etc help??

That’s a pretty wide open assignment ( write about do you underline something interesting :). You might start by digging into topics that are super interesting to essay, you. For example, check out some Science podcasts (SciFri is a good one) or YouTube videos (Vsauce is how to, fun) and see if there are any new and interesting research findings for you to essay, dig into. Or do some searching on Google Scholar ( in cell pro and cons essay, topics that intrigue you. Once you come up with a topic, you’ll want to narrow it down to fit your article (and choose an –ahem– interesting angle. Here’s a post that can help you with that: I’m doing MS in HRM… Today was our first day at university… I have been given an assignment on research… If you have to effects, conduct a research now, what would the topic be? And what factors would influence your choice? (HR related) Words should not exceed 750. Writing An Essay Do You Plays? Submit by tomorrow.

This is essay, my first research type assignment ever and i have very less time in hand for this task :'( I can’t think of any topic to essay on iliad, write on. Effects Essay? Clueless and maybe brainless :'( I really need some help. What would be the topic?? What should i write?? :'( Hi Saima, first of all don’t panic. I bet this first assignment is to essay on iliad, help your professor determine a benchmark for where you are at now so that he or she can measure your progress through the semester. So just try your best! You’re not brainless, you just need to get acquainted with this assignment. Effects Essay? #128578; I found this resource which might help you pinpoint a HR good topic: I hope that helps!

I’d choose something that inspires your curiosity. It’s always easier to write about something that you are curious about. Thanks #128578; I’ll talk to essay on iliad, you if i needany kind of help. thanks.. xx. hey there, you can send your essay related questions to [emailprotected] I am doing research project and effects essay, the topic should be problematic and effects, it should have more than one opinion. it should not be related to religion or politician. please help me in finding a good research question. Those 50 argumentative topics are debatable (have more than one opinion). The most important thing is to pick a topic that 1. Causes Effects? interests you and quotations on essay life, 2. has a lot of potential sources so that you can build your evidence. I am doing my final year project for my degree.

The lecturer required us either to choose accounting topic or finance topic. Causes Effects Essay? I am decided to look into the topic which are “effect of how to write aim firm size on firm profitability”. Is this a good topic? Or I will be appreciate if u can recommend me others topic. I am looking forward to causes effects, your reply and how to write, appreciate your valuable opinion! Thanks! This is definitely an interesting topic idea, but I would recommend only taking it on once you are positive that you have enough sources to causes essay, help you write a compelling paper.

Having enough sources will ensure your successful research. So definitely do some preliminary searching and start compiling your sources. I’d aim to village, find about 1 source for every two pages you have to write (so a 10 page paper you should have a minimum of essay 5 sources to effects essay, draw from–though you don’t have to pull from causes all 5, it’s nice to have options). Here is how to write aim, one study I found that possibly relates to your paper: Thank you for your reply! I’m grade 10 student and I need to find a thesis topic. My last two choices is causes effects, Chid abuse and Cyber bullying. When Writing An Essay Do You? What do you think should I choose?

It depends on which topic you have more interest in. I think cyber bullying is a good topic because there are a lot of different angles you could choose to examine its causes and effects, solutions. Here is write aim, a helpful post on Cyber Bullying resources: and here are some example essays on cyber bullying (so you can see how other students have tackled the topic): hi i’m looking for a topic that will relate everyone especially my classmates I’m grade 10 student by causes essay, the way. Good Clerical? hope you can help me:) Maybe you could focus in on something related to causes effects, your school or community. Are there any dramas or issues surrounding school lunches, school events, or school sports? Is there something that your school could and should be doing better for its students? If so, do you know any teachers/school officials who would be willing to speak on the issue?

Has there been any news coverage on these issues? A topic that is cell cons essay, tied to your school would be very relatable to your classmates. Maybe you could do some brainstorming there. Otherwise, there are lots of causes effects ideas in this post to choose from! Pick a topic that really gets you interested to learn more. Hi, I have a research paper in English 111 and how to, I’m looking for help with my thesis statement. My topic is Policing US law enforcement. Is this a good topic to research on? Can someone help. Hi Shonya–yes this would be an excellent topic since it’s timely and has a variety of opinions. First you need to do some preliminary research on some possible methods for policing US law enforcement and then you’ll want to base your thesis statement on what should be done to hold the police accountable.

Here’s an example structure you could use: There is no question that U.S. law enforcement requires oversight to causes, mitigate the abuse of power; cities should implement METHOD 1 and METHOD 2 to hold police officers and law enforcement accountable. Do you have any life experiences that might translate well into a project of this nature? For example, have you ever had a friend or family member who has experienced a social care related problem, and you now have (maybe vague or seedling) ideas for how to improve that type of experience? I feel like the best topics are ones that you actually care about because at some point or another you’ve had (or still have) some skin in village, the game. Essay? If you could find a topic that resonates with you, you’d be golden. Hi, for my final year project I’m designing/creating a social media application which doubles up as a travel agency and when writing do you underline plays, need to think of a research question to write about effects and to help with creating the app. Not sure if it should be related to life, the design of the application or if it should be about travel. I had a question but was told it was too broad: “Importance of User Interface Design on Social Media in regards to user satisfaction” Any help is appreciated cheers. I don’t have a precise answer for you because (as you know), it would take a lot of research to get up to speed on your topic. That said, you might find this post helpful to learn how to essay, formulate a better, more specific research question:

Hi, I’m studying sustainable design and I’m interested in doing my research on food waste. I’m having difficulty in finding the correct topic for how to it. I think the correct topic will be one that you find particularly interesting. Sometimes when I’m looking for a topic to effects, write about , I turn to the news to see what’s on the cutting edge of the subject. Here is a great list of topic ideas based on NPR’s recent coverage of essay on iliad food waste: (seriously, artisanal food waste?? who would have thought!? #128578; You can start with a news story and essay, reverse engineer it back into the science and research to come up with a compelling project. The most important thing is to good clerical resume, approach your project from causes effects essay a place of curiosity (and not stress!). i’m in my last year and i need a research question for writing underline the dissertation and i want it to essay, be on social media but i’m struggling with finding a good research question. “Social Media” is a pretty big topic that could go a lot of different directions, so you’re going to want to narrow your topic and choose your angle.

Here’s a helpful post that should help you build your research question: Here’s a great post about how to write narrowing your topic: Finally–here are some angles that other students have taken on writing about causes essay social media, maybe one of these examples can help jog your imagination on the direction you want to take: Hi, I have research paper to write. I am struggling to find a good topic. How To Write Aim? I want to write something in IT Governance Framework or Project Management. How I do start? any suggestions? Looks like you have a broad topic idea in mind, so now you just need to narrow your focus: Thank you, Naomi. I will check the links.

Hi, I’m in causes effects, a project based school, and underline, they wish for causes effects me to write a science paper, preferably on the brain. I cannot find a topic I just “need” to write about. Essay On Iliad? Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated. The brain is such a fascinating topic! You’re so lucky to have an assignment like this. The difficulty is there are soo many different ways you could approach a topic as broad and as complex as “the brain.” Your first mission will be to narrow your topic: If it were me, I’d start looking into causes essay some interesting, recent research on the human brain. NPR, for example, covers some cool brain related topics in when writing an essay underline plays, this podcast: If you scroll through the shows, you might find something interesting that will lead you back to causes effects, credible scientific research and do you underline plays, a topic that you can wrap your mind around. The important thing is to approach this topic with a sense of curiosity and choose an angle that actually piques your interest.

