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Thesis in cardiac surgery

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awards essay The Wylie Medal 2018 will be awarded to the most meritorious essay on this year’s topic ' Medical student electives in developing countries: medical tourism or formative experience? ' written by an undergraduate medical student at a university in thesis in cardiac surgery Great Britain or Ireland. The overall winner will receive the Wylie Medal in memory of Dr W Derek Wylie, President of the AAGBI 1980-82. Submit your essay ' ' Medical student electives in developing countries: medical tourism or formative experience? '' to the Wylie Medal 2018 here The deadline for submission is 23:59 on Wednesday 31 January 2018. What. Essays should be prepared according to the general format of the ‘Notice to Contributors’ found here » Applications were invited from medical students studying in Great Britain and Ireland (subject to confirmation of thesis in cardiac, eligibility). All applicants should be the sole author of their essay. The word limit is 1000 words (excluding references and headings).

Some essays may be published online or in good Anaesthesia News, depending on their suitability and at thesis surgery the discretion of the AAGBI. All essay submissions will be subject to institutional, a plagiarism check and thesis in cardiac surgery the results will be considered as part of the judging process. All submissions will blinded to reviewers. Author names and contact information should not be included on the submitted essay. The Association recognises that many medical schools also offer prizes to medical students for essays on a topic related to institutional thesis, anaesthesia and has decided that the thesis in cardiac winning of a local prize will not preclude entry for the essay prize. However applicants must inform the AAGBI if funding or a prize is being sought from other bodies (email secretariat@aagbi.org). Examples of previous winning essays are available to to end an essay, download below. In Cardiac Surgery. Applications will be invited from medical students studying in Great Britain and Ireland (subject to confirmation of speech, eligibility) to thesis surgery, apply to the AAGBI Foundation for funding towards a medical student elective period taking place between April 2018 and September 2018. Overseas students should ensure that they are permitted to causes, apply for charitable funding.

Apply here for undergraduate elective funding for travel between April 2018 - September 2018. The deadline for surgery, submissions is 23:59 on Wednesday 31 January 2018. Definition of medical student elective. The AAGBI recognises the benefits that the medical student elective can bring for a successful career in anaesthesia, pain, medicine and is a thesis intensive care medicine. In particular students may become more flexible, resourceful, more resilient and more culturally aware through projects based in developing countries (a particular focus of the work of the AAGBI). Hence elective placements supporting work in developing countries are given priority. Grants will only be awarded to applicants who intend to spend time away from their base academic institution and whose travel, accommodation and subsistence costs are increased as a result. The AAGBI is keen to support medical student elective placements which:

Prepare students for a successful career in anaesthesia, pain, peri-operative, and intensive care medicine. Help to develop a student’s interest or passion that can then make an impact on patient care both at the time and in the future. Are well organised with consideration of personal safety, patient safety, appropriate supervision (both clinical and non clinical) and with support in place in the event of any difficulties. Support projects in developing countries in an ethical and sustainable way bringing benefits to both the student and the developing country partners. To complete your application you will need to supply: Your personal details Details of in cardiac, visiting centre and dates of attendance A description of experience to be gained and projects to be performed (500 words max) Information about why you have chosen this speciality (200 words max) The amount of funding applied for (maximum ?750) broken down into travel and accommodation Details of any other funding applications you have made. On the final page of the submission process which gives a summary of art school essays, your application, please ensure you check the box to accept the terms and conditions and click Finish to submit. You will then receive an email confirmation and copy of your application. Elective applications will be assessed using the scoring criteria. The closing date for submissions for surgery, travel between April 2018 - September 2018 is 23:59 on water carbon, Wednesday 31 January 2018. Applications for the this round of funding will be considered at the March 2018 meeting of the thesis surgery Research Grants Committee. Causes Essay. If you have any queries please email secretariat@aagbi.org.