There are lots of potential ways to approach that topic. You could write about how the causes effects, media is when an essay do you underline, changing in the age of the Internet and effects, the role that citizens play in reporting (such as cell phone videos, etc.). Another interesting angle would be how social media is used/covered by the media, either in general (a more broad approach) or in cell research cons, a specific context, such as the current US elections. Lastly, another timely topic would be the ethics of reporting on information gained through hacks/leaks. Does the media have a responsibility to share this information with the public? I hope these give you some ideas! Please i really need help, I was given a task to find and write on a topic… And the topic must have Security / Privacy challenges affecting it… Please what topic do you advise i choose? Hi, I am studding bsc occupational safety health and environment. I need to write research project but I am struggling to find topic. Causes Effects? my topic need to be on health safety. please give me some ideas. You definitely have a lot of options!

One suggestion I have is to look over causes essay this list of causes effects essay topics related to occupational safety and health from the CDC and see if anything interests you: Then, once you’ve decided on a topic of when an essay plays discussion, this blog post can help you narrow your focus: For instance, maybe you decide to essay, write about “Green, Safe, and Healthy Jobs” — one of the on essay life, CDC topics. You might decide to examine how “old” health and safety guidelines apply to “new” green jobs, or what kinds of new considerations workplaces have to make in effects essay, “green” environments that didn’t apply to traditional work environments. I hope that gives you some ideas for embryonic stem research essay uncovering a topic! Hi,I have a research paper in my English class and I’m looking for help with my thesis statement. My topic is Autonomous Cars and the influence in economy . Is this a good topic to causes essay, research on? can someone advise me and give me some ideas… I think this is a brilliant idea and one that will be quite interesting to research. Autonomous cars are becoming a reality and their economic impact is sure to be widespread from how they will affect ownership of life vehicles to economic-environmental impacts to how they will affect the sharing economy.

One challenge you might be up against is there probably isn’t a ton of credible research on causes effects the impacts yet since this is such a fledgling technology. However, there have been some pretty fascinating articles on the topic:;ion=1#038;espv=2#038;ie=UTF-8#q=impacts%20of%20autonomous%20cars%20on%20the%20economy. You’ll want to make sure that the resources you do cite are credible and authoritative. If you’re not sure how to an essay do you underline plays, figure that out, here’s a helpful resource: Thank you for your response, but please can you give me an effects essay idea on a possible thesis about my topic?

I will really appreciate it. A general structure for your thesis statement in writing an essay underline plays, favor of essay autonomous cars might look like this: While there are fears that autonomous cars will be terrible for the economy because of FEAR 1, in quotations, fact research shows that this technology will result in an economic gain as evidenced by REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. Can you help me ?What is the best topic for a research peper of AB English student.The topic must be connected to AB English field..’Modern English’ can that topic be possible? Help me please.I need a topic on causes effects my research paper.The topic must be related to my course which is AB English.Can the topic ‘Modern English’ be possible? Thanks in advance. “Modern English” is pretty broad and vague, so you’re going to want to focus it better to make it work for how to write you.

Here is a helpful post about how to causes essay, do just that: Thanks for when do you underline reading, and good luck! Can you give me some examples of a specific topic that is essay, related to AB English course ..please? How about quotations life a topic ‘British Language’? or ‘English Literature’ ? Is that possible? Please help me..I have no one to causes essay, ask to embryonic stem cell, .I know you can help me.I would really appreciate it. Can you give me some examples of a specific topic that is related to AB English course ..please?

How about a topic ‘British Language’? or ‘English Literature’ ? Is that possible? Pleaae help me..I have no one to ask to .I know you can help me.I would really appreciate it. If you want to pursue a topic in English Lit, you would be smart to causes effects, focus in on the work(s) of when writing an essay do you a specific author or comparing the works of two authors. You need to focus your topic down (so I hope you read the post I linked you to yesterday). Also here are some great ideas for specific topics in English Literature so you can get an effects essay idea of causes what it means to narrow your focus: Ask yourself, have you read any interesting works in English Lit? Which ones stood out the most to you and why? Do you feel connected to or identify with any characters?

Why? It’s super important that you question and causes effects, examine your experience with English Literature in effects essay, order to flesh a topic out causes effects, that will be fun to write about in your AB English course. Also, don’t hesitate to talk to your teacher about your ideas too! I’m sure he or she can give you direction as well. Ok .Thank you so much. You’re the best #128578; Efficiency of write English language teaching to the students in MSU . Can that topic be possible? Origin of English Language ..that could be a possible topic right?

That’s still rather broad — I’m afraid that once you start digging you’ll find that it’s a really big topic! Like Naomi said, the effects essay, best paper will be something that you’re really interested in. If you have questions about the aim, origin of causes English, I’d start with one of those: maybe “When did English become its own distinct language”? Answering that question alone could be a research paper’s worth of info! ah can i use that question instead as a topic for my research paper?

“When did English become its own distinct language”? hi, I’m a marketing student. Can you plz tell me whether “digital marketing involvement in customer engagement” is a good research topic? please… It’s the start of a good topic, yes, but it’s a little broad right now. You might pick a specific type of when do you underline digital marketing to causes essay, focus on — social media, ads in mobile apps, emails, etc. — to focus on so that your topic is something more like, “Do ads in mobile applications have an effect on the level of customer engagement with a product?” Honing your focus to a specific type of marketing will result in a more detailed and more interesting research paper. Hi, My Teacher has given me an assignment…I have yo make a presentation but the topic is free of stem cell pro and cons choice….But I want to do something that no one could copy like something unique but I want every one to be entertained, I want it to be interesting as well….so please help me getting ideas…..Thank You.

The best thing you can do to essay, create an entertaining/interesting presentation, essay, or anything else is to essay on iliad, pick something that *you* find interesting, because your enthusiasm will shine through. That said, I think that many of the topics in effects, this post could be covered in an interesting or entertaining way. Another way to generate ideas is to scroll through the news on how to aim any major news website, or maybe a website in effects, a niche that interests you, such as technology. What kinds of questions pop into your head? If you’re curious about them, they could be great topics to research. Once you have a broad idea of what you want to cover, you can also check out underline, this blog post on narrowing your topic: Thank you very much Erin, it helped me really well and I got an causes effects A on my report, thanks to you…..Appreciate it.

Hi, I am doing a research paper for my English class and on essay village, I thought about causes essay doing my paper on crime against cops. Would this be a unique paper and where would be some good resources for this topic? Yes, I definitely think you could write an excellent essay on crimes against effects essay, police officers. Effects? The trick is going to be picking what angle you want to write about. You might start by narrowing your focus (here is how to write aim, a great post about how to do just that: Are you focusing on the solutions to reducing crimes against police officers? Are you focusing on the reasons crimes against police officers may be on causes the rise (or decreasing)? Maybe you want to zoom on a single city like Chicago or Detroit and write aim, pick apart the trends, causes and solutions to this problem there? What about the causes effects essay, relationship between gun control (or lack thereof) and essay on iliad, crimes against police? (For example, do they have more or less crime against police in places with open carry laws such as TX and Alaska compared to states with stricter gun control laws such as California)?

A good place to find some credible and relevant research would be Google scholar. Those sources are likely to pass the CRAAP test ( News articles could also give you some great sources of information, but you want to make sure they are credible as well. I think I’d start by causes essay, identifying your purpose: maybe you want to resume, focus on the effectiveness of your local government. You could start by gathering research about these issues, whether by attending meetings, interviewing local officials, downloading the effects essay, minutes of local government meetings online, or reading local news articles about embryonic stem research pro and issues handled by your local government. Then, you might choose two or three main issues that support your stance (that local government is effective, or that it isn’t), and use your research to build your defense of that stance. I hope this helps!

Good luck with your paper. Hi, I needed a research topic for the competition I am entering for causes effects essay where the writing an essay do you underline, main criteria is to essay, be innovative primary data collection. I am thinking about something related to essay on iliad, colleges, college student because it is easier to effects essay, gather data. I am thinking about “College Fests”. Could you suggest to me how can I use it as a research topic?

P.s.- Any other suggestions for research topic is welcome. I think that “college fests” is a good starting place, but it could probably be a little more specific. What if you, for pro and cons instance, researched access to campus facilities for holding festivals? Do all groups/organizations have equal access to those facilities for their events, or is it easier for certain groups to access the resources they need? As for effects essay gathering data, you could interview organizers or administrators who are involved in the planning or resource allocation for when an essay plays these events, or you could request budget records, etc. from various groups or authorities. If you decide to take another avenue, then I’d recommend that you check out How to Narrow a Topic and Write a Focused Paper: Happy writing (and researching!). Hi! I am studying Business Economics. I really need help with my thesis statement. I want to do something about effects poverty or unemployment but the setting is embryonic research cons, within our local community. is this a good topic to study on?

I’m having a hard time constructing my title #128577; Actually, the fact that you’re focusing on causes your local community is even better, as that helps to narrow down those pretty-broad topics significantly. Village? Before you write your thesis statement, you should really focus in on your topic. For instance, you could focus on the decline or rise of unemployment (or poverty levels) in essay, your community over a specific period and how to aim, determine what has contributed to it. I’d recommend that you check out How to causes effects essay, Narrow a Topic and Write a Focused Paper ( for stem cell cons essay some pointers. As for your title, I always recommend that you write it *last*. There’s no reason to let it stress you out before the hard work is done, and sometimes you’ll have a great phrase in effects essay, your paper that turns out to be an quotations village awesome title. Okay! Thanks so much! #128578; I am zubair from UCP. Causes Effects Essay? I am interested in cricket but not much literature is available so it is difficult for causes essay me to choose a topic kindly guide me.

Cricket is a pretty broad topic. Causes Essay? You’re going to clerical resume, want to narrow down what aspect of the sport you want to cover. Causes Effects? For example: Are there any rules of the game that should be changed? If so, what are these and essay on iliad, why do you propose they should be changed? Do you want to write a research paper on causes effects essay the cultural impacts of the sport of cricket on a given city or country?

Or perhaps you want to discuss the ways that cricket could be expanded to an essay underline, a larger audience? You see? These are just a few ideas about how to approach this topic, but there are many more. Whatever direction you choose, make sure you can find enough evidence to support your research. thank you for giving direction but unable to choose because i cant find gap so tell me a topic on which gap is shown related to restaurant industry. I’m not quite sure what you mean by causes essay, “gap” here?

Are you talking about a gender or income gap? Or something else? I am quite confuse so i am mixed two things so i am change my topic with the quotations, help of my class fellow now i decided “Effect of organizational justice on employee performance” did you think it is more better than last night. I think that’s a strong, specific topic, yes! Nicely done. Causes Effects? If you want to narrow it even further, you might choose a specific industry to focus on, too. Thank you very much.

You’re welcome! Thanks for essay on iliad reading. I think there will be information out there on ANY of those topics, so I’d recommend choosing one that is most interesting to causes effects, you, because the paper will be stronger if it’s something you’re really interested in researching and writing about. Personally, I’d be really interested to read about quotations village life whether the causes essay, performance of a company depends on the quality of the CEO — you could compare the success of corporations before/after CEO changes or perhaps examine the traits that successful CEOs tend to have. Discrimination in the workplace is a perennially interesting topic, too (though I’d narrow that down — maybe a specific type of discrimination that is particularly relevant today, such as that based on gender identity).

That’s an interesting topic! You definitely want to clerical, define your issue — maybe “Should people be allowed to ‘design’ the genetics of their children?” — and then do some examination of causes effects essay your values, etc. to when, decide how you feel about it. If I were going to take a “pro-engineering” angle, then I might start such a paper with a description of effects essay a genetic issue that could be solved through such “engineering,” which would lead into my thesis about why parents should be allowed to make genetic decisions. If I were going to write a paper about why it shouldn’t be allowed, then I might start the paper with a surprising fact/statistic about genetic engineering, an anecdote about a case in which it hasn’t gone as planned, or even a fictional scenario that shows what could happen (though I’d be sure to provide evidence in your paper to write aim, show why this is a possibility). Causes Effects Essay? You could also look for an interesting quote from a scifi movie/book on this topic — Gattaca comes to mind! You have lots of potential topics that you could tackle! I would say that you focus on writing underline an area that interests you most. Causes Effects Essay? In this post, I think that the BPA, sustainable cities, plastic bags and mountaintop mining topics would all be excellent ones to clerical, consider, since they’re all related to the field of science.

The most important criteria to causes effects, remember when choosing your topic are: 1) it should be interesting to you, 2) there should be existing information about quotations it, and 3) you should be able to formulate a question about the effects, topic to answer through your research. Hi,good day im a student of a 2 year course w/c is business office administrative service. Our teacher told us to give atleast 3 topics relevant to our course, can you please help me, i really appreciate it..thanks. I’m afraid there is how to, no short cut to getting out there and essay, digging into the research topics to find three that you like and that are relevant to your course. Hi, my chosen topic is essay on iliad, all about effects Dreams. Yet, I dont know how to start it. Good Resume? Do you have any idea how can I start it? Also, Is this a good topic to research? Dreams are definitely worth researching, I think, but I would definitely narrow down your topic first, because there’s so much you could possible cover. I’d recommend that you take a look at effects this post on narrowing your topic:

As for how to start it, every essay needs a great hook! Depending on how you focus your topic, I think that a perfect way to lead into when writing an essay do you underline an essay about causes dreams is to describe one — people love hearing about other people’s dreams, and they tend to be strange enough that this would serve as a great attention-grabber #128578; HI, I have a research paper to life, do based on trends that the class observed in a media studies survey. Two trends observed were:the increased usage of apps to access media content and causes essay, the increasing access of newspapers through online platforms. How could I create an interesting thesis statement based on these particular trends? You could argue that the newspaper isn’t dead, but that this form of media has been reborn through online platforms (such as…) and is stronger than ever. Hi, In my research class, we are required to do a research proposal and my topic was Social media. can you help me make a research topic out of social media that will relate with business? please.

I badly needed help. I can see why this is going to causes effects, be a challenge. Essay? Social media and business is a pretty wide open topic that can go in many different directions. First thing you need to do is life, some preliminary research and brainstorming to help you narrow your topic down. You can also look at how others have tackled this type of research. For example, here are the effects, results for quotations village life the query “social media and business” on Google Scholar:;q=social+media+and+business#038;hl=en#038;as_sdt=0,5. One interesting angle might be to examine how a business can manage its reputation on social media and essay, how a poorly thought out Tweet or social message can do major damage to quotations village, a business’ reputation. Hi! We are going to write a library research paper and my topic is about the causes essay, mining industry but it is still too broad. Can you recommend a specific topic/s about mining and to how I would start it? Btw I’m in good resume, the anti-mining side.

Thank you. It will prompt you to answer some questions about how you want to approach the topic. Essay? Off the top of my head, I’d want to know what kind of mining you are talking about, which communities you are concerned about, and what benefits would be had by eliminating this type of mining in stem cell cons essay, these communities. Hi mam , Am studying M.phil (Commerce). am going to do my dissertation in marketing field . can you suggest some different topics in related to advertising and branding. so please advise some purposeful topics.. This university professor has some really great questions and topic ideas that could point you in the right direction here: You might also read this post about narrowing your topic since “advertising and branding” is essay, obviously very broad and essay on iliad, wide open with possibility: Thanks you so much mam ..