Successful applicants in 2017 round one were: Successful applicants in 2016 round one were: Successful applicants in 2015 round two were: Successful applicants in 2015 round one were: In February 2014 Jonathan Dauncey, now a F1 at the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, was in his final year at Cardiff University and travelled to Kampala in Uganda to spend five weeks visiting an thesis anaesthetic department. His aim was to gain a greater understanding of how anaesthesia training is admission organised in Uganda and what it means to be an thesis surgery anaesthetist working in Mulago Hospital. His project was supported by what is persuasive speech, the AAGBI through its ‘Undergraduate Elective Funding’ program. He has produced a short film that explores the anaesthesia training program at Mulago Hospital and in cardiac reveals the daily challenges faced by the inspirational and the hell thesis dedicated anaesthetic team. The AAGBI plays an thesis surgery integral role with the funding and training of anaesthetists in Uganda and effects essay he saw the influential work of the AAGBI in action. Tel +44 (0)20 7631 1650 | Fax: +44 (0)20 7631 4352 | Email: info@aagbi.org. Thesis Surgery. Registered as a Company limited by Guarantee.

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Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery | Home page

Poem Essay: The Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem renaissance, which lasted from 1918 to 1937, was arguably the most influential movement in in cardiac surgery the African American literary history. This is because the movement not only embraced a wide variety of fields that included visual arts, music, literature and theater with great diversity but also sought to achieve three important things: to redefine the negro as opposed to western stereotypes, to recreate negro values anew as opposed to the old Victorian moral values and to re-engineer the identity of negro literature and arts as part of mainstream American literature. Although the movement is often described as having laid the groundwork for to end, the later development of American literature, the achievements and contributions of female artists, writers and singers were always underrepresented. In Cardiac Surgery? Despite their notable contributions to the movement, female writers and artists, in general, often found their works less published in the leading literary journals and magazines of the time. Good An Essay? Their works were always overshadowed by that of thesis in cardiac, their male counterparts. More so, female writers were viewed as playing a subordinate role in development of the renaissance, as compared to that played by what is a thesis statement men. This article examines ways in thesis in cardiac surgery which female artists were prejudiced against in the Harlem Renaissance. To do this, a brief description of the period, followed by a general examination of leading female authors, artist, and singers is given.

Ways in which gender prejudice was perpetuated are then examined, followed by admission a brief comparison of the situation of the thesis in cardiac surgery female writer in the contemporary scene as compared to the period of the Harlem renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance: Historical Overview. That this was an era of institutional thesis, African American art cannot be overemphasized. Literary action and discussions took place in two locations: the in cardiac surgery Greenwich Village in lower Manhattan and case the cities of Harlem and New York in upper Manhattan. Alaine Locke coined the term New Negro to thesis in cardiac, describe the new African American individual who unlike the one portrayed by initial stereotypes of western constructs as being innately servile, was artistic, conscious and sophisticated. It is noted that such a biased identity of what thesis, African Americans had its roots in the Jim Crow Laws which laid a foundation for racism (Tarver and Barnes 17). It was against racism that the renaissance flourished. Initially, the great migration was occasioned by mass movement of African Americans who moved from the thesis surgery southern cities to the cities in the north of the United States in search of better education, employment and what the hell thesis statement suffrage; among other socio – economic needs (Sharon 22). It is noted that the renaissance had a militant edge in thesis in cardiac its agitation for art school admission essays, the development and celebration of the intellectual achievements of African Americans. This was exemplified in its twofold nature and objective as defined by the works of leading artist in like in surgery Their Eyes Were Watching God . The African American community is portrayed as an important entity in the lives of individuals in good ways to end an essay the society.

Janie’s community remains tightly woven and resistant to diversity. According to critics, the renaissance was not only a literary movement but also an expression of social revolt against surgery, racism by African Americans. It is also observed that the period was utilized to recreate the black identity through variety of mediums such as literature, music, visual arts and fiji water carbon study entertainment. However, the most important notion that was sparked by the renaissance was that of the new Negro woman. Thesis Surgery? This descriptive term was used to refer to African American women involved in writing during the course of the renaissance. They were identified by the fact that their works bore a strong stream of consciousness against is a thesis statement, racism, a vice that was deeply engendered in the social fabric of the in cardiac society at the time.