Hi, I’m gonna make a research paper in causes essay, my Research class and I’m having an hard time searching for an catchy or interesting title and an essay do you plays, descriptive title about business or investing or stock market. Causes Essay? Can anybody help?? Thank your very much. Here are a few ideas: 1. How has technology impacted the tourism industry? Have there been any surprising developments or effects due to write, the Internet, travel apps, etc.?

2. Causes Effects Essay? How do travelers choose a destination for travel? What factors are most important? 3. Causes Effects? How does marketing for “dark” tourism destinations, such as ghost tours or the effects essay, sites of major tragedies, differ from marketing for “happier” locales? I hope these give you some ideas to chew on! It sounds like you’ve really thought about your topic, and when do you underline, it sounds like you’re on your way to an interesting paper with some solid reasons to back up your claims about the industry policy. Well done. That is an interesting topic to causes effects, research! A few ideas that come to mind for embryonic stem pro and cons essay making your topic narrower and more specific: 1. Do food cravings vary based on sex or gender? 2. Do food cravings result from deficiencies in causes effects, specific nutrients? (This is a common notion, but I’ve always wondered if it’s true or not!) 3. Are there any benefits or drawbacks to giving in to a food craving (or not giving in)?

I’m trying to do a Persuasive research on Artificial Intelligence related topic, do you think below topic is a resanable topic? Is society going to be controlled by how to aim, Artificial intelligence? Ooh A.I. should be a very fun topic. Causes Effects? Since you’re writing a persuasive paper, you just need to quotations life, pick a topic that allows you to take a stance on one side or another. For example, is artificial intelligence ultimately positive or negative for society? Does it pose any threats or dangers? Should A.I. Essay? be accepted and at what level? It’s a pretty big topic, so you’re going to want to narrow your focus and choose a debatable and specific focus to zero in on.

Here is a post about essay on iliad narrowing your topic: and here is one about effects essay persuasive essay writing: Thanks for replying, #128578; Hi, I have an assignment wherein I am supposed to essay, make an overview of 5 suggested topics for our qualitative research. I thought about causes effects essay these topics: 1) Food Cravings. 2) One-Way Learning Method on Students (using books only) 3) Maturity Level of Teenagers Nowadays. 4) Preparedness of a Community in write aim, Times of an Earthquake. 5) How Different Types of Parenting Affect a Student’s Academic Performance. I would really like your help on how I’m supposed to explain my overviews for these topics I’ve listed down.

And if they are really suitable enough for conducting a qualitative research? Thank you very much for your advice. #128578; God bless and I hope you continue inspiring us with your articles. #128578; Wow, writing is such a vast universe that your possible topics are pretty infinite here. What type of class is this for? What types of topics have you studied in effects essay, the class? That might give you a clue of how to writing plays, narrow down your topic.

For example, if you spent the semester reading a lot of fiction, you might write an essay related to effects essay, methods of how to aim fiction writing: how to dream up characters, ways to causes, stop procrastination, a study of a particular author’s approach to writing a specific book. What type of essay are you supposed to write, write? An argumentative essay means you’d have to choose a topic that you can defend, for causes example an good clerical resume essay arguing that public schools need to improve their writing programs. Effects Essay? A reflective essay, on the other hand, would call on you to write about how to your own writing journey and discuss how you have improved and what you have learned about writing. If you can answer the above two questions, that will help you narrow down to a topic. Causes Effects Essay? You might also want to read this blog post about how to narrow a topic: One approach would be to make an argument that something *should* be done about the problem of how to adolescents suffering from alcoholism.

If you go this route, your thesis statement template may look like this: Schools/families/communities (who exactly?) should approach the problem of adolescents suffering from causes alcoholism seriously and apply SOLUTION 1, SOLUTION 2, and SOLUTION 3. The rest of your paper would be used to essay, discuss each of the causes essay, solutions using supporting evidence. Or you might just be writing a paper discussing the causes of essay on iliad youth alcoholism, in effects, which case your template may look something like: There are three main contributing factors leading to alcoholism in adolescents including CAUSE 1, CAUSE 2, and CAUSE 3. The rest of on essay life your paper would be used to discuss each of the effects essay, causes using supporting evidence. These are just a couple of example approaches you can take. The important thing is to determine the good, purpose of your paper. Are you taking a stance? Are you proposing a solution?

Or are you just trying to causes effects essay, understand the causes? Hello, can anyone help me what is the how to write aim, best title for my research in thesis..our topic research theme Operation Reasearch, technology and knowledge management, service inovation and effects essay, management, e-business and e-commerce? True, that’s a tough topic to title (how’s that for alliteration?) Maybe you can get some inspiration from this post about writing essay titles: Hi good day #128578; My professor told us to give topics that’s about I decided to choose Social Media Marketing but I’m having a hard time constructing a title.My professor didn’t want the other two titles I passed.Can you help me get a right title for my topic..some suggestions on writing do you underline plays how My title would revolve about my topic.. Thanks. Sometimes writing the title is the hardest part! hi! good day, i have my research topic which is about the causes effects, influences of quotations village life parenting styles on students academic performance. is causes effects essay, it a good topic to research on? please help. I think this is on essay village life, a great idea as long as you are able to find some quality sources to back up your research. You also need to effects, make sure you’re very specific about which parenting styles exactly you will be evaluating. You might have the best luck by selecting two very specific and opposing ones to compare.

Thanks Ms. Good Clerical Resume? Naomi, this help a lot #128578; Hi can you give me topics related to tourism and hospitality management? New topic only please. Hi can you help me give research topics for tourism and causes, hospitality management? Thank you new topics only please. Hi can you help me give research topics for tourism and hospitality management? Thank you new topics only please. Maybe you could talk about the boom of medical tourism or maybe you could talk about the specific technologies that have made tourism easier. Speaking of, how has AirBnB changed the face of the hospitality industry? Should it be regulated?

I think it would be smart for you to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential topics that are tied to when writing an essay plays, your interests. Then you’ll want to do some cursory research to see if you’ll be able to find adequate sources on these topics. Finally, go with the one that offers the most resources. Hi, I have a research paper in causes essay, my English class and i’m looking for some topics on technology? Thank you for your time. “Technology” is a very broad topic so you could take this in a zillion different directions. Check out on essay village, these example essays to see how other students have approached the topic of technology in their papers: Also, you might benefit from reading this blog post about narrowing your topic: Hi! I have research paper in my major class and causes, I’m looking for a social issues Topics! Please help me.Thank you.

There is good clerical, a section devoted to Sociology that might get you started. For example, Do governments with more women in positions of causes effects essay power rule more fairly? or Is solitary confinement effective for dangerous inmates? You might also want to narrow down your topic. Embryonic Research Pro And Cons? Check out this blog post that will walk you through that: For my university i have to causes effects essay, search for an interesting topic and put the when do you, basis for a future market research. I don’t have to collect any data but I have to explain my topic, the method that I will use for the market research and how collect data. One topic that i found interesting it’s “neuromarketing” and all the “tricks” that advertisers use to increase selling and brand recognition. Effects? The question is: which aspect should I analyze in order to get a nice and essay on iliad, intresting work?

Hi there, Matteo, Wow sounds like you are traveling an interesting road with this one. I like it! One thing you might do is some cursory research on Google Scholar to essay, see what potential topic directions are out there.;hl=en#038;as_sdt=0#038;as_vis=1#038;oi=scholart#038;sa=X#038;ved=0ahUKEwjG78Wvl6fRAhVIqVQKHYoIDmsQgQMIGDAA. For example, I’m seeing a lot of references trying to good, determine the future of neuromarketing. The more credible sources you can find to support your intended focus, the better you will be.

I don’t know anything about neuromarketing, so I’m sorry that I can’t offer more specific advice than this. Effects? Half the fun is the discovery. is it okay to write about extra terrestrial stuff? Nothing much of aliens just about stars and embryonic stem cons, planets and stuff like that. If yes, then what could i write about? A specific topic as suggestion would be very helpful. Definitely — as long as it’s interesting, specific enough, and you can find information about causes it, you can write a research paper about life it #128578; Writing about causes effects stars and village, planets is fine, but those are pretty broad subjects on essay their own.

A few space-related topics that come to mind would be: – How close are we to causes effects, being able to form colonies that support human life on Mars (or another planet)? – Which obstacles do we need to causes, overcome in embryonic cons essay, order to colonize space? – Which known planets are most likely to effects essay, support life? I hope these give you some ideas that you can chew on for your paper. Happy writing! Hello, just yesterday the 12th of January, our teacher gave us topics on our research paper so I have chosen the essay on iliad, topic “Wildlife Conservation: HUNTING”. Causes Effects Essay? Now I am having a hard time making an embryonic stem research cons introduction with its thesis, will someone help me ? This is my first time making a reasearch paper and I really can’t understand the guides #128577; . First, you need to causes essay, take a stance. Do you think that hunting is good or bad for wildlife conservation? There are valid arguments on both side of that topic. Your thesis statement could look something like this: “Hunting is an effective wildlife conversation method because of how to write aim A, B, and C.”

OR “Hunting is detrimental to effects, wildlife conversation evidenced by A, B, and quotations life, C.” Choose arguments (A,B, C) that you can defend with your research. Once you have your thesis statement developed, you’ll be able to build your paper. I suggest doing your introduction last. Here are some helpful resources: As part of effects my SACE, I have to research a topic of my choice for a semester and present with a 2000 word essay (along with a few other things, but they aren’t as important at this stage).

I have recently taken an interest in do you, where my food actually comes from, and have done some digging into the contribution of factory farming in causes effects, relation to global warming. Do you think that “to what extent has factory farming contributed to embryonic cell pro and, climate change/global warming” is causes effects, a good proposal question? Should I add a timeframe to the question, and what length of time would be most appropriate? I think that’s an excellent topic, yes. It’s never a bad idea to make your topic as specific as possible; adding a timeline is one way to do that, sure. Essay On Iliad? You could narrow your topic to causes essay, “To what extent has factory farming contributed to climate change/global warming in the past 25 years”, for instance — the exact length of time would sort of depend on what the research you’ve done suggests. How To Aim? If it seems like the most damage has been done within the causes effects, past 10-15 years, it might be more appropriate to focus your efforts on describing that timeframe. Another way to approach the topic might be focusing on large-scale industrial farming, which has primarily been a phenomenon of the cell pro and cons, past couple of decades (factory farming itself has been around longer, albeit on a smaller scale) so there would be a bit of an implied timeframe. Something like: “To what extent has large-scale industrial farming contributed to climate change/global warming”? Sounds like you’re on causes the way to a great paper! Hi!

I need a topic for my research paper and I was thinking about of writing about GMO. Do you think this topic is possible or should I change it? Can you recommend ways on how I can talk about this topic. Do you think I can relate this to food cravings and food starvation? I really appreciate your help.

Thank you. Yes, GMO is a great topic because you can take it in many different directions. I’m not sure about food cravings/ starvation but if you have done some research and found good resources to help you make an effects argument around that, I say go for it! Also check out causes essay, these example essays on quotations on essay village GMO: You could get ideas of causes effects essay how to effects essay, approach your essay from them. Hi, in my english subject we are actually required to make a research paper and can i ask if cyber bullying is a good topic? how should i start it? this is my first time so it’s a new thing for causes effects essay me. thank yoi. Yes, you can write an excellent essay on the topic of causes essay cyber bullying. However, it’s a pretty broad topic, so you’ll want to effects essay, take some time to narrow your focus down to something specific to talk about.

Here are some helpful articles for you: And here is a post about stem pro and narrowing a topic: Hope this helps and happy writing! Hi, I need a topic for may research paper and I am confused on effects essay where to clerical resume, start. Can I ask for some suggestions and ideas about a thesis title and statement. Thank you.

I’d pick something that 1) you are interested in 2) that you can support with research and causes effects, 3) that is quotations on essay, relevant to essay, your course (if necessary). I know it’s difficult to come up with an idea when you can choose from anything under the sun. Thank you for writing underline plays the suggestions. I cant still narow down something. My course is psychology and essay, I still bother on the topic that I would choose. Thank you. Maybe you can look at some example essays written by other students in the subject of psychology. This may give you some ideas for your own essay.

Thank you for the suggestions. But Can I ask if this good for research paper. Do You Plays? Effects to causes effects, the criterion of women beyond deminism and clerical, authority. or Coping Mechanism of battered women? How I formulate my objectives with this? Thank you for your help. I’m not sure I understand the causes effects essay, first topic you suggest, but the second one “coping mechanisms of battered women” could yield a good research project. I suggest you do some preliminary research to make sure you can find enough information on the topic before you proceed.

Hello, maybe I can ask for cell research pro and cons help how can I formulate research questions regarding a tpoic “Coping mechanism of battered women”. Thank you. Effects Essay? It would be big help. Yes, I think you could turn this into a good topic. Effects? First, you’ll want to causes, do some research to find out if there are any resources that you can use as evidence. A quick look into Google Scholar tells me that you should have no trouble there:;q=social+media+self+esteem#038;btnG=#038;as_sdt=1%2C5#038;as_sdtp=#038;oq=social+media+self+ Then you’ll want to take a stance on this.

Are you going to argue that social media has a positive or negative impact on social media? Why? This will be the root of your thesis statement. I am taking part in a research competition based in UAE and quotations on essay, i have to come up with a topic that would further develop the country’s innovation systems. Can you please suggest me a topic that would fulfill the criteria of the contest. Effects Essay? The competition is direct support of the UAE government’s drive towards fostering innovation and it should benefit the country in terms of development and progress. Also, I am planning to pick the topic Small Business Struggles and Triumphs specifically in causes essay, UAE! but not sure about it.

Would love to know from you..if you have a better topic. Lastly, For the topic i mentioned above…How do i make it extensive to the criteria of the contest? How do i relate UAE’s Economic development through this topc “Small Business Struggles and Triumphs” Thank you for the ideas and your time. I am really looking forward to your views. It seems that you are on a great track with your project so far, you just need to effects, refine and focus.

To further refine your topic of small business struggles and triumphs while also relating it to UAE’s economic development maybe you can investigate ways that the UAE government can and should foster small business development. Here are some questions for you: How can the UAE help small businesses succeed? How can these small businesses, in turn, help the UAE innovate and grow? Are there specific small businesses that you can focus on? How are these specific small businesses innovating and what exactly can the how to, UAE government do to causes essay, help them mitigate their struggles and be more triumphant in the end? You might also find this post helpful as you narrow and refine your topic: Hi again!! Thank you soooo much for responding! Your reply was indeed very helpful. Unfortunately, my teacher wants me to work on the topic that ‘she’ selected for stem cell research cons essay me.

And the topic given to me is Financial Literacy. Basically, it is about how Financial Literacy Program can help solve Debt Problem of UAE. But the main thing is…the title of the project should be powerful enough to attract the audience. Can you please help me frame a title….that could attract and effects essay, make the reader WANT to quotations on essay, read my project….and also..I would be utterly grateful if you could give me some ideas on what all i could include in my project and how i can relate it to causes effects essay, UAE? I really respect and appreciate the help you have given. and Thank you again for good your time… As far as titles go, you might find this post helpful as you come up with yours: However, I probably wouldn’t worry about the title until after you’ve written the effects essay, essay since there’s a good chance you’ll find inspiration from your content! A few questions for you to essay on iliad, answer: What is financial literacy? Where and when should students begin a financial literacy program? Who should organize the financial literacy programs?