These women formed a struggling minority and the movement provided an avenue for them to causes effects, not only express their views on race and gender relations but also explore their artistic abilities, talents and dispositions (Laurie 36). Just like Janie in thesis Their Eyes Were Watching God , female writers of the Harlem Renaissance used art to thesis, seek their sense of identity and spiritual enlightenment. Further, it is argued that although Hurston’s novel was published in1937, way after the Harlem Renaissance, it was, in essence, strongly influenced by the period. The novel’s major concern on the struggles of African American women to seek decent lives is a reflection of the actual plight of African American women in the society during the Harlem Renaissance. Women played outstanding roles in in cardiac the renaissance. Their role was not only confined to writing, as exemplified by artists such as Alice Dunbar Nelson, Marita Bonner and causes effects essay Dorothy West, but also in a variety of other fields like visual arts and entertainment. In all these fields, far from thesis in cardiac surgery, writing, women faced gender prejudice and ways to end an essay segregation (Zhao 2 – 4). For instance, the 1 st wave of women movement was meant to redefine the respectability of women. This was driven by the activities of the thesis in cardiac surgery Blues Women as well as that by what the Club Women.

Since the thesis general perception about black women prior to the renaissance was that they were thieves and prostitutes, club women were devoted to the hell is a thesis statement, changing that perception and establishing equal rights for African American women. Their aim was to change the prevailing negative perception against black women. On the other hand, Blues Women played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance by thesis in cardiac seeking to establish the general economic independence of women from men. They sought to have African American women participate in social activities such as gambling and drinking, from which they had not been allowed to engage in before the renaissance. It is observed that the idea was to seek economic independence from men and in doing so, establish a new identity of respectability as opposed to their identity in the eyes of western society (Jones 33). Gender Prejudice in the Harlem Renaissance. Women writers during the ways to end an essay Harlem renaissance faced many challenges in the society. This is because the society was not only deeply patriarchal but also it was characterized by extreme racism. African American women always faced challenges in the development of their literary careers because of their identity as African women. Their quest to find a voice in in cardiac surgery the male – dominated society is equivalent to Janie’s struggle to institutional, find empowerment from suppression in Their Eyes Were Watching God . According to in cardiac surgery, Zhao, it was mostly male writers like Langston Hughes who are mostly remembered at the expense of female writers. Ways An Essay? Female writers, many of them who played key roles in the movement, have been virtually forgotten at the expense of their male counterparts (3).

African American women, just like the men, played a key role in developing the Negro identity and culture. Thesis? This was achieved by not only what, addressing race and socio – cultural issues, but also by being an integral part in the entire Harlem Renaissance movement. There were several female writers who were active in in cardiac surgery a variety of fields (4). These included: writing, journalism, art and good ways to end music. Thesis In Cardiac Surgery? Ladies such as Zora Neal Hurston, Halley Quinn, Alice Dunbar – Nelson and Geraldyn Dismond made outstanding contributions in the field s of journalism and writing, yet their legacy and achievements were always overshadowed by their male counterparts. Notable female writers, journalists and musicians in the renaissance period faced gender prejudice from their male counterparts in various ways. From unfavorable critical reception of their work to below par representation in journals and access to publishing facilities, female writers and artists during the what renaissance were always overshadowed by thesis in cardiac their male counterparts, yet their contribution to speech, the renaissance was as important to the movement as that made by their male counterparts. According to Patton Honey, the initial gathering by the then leading socialites to inaugurate what was later to be known as the Harlem renaissance in the civic club signified the first instance of thesis, women artists being overshadowed by their male counterparts. Thesis? This event was held back in 1924 in honor of Faucet for the publishing of her first novel, There is Confusion . It is argued that despite the reason for the gathering, the surgery meeting was dominated by the presence of leading male writers and artists of the water time. Even the ceremony was presided over by Alaine Locke, who was well known for cultivating upcoming male authors. (pp. 19 – 20).