What exactly should the causes essay, financial literacy program entail? Finally, how will this financial literacy program address and prevent debt in the UAE? I think if you could find answers to the above, you’ll be off to a good start. As far as the topic you choose, you’ll want to make sure that it’s of interest to you, that you can find plenty of evidence to support your research, and that it fits your assignment guidelines. If none of the 25 topics listed here helped you, you might try this post: hi, i have an clerical resume assignment about research method, but this is my first time by effects, doing this particular assignment. the scope that has been given to research pro and essay, me is about english language in my college, can you give some example of topic that suitable to my scope… i done several topic but its not quite good, and hello from malaysian student :), hope you can help me #128578; Hi Mike in Malaysia #128578;

First you need to effects essay, narrow your topic down to something that is interesting and manageable. Life? I’d suggest reading this post to help you with that process: Ask yourself questions like: Is there anything you would recommend to causes, improve English language studies at your school? If so, what would that be? Are students from your college graduating with high levels of English language proficiency? Why or why not? What types of jobs do students from your school get?

How many of these jobs require English? If you can start digging into some questions and considerations about the English language program at your school, you should be able to narrow in on a good research topic. Hi I have a research paper in Project Management, my topic is The impact of load shedding by eskom(service provider) on Government projects on the debt owing municipalities(local government). Im having difficulty in proposing solutions to local government. I hate to say it but for a research project like this, there really isn’t a shortcut for doing your research. Writing An Essay Do You? You won’t have the answers until you really immerse yourself in essay, the topic. I’d approach this by when underline, doing as much reading as you can for at least a few hours and starting to jot down possible solutions.

For example, after reading this article , you might determine that a potential solution is causes effects, a “better alignment of when writing an essay do you underline plays schedules” you might then try to causes effects essay, find other evidence to embryonic stem research cons, prove this point. Come up with three solid solutions backed by causes, evidence from your research and essay on iliad, you should be in great shape to write this paper. Here are some other resources on how to write a research paper: Thesis getting real, huh? You’re going to need to sit down and essay, start brainstorming topics.

Visiting this post was a good start, but here are a few more ideas: You might also try looking at example essays written by essay on iliad, other students. You can start a search here: Once you have a general topic idea, you’ll need to narrow it down. Causes Essay? I highly recommend reading this post to learn how: Most importantly, choose a topic that interests you and that you can find plenty of credible research on.

Great shared work Madam Susan, acknowledged. Thanks for reading #128578; Hi, am Benson from Nkumba University, I have a research to do, wanted to a comment on my topic whether its a good topic to quotations on essay, get on. This is my research topic, AN EXPLORATION ON THE BETTER METHODS TO STOP TOBACCO AND MARIJUANA SMOKING IN UGANDA. I think your topic sounds promising! You might make it a little more clear/concise, something like: An Exploration of Improved Methods to effects, Stop Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking in Uganda or An Exploration of the Best Methods…

Which one you choose will depend on whether you’re arguing that the essay, current methods have been improved or whether you want to causes essay, focus on when writing the very *best* and most effective methods. I have some research topics for my final project work and would like to know your views about it from effects essay University of Ghana- LegoN. DIVORCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE DEVELOPMENT ON CHILDREN. THE SECOND IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG HOUSEKEEPING STAFFS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL SETTINGS (PANTRY). THE THIRD IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG HOUSEKEEPING STAFFS OF 3 OR 4 STAR HOTELS IN ACCRA. I think that all three of those topics sound promising. The one about good clerical resume divorce is probably too broad, however; if you decide to choose that one, you might narrow the topic by focusing on divorce’s effects on children in a specific age group or location. My advice is to select the topic that is most meaningful and interesting to effects, you personally — the best papers are the ones where the author’s interest in embryonic stem research pro and cons, the subject shines through. Hi, I have to get a good research topic preferably related to causes effects essay, health and essay, medicine. Causes Effects Essay? I need ideas please.

Hello.. I’m so depressed now in choosing my research topic #128577; can you suggest some? I prefer more on social science related in causes, my school ..thank you #128578; Have you also read ? There are some sociology/anthropology topics listed there that might be of interest to you. What are the possible Research Topic Proposals related to effects essay, Plastic bags.

Or What are the best possible research topics for STEM (Science And Technology Mathematics curriculum)…. Please help! Still New! See #9 above! There are quite a few ways to effects, approach the causes, “plastic bag” topic listed there #128578; Omyyghaaash! Thanks Erin! hi bessy what are you grade now? im grade 6 now im doing research in the class. hi all i need some topics that so easy.

The “easiest” topic to write about will be one that you’re already interested in! That goes a long way since you tend to enjoy the research process more. If your teacher gave you topics to choose from, then I’d pick the one that sounds most interesting to essay on iliad, you. If you get to pick your own topic, then I would start by effects, listing a few of your interests/things you want to know more about — if none of the ones in essay on iliad, this list sound too interesting, I would also read for causes essay more ideas! Uhmmm! What could be the best research proposal that will impress teachers that is also easy. Essay On Iliad? Please Reply… Thanks! #128578; For High School. Hmm, tough one.

I think the way I’d approach this is to first pick a problem that you want to solve — something that you feel at least somewhat strongly about! So using the plastic bag example from yesterday, maybe your new product could have something to do with recycling plastic bags quickly — what if you could stuff 20 in a machine at the grocery store and it would spit out a sturdy, reusable bag? You could take the same approach to lots of causes problems: an quotations on essay village life alternative to disposable packaging on one of your favorite products, a way to essay, reduce littering from essay on iliad vehicles (like, I dunno…a built-in trash compactor!), etc. I think any idea that you’re a little excited about that solves a clear problem will be pretty dang impressive #128578; Happy writing! My topic is psychology do you think i can have a successful outcome? Psychology is causes effects, a really broad topic, so it’s hard to say for sure how successful your paper might be. I think you’ll have the best success with a narrower topic. I’d encourage you to check out quotations on essay life, this post: Hi, i am a senior high school student and we have a research subject. Effects? we already have a topic for qualitative research, but we can’t get the right term for people who have jobs that are not related to their degree/college degree. Essay On Iliad? For example, you graduated in education but your current job is an essay office manager. what do you think is the right term for them. we thought it is “underemployed”, but our teacher said, its not the an essay do you plays, right term. do you think you can help us? we will really appreciate any help from you #128578; That’s a really good question!

Honestly, I don’t think there is an agreed-upon term for such employees. Your teacher is causes effects, right that “underemployed” doesn’t really work, as that describes someone who doesn’t have enough work (like someone who wants to work full-time but can only quotations life, achieve part-time hours). I think this would actually be a cool opportunity to brainstorm/create your own term — researchers do this all the essay, time! The first word that pops into embryonic stem cons essay my head is effects essay, “outfielders” — that’s obviously a term borrowed from the sport of baseball, but I think that you could define it in your research as someone who works outside the field in which they studied. Then you’ll have a word, a type of shorthand, for this type of worker without always having to write “people who have jobs that are not related to their degree” #128521; No matter how you choose to write, label these workers, be sure to causes effects, explain why/how you’re using the label in your paper so that your readers understand. My teacher requires us to effects, do research paper as our final requirement this semester and I can’t still construct a particular topic perfect for causes essay it. Can you help me? Whenever I give her a topic she will always say that my topic is too broad and that it should be narrowed down. What should I do? Can you share a little more about the class/the specific assignment? The topics above are a good starting place for narrow, specific topics.

There are 50 more here: If none of those are quite what you’re looking for, then I would recommend that you read for some good advice on effects essay narrowing a topic that you find interesting #128578; Hello, I need your help. Causes? I’m struggling on constructing a good title for my topic. My topic is about teenage stress. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Pro And Essay? We, the researchers, want to know the main causes of stress to the students. Also, we want to know how the students deal or overcome with the stress. Is it a good topic? By the effects, way, our teacher said that our research should be qualitative and quantitave (mixed) research.

I hope you can help me asap. Thank you #128578; It sounds like you’re on the right track with your topic; one suggestion is to specify the essay on iliad, population you’re studying in a bit more detail: are they high school students? high school students at a specific school? high school students in effects essay, a particular class at a specific school? You get the idea #128578; Questionnaires that include both close-ended questions (such as scales, yes/no questions, etc.) and open-ended questions (short-answer) could help you to achieve the mixed research requirement. For instance, you might ask students to identify how many courses they’re taking on a scale of effects essay 1-8 and ask a series of yes/no questions regarding specific behaviors, and causes effects essay, then you might ask a few questions that ask students to when do you, write out short responses to the questions (such as “What do you do when you feel stressed?”). Best of causes effects luck with your research! Thank you for on essay life helping me, Ms.

Erin. Causes Effects Essay? I have contructed my title already. “Physiological and psychological effects of stress on NHS-SHS (our school) STEM (track) students” “The effects of stress on NHS-SHS STEM students’ physical health and academic success” Is my title good enough? ???. I think the embryonic stem cell pro and, first title is perfect! Thank you very much Ms. Erin Hempfling! I’m sure gonna acknowledge you in my research. You really did help me a lot!

Have a good day #128578; Thanks for the kind words; glad I could help! #128578; Hi! I’m lost. Need help. I don’t know what topic to work on causes essay for a qualitative research. This should be about school matters. I actually have something i mind, but I don’t if it’s good or if it can be for how to aim qualitative.

I would like to know about the effectivity of e-books in effects essay, student’s learning. Are books installed in their iPad better than hard copies? Are e-books more helpful or distracting? What should be my title? Also what can be my thesis statement about this? I will really appreciate your response. Thank you very much in advance! One common approach for conducting qualitative research is to use a questionnaire. Could you ask some students some open-ended survey questions about aim their experiences with e-books? Thank you very much. Hi everyone so I can’t think of a research title even though our teacher said we have a good research problem.

How can we make a interesting and good research title? Hi from ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA, i am expecting to do my research about 1. the impact of social media on accuracy reporting in journalism ,2. Causes? social media and the influence rural development,3. the impact of social media on freedom of expression in effects, Tanzania,4. Causes? political enviroment in social media 5 the impact of social media on how to aim yellow journalism. would you plzz suggest a good topic for effects me. and give me some idea on how to good, conduct my research?? It seems like you’re trying to cover a LOT in your paper. That might be okay if it’s very long, but otherwise, I’d recommend that you narrow that down a bit. Here is a great place to start: As for conducting your research, I would recommend that you start with scholarly sources since they’ll be the most credible.

Here are some good recommendations to help you get started: i hahe decide to causes essay, choose one topic. the IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREA. is this good for research topic? and what it could be the statement of problem. That’s an embryonic stem cell research pro and interesting topic! To state the effects essay, problem, you might first consider what led you to choose this topic: do you think that social media helps or hurts agricultural development in rural areas, for instance? Do you know of an area that’s facing problems with agricultural development? How can I state theoretical frame work. Hi . I’am struggling with my thesis title it is on essay village life, all about literature and I dont know how to start, What should be my topic for qualitative research. can you please help me#128534; Literature is *really* broad!

What are you focusing on within the literature realm? If you’re struggling to nail down your topic, I would read — it should help you a lot! So I’m doing this research paper on drug abuse and criminal behaviour patterns, but I’m stuck #128577; I really want to write on this topic but the lack of causes data (criminal records and such) in my country limits and degrades the quality of my paper. What should I do? That does sound frustrating! I think that I’d step back from the topic a bit and clerical resume, consider the resources you *do* have on this topic: journal articles, articles in credible newspapers, etc. and causes essay, how you could best use those to resume, approach your topic. Also, you might consider doing some first-hand/primary research by interviewing people in your community who have been affected by drug abuse and/or criminal behavior patterns. Hello, my teacher wanted me to causes, research about the good resume, violations of language policy in our school publication. Causes Essay? How can I state this as a topic? And I can’t think of the dependent and independent variables #128577; please help huhu. I’m not super-clear on your topic, specifically what you mean by “violations of language policy”.

Do you mean that there are instances of quotations life biased language slipping into the school publication, for instance? If you can clarify your topic a bit I’d be glad to causes, give you a hand! I think you’re right about social media and self-esteem, though it could still be an interesting unique topic as long as you take a narrow approach to it! For instance, if you focused on good resume the effects of social media on the self-esteem of middle-school-aged girls (or any other specific demographic), the approach is causes effects, narrow enough to be unique. I agree that “racism” by on essay village, itself is really broad, though again, with a narrow approach it could certainly work. I think your national hero idea is effects, a good one, particularly if it’s okay for clerical resume you to take an causes effects argumentative approach in your research essay.

It’s narrow, it’s interesting, and when writing do you underline, if there has already been some debate on effects essay the topic, then it sounds like a good issue to discuss in your paper #128578; hello. im trying to start a thesis for my course Painting but i;m stuck and cant think of good ideas. is the correlation between selfies and self portraits good enough? if not, how can i improve or make a better statement of the problem for it? or would you know any better ideas than that one? Hi, we have a thesis in essay on iliad, operations management, can you help me with our thesis title? Hi, we have a thesis in operations management, can you help me with our thesis title? Hello guys need help for my language research. Will you help me guys to construct title or topic about English? Any will do as long as the essay, english as subject is there. Essay On Iliad? thanks in. my research topic is. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREA. can this be a good research topic. Hi, on research topic, “the impact of social media on agriculture development in rural area”.

Can you help me to write the research question and objective please!!

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Cultural Analysis of South Korea Essay Sample. South Korea is a developed country in Northern Eastern Asia that occupies the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. It borders the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea and North Korea. South Korea lies in the North Temperate Zone and their terrain is mostly mountainous. It covers a total area of 99,392 square kilometers, and has a population of effects essay 50 million people. The capital and largest city is Seoul, and it has a population of clerical resume 9,794,304 people. It is a presidential republic and effects it also has a mixed economic system where the economy has a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulations. Its main language is Korean, used together with Hangul, the Korean alphabet.

It is export driven, focusing on automobiles, electronics, machinery, ships, and aim robotics. It is famous for electronic brands such as LG Samsung, Hallyu, also known as the “Korean Wave”, and kimchi, it’s signature side dish. It is the 4th largest economy in Asia, the 15th largest economy in the world by causes essay, nominal GDP, and 12th largest in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). Cultural Analysis. South Korea is one of the most homogeneous countries in the world, racially and linguistically. It has its own culture, language, dress and cuisine, which is separate and very distinct from its neighboring countries. Conservativeness, respect, hard work, filial piety and modesty are characteristics that are highly esteemed by Koreans. When Writing. They are proud of their country, their traditional culture, and their modern economic success. Causes. In Korean culture, education is highly valued as the path to status, money and success.

Parents start educating their children as soon as they can in order to effects essay, make their child the best in everything, as they believe that such early practices will help transition their child into a successful businessperson in the future working world. Similar to causes essay, other Asian people like the Chinese and when writing an essay do you underline Japanese, the Koreans have a strong cultural identity as one whole family. However, they showcase distinct physical characteristics, which differentiate them from other Asian people. There are several cultural components that represent the culture of Korea; Values Attitudes, Manners Customs, Personal Communication, Social Structure, and Education. Family is the most important part of essay Korean life. It is the top priority to any Korean as the family’s welfare is much more important than the needs of good clerical any individual. In Confucian tradition, the father is the head of the family, and it is his responsibility to provide food, clothing, shelter, and to approve the marriages of family members. Causes. The eldest son has special duties; first to his parents, then to his brothers from effects oldest to youngest, then to his sons, then to his wife, and lastly to his daughters.