Gender discrimination was evident even in thesis surgery the first meeting that marked the beginning of the renaissance. The profile of the New Negro as constructed in the seminal work of Alaine Locke provided a frame of what the hell is a statement, reference for reading female authors during the renaissance. But such a construct is shown to be wrong right from the outset. Thesis In Cardiac Surgery? The geographical and canonical boundaries of the time, which showed a preference for male writers at the expense f of their female counterparts, worked to isolate female writers from the mainstream work of the effects movement. It is thesis argued that many female writers, who were ignored by the setting of the time, when analyzed today, show that their writing and vision extended well beyond the locale of the time. Such ignored female writers of the period involve Newsome and Murphy; writers whose writings, if unanalyzed at the time of the renaissance, could have not just have reshaped the thinking but also redefined the geographical, time and knowledge boundaries of the movement. Art School Admission Essays? Such general imbalance between the works of male and female writers during the surgery renaissance created gender disparity during the renaissance, a concern that has been brought to light in recent studies (Tarver Barnes 19). Moreover, women were discriminated against in is persuasive speech selections for publications in thesis surgery the anthologies that were active during the movement and also those which flourished after the movement. Most of the good to end an essay anthologies were dominated by works from in cardiac, male authors as opposed to admission, female ones. Female authors who played a key role during the inception stage of the renaissance dropped out of in cardiac, site together with those female writers who came after them.

It is observed that notable female writers like Dorothy West, Nella Larsen, Jessie Faucet and Helene Johnson still suffer underrepresentation in new anthologies and published work which tend to favor works done by male authors, without any plausible basis on fiji case study, quality. It is argued that all the women who participated in the Harlem renaissance have continuously been classified as minor writers (Venetria Honey 21). In addition, women artists in the Harlem renaissance were only known to be prominent in one particular genre: poetry. It is thesis in cardiac surgery often not recognized how women artists tried their hand in what various genres at the time. Thesis? This enhanced cross fertilization of ideas and general development of different art forms. It is causes observed that most of the texts authored by female writers were left out in cardiac, of the what the hell thesis statement canonical formation of the thesis in cardiac surgery time. Another way in which women were discriminated against during the Harlem renaissance was in critical reception . For instance, Their Eyes Were Watching God received negative critical review after its publication. This was based on its radical stand on politics and its strong rebuttal against the Racial Uplift program. It is what argued that Asian American critics authorized a male centered language and culture which denigrated women writing as being out of the canon of the time.

This notion only changed in the 1980s when the first overtly female centered works were recognized as having been part of the renaissance. This brought the fore works that examined gender based themes and in cardiac surgery intergenerational tendencies. Such works also examined the overall interaction of women authors and the gender disparities, discrimination and racism. In comparison to fiji water carbon study, the conditions of the Harlem Renaissance, the reception female writers receive today remains varied. For instance, it is observed that, “Like the minority writer, the female writer exists within an thesis surgery, inescapable condition of identity which distances her from the mainstream of the culture” (Sukenick, cited by Schleppehegge 2). It is argued that the contemporary female writer is institutional forced to be separate from the male – dominated literary landscape; inclusion and consideration can only be won through producing work that resembles what male authors are producing. Gender disparity and inequality still remains embedded in the current society. This is regardless of the socio – economic transformations that have taken place since the thesis in cardiac surgery Harlem renaissance.

Inequality between genders has persisted in issues to do with resources, power and good to end an essay status; this inequality has been evident in the literary field, just like in many other socio – economic and cultural fields (Ridgeways 22 – 25). Women writers in the contemporary times still face underrepresentation, just like their counterparts during the thesis in cardiac Harlem Renaissance. Leading literary magazines, journals and publishers have produced less works done by female writers as compared to male writers. This situation has prevailed despite the rapid and far – reaching changes that have taken place in the publishing industry. Many publishers, both major and minor, have shown a strong tendency of favoring literary works done by male writers at the expense of female ones (Champion Austin 16 – 18). Further, women writers have continued to suffer from exclusion and neglect, similar to that experienced in the Harlem Renaissance.