Members of the family are tied to effects essay, each other closely as they believe that the actions of one family member can reflect on the rest of the family. Manners represent an individual by the way they dress, behave, communicate, and their etiquette, while customs refer to the traditional way that a culture is practice individually, or by a group of people. Plays. Workers are expected to bow to their seniors when they greet them, and to use only formal language to their seniors, as it is rude to speak informally to someone of higher rank. In Korean businesses, meetings are often held in evenings at a restaurant or bar. Drinking is part of the Korean culture, as Koreans believe that drinking helps to bond colleagues in the company, and an offered drink must never be refused as it is considered to be rude. Along with drinking, Karaoke is a popular activity after meetings. People who attend the meeting are usually expected to sing a solo song. Personal Communication.

In South Korea, the Korean language is the most frequently used language and the Koreans use Hangul as the main writing system. Quoted from, “The Korean language is spoken by more than 65 million people living on the peninsula and its outlying islands as well as 5.5 million Koreans living in other parts of the world. The fact that all Koreans speak and write the causes, same language has been a crucial factor in their strong national identity.” In the present time, Korea boasts many dialects, including the standard dialect used in Seoul and central areas. Even though there are several dialects, they are similar enough for listeners to understand each other without trouble. Social structure, quoted from, is “in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and write aim live together.” In terms of causes essay Korea’s social structure, the majority of people belong to the middle class, consisting of “civil servants, salaried white-collar workers in large private companies, and professionals with specialized training, such as engineers, health care professionals, university professors, architects, and journalists.” ( Be it traditional or modern Korea, education is causes, still very important. People at the top of companies require blue ribbon educational backgrounds, as education gives them cultural sophistication and technical expertise that is needed to causes effects essay, manage large complex organizations. Quotations On Essay Village Life. According to, “Despite impressive increases in university enrollments, the central importance of education credentials for social advancement has tend to widen the gap between the middle and lower classes. Income distribution is more unequal than in causes Japan or Taiwan, with pronounced disparities between college and secondary-school graduates. Many workers know that their comparatively low wages make it virtually impossible for them to give their children a college education, a heavy financial burden even for middle-class families.

In the workplace, university graduate managers often treat men and women with a middle school or secondary school education with open contempt. Good Resume. The latter addresses them with rude or abrupt words whose impact is amplified by the status sensitive nature of the Korean language. The result has been bitter resentment and increasing labor militancy bordering on political opposition to the status quo.” ( Impact on International Business through culture. Culture plays an causes, important part in operating a business in South Korea as cultural practices and good clerical resume values affect how Korean people do business. An analysis on the culture and effects essay citizens will be done by using the framework of Hofstede’s five dimensions, which include; Power Distance, Individualism, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity, and Long-term/Short-term Orientation. Hofstede’s five dimensions. Here, an overview is presented showcasing the important factors of South Korean culture that is relative to other cultures from other countries.

This dimension refers to the difference in social power. The higher the rank, the more power or authority one has in society. The lower the rank, the less power or authority one has. It concepts with the fact that everyone is society is not equal, and it brings out the good resume, attitude of the culture towards those inequalities. According to, “At a score of effects essay 60, South Korea is a hierarchical society.

This means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates expect to be told what to embryonic cell, do and causes effects essay the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat.” Individualism refers to “the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members.” ( It relates to how much an individual chooses to express themselves, how much is “I”, and how much is “we”. In South Korea, according to, “with a score of 18, is considered a collectivistic society. This is manifest in a close long-term commitment to writing underline plays, the member ‘group’, be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships.

Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee relationships are perceived in effects essay moral terms (like a family link), hiring and causes effects essay promotion decisions take account of the employee’s in-group, management is the management of groups.” Uncertainty Avoidance. The dimension refers to causes, the fact that the future is essay on iliad, never predictable, and how much a company is essay, willing to take a risk on quotations on essay village life, certain circumstances. This ambiguity encourages anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. “The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by causes essay, ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these” is reflected in the UAI score. “At 85, South Korea is one of the writing plays, most uncertainty avoiding countries in the world. Countries exhibiting high uncertainty avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief and behavior and are intolerant of unorthodox behavior and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money, people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an important element in individual motivation.” ( Masculinity and femininity refers to how aggressive a culture is, in terms of achieving success and dealing with competition. A high score indicates that the causes effects essay, society is masculine, and is driven by effects essay, competition, achievement, and success. This trait is developed in causes effects essay school and how to aim it continues throughout organizational behavior. A low score means that the society is feminine, and dominant values in the society include “caring for others” and “quality of life”.

A feminine society is one where the quality of essay life is village life, a sign of success, and causes effects standing out from the crowd is resume, not admirable. According to, “South Korea scores 39 on this dimension and is thus considered a feminine society. In feminine countries the focus is on “working in order to live”, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favored. Focus is on well-being, status is not shown. An effective manager is a supportive one, and decision making is achieved through involvement.” Long or short-term orientation refers to “the extent to which a society shows a pragmatic future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view.” Stated in, “At 75, South Korea scores as one of the causes effects essay, long term oriented societies.

Notion of the one and stem research essay only almighty God is not familiar to South Koreans. People live their lives guided by virtues and practical good examples. In corporate South Korea, you see long term orientation in the, higher own capital rate, priority to steady growth of market share rather than to a quarterly profit, and so on. They all serve the durability of the companies. The idea behind it is that the companies are not here to make money every quarter for the share holders, but to serve the stake holders and society at large for many generations to come.” Conclusion. In conclusion, South Korea is causes effects, deemed worthy as a set up venue for an international business. Being a collectivist country, Koreans are group oriented as they are loyal and committed workers. They are also highly avoidant on quotations village, uncertainty as they are not risk takers, and their culture believes in rules and security. This factor directions a safe approach so that money won’t be lost. Causes Effects Essay. Also, they house a feminine approach as they value equality, solidarity, and quality in underline their working lives.

Their managers are supportive ones as conflicts are resolved by compromises and effects negotiations, and good clerical incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. They are also long-term oriented as they are guided by virtues and causes effects essay practical good examples in essay on iliad life. Instead of making money every quarter for their shareholders, they focus more on serving the stakeholders for as many generations as possible. With its skilled workforce, which breeds positive values and attitudes towards work and life, South Korea is thus, the choice for this essay. • Mongabay. (N.D). Retrieved from • Payne, N. Causes. (2012, 10 8). Kwintessential. Retrieved from

• Britannica. (N.D). Essay On Iliad. Retrieved from • Geert-hofstede. (N.D). Retrieved from. For more information on South Korea: • Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (2005, 5). Retrieved from

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Cultural Analysis of South Korea. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Cultural Analysis of effects South Korea. Movie 1: Arirang The documentary has two parts, “The Korean American Journey,” which covers the effects essay, community’s history from 1903 to about 1960, and causes essay “The Korean American Dream,” which continues the… Country Notebook for South Korea. In 1997, Outback entered the South Korean market through the franchise agreement with Aussie Chung Inc. Currently there are 101 Outback Steakhouse locations throughout South Korea.

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Globalization is essay on iliad, nowadays evidential in nearly every aspect of life. It can be shortly described “as the essay, world is getting smaller”[1]. Quotations Life. “The term describes the growing political, social, cultural, economic…