For instance, participation of women in contemporary literary movements has largely remained unacknowledged. Female authors of the beat generation, just like those of the causes essay Harlem renaissance, have remained largely unacknowledged in the mainstream literary circles. The reception has always been characterized by disparity, whereby they have been read, “as women first and not as writers” Grace Johnson 4 – 6). It is observed that exclusion made women writers not to be viewed as viable literary innovators for the yet they made a valuable contribution in in cardiac the Beat generation. Despite of general gender disparity, women writers, albeit in small numbers, have gained recognition in is a the mainstream American literary canon. In Cardiac? Writers like Toni Morrison have not only won leading literary awards, they have also developed a strong literary tradition that has defined and differentiated the works of female writers in the contemporary literary scene (Champion Austin 13 – 15). The current situation is characterized by strong female writers who have taken advantage of global trends in literature and the arts to redefine and develop the feminism agenda in contemporary literary movements. The Harlem Renaissance remains the most significant literary and cultural movement in the United States literary history. It formed the basis for other important literary movements such as feminism and the entire American Literature. Many African American writers, artists and entertainers developed their careers using the movement as a basis. Institutional? However, despite its success as a literary movement based on the New Negro concept, the Harlem Renaissance was characterized by gender disparity not only in the course of its development but also in historical texts published thereafter to examine its impact.

Exclusion from and unequal selection in leading journals and anthologies was not the only way that gender prejudice was practiced during the Harlem Renaissance, disparity between female and male authors of the renaissance occurred in so many other forms. Women were always overshadowed by the presence of their male counterparts. Even in the initial event held to surgery, mark the beginning of what became the movement, the presence of and works by leading male authors of the time dominated the event at the expense of female authors who, were not only present but also had already been active enough in the field to gain recognition. Moreover, female authors, though having played key roles in the movement, were always underrepresented. Selections in leading literary journals and anthologies of the time often overlooked the works of female writers and favored that of their male counterparts.

Unequal representation continued even after the end of the renaissance; it contributed the decline of many female authors who remained insignificant in institutional thesis spite of producing equally competing work. Few female – authored texts lead to even fewer reviews and criticism on female – authored books. Thesis? This situation is similar to that which prevailed in the Harlem renaissance. Gender disparity in literature is still prevalent in the contemporary scene. From exclusion and isolation in publishing to water negative case, under-representation in literary movements, female authors have remained out of the main literary canon; despite valuable contributions and changes in the global literary scene. Champion, Laurie (ed). In Cardiac? American Women Writers, 1900 – 1945: A Bio – Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Champion, Laurie and Rhonda, Austin (eds). Contemporary American Women Fiction Writers: an A- to- Z Guide, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002. Grace, Nancy and Ronna Johnson. Essay? Breaking the Rule of thesis, Cool: Interviewing and Reading Women Beat Writers, San Francisco: U Press, 1993. Hutchinson, George. The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White , New York: Harvard University Press, 1995. Jones, Sharon L. Redefining the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West . Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002. Page, Yolanda Williams (ed).

Encyclopedia of African American Women Writers, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2007. Patton, Venetria K and Maureen, Honey (ed). Double – take: a Revisionist Harlem Renaissance Anthology. New York: Rutgers, 2001. Ridgeway, Cecilia. Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Schleppehegge, Jessica. The Writing Madwoman – Challenges for 19 th Century Women Writers, Norderstedt: Grin Verlag, 2009. Tarver, Australia and thesis Paula C. Barnes (eds). New Voices on the Harlem Renaissance: Essays on Race, Gender and Literary Discourse.

Massachusetts: Rosemont Publishing and Printing, 2006. Zhao, Jing. African American Women in the Harlem Renaissance, School of Education Policy and Research: Final Project, 2010. Retrieved on 14 April, 2013 from: http://www.google.com/url?sa=trct=jq=esrc=ssource=webcd=1sqi=2ved=0CDEQFjAAurl=http%3A%2F%2Fpeople.ehe.osu.edu%2Fbgordon%2Ffiles%2F2012%2F06%2FJing-Zhao.pdfei=JAVtUeTYOomqOramgegBusg=AFQjCNFGkCmlkCxHlBpHbHydZ9PmKiBE4gsig2=2xa89u2vgzjweEk9_7SKRwbvm=bv.45175338,d.ZWU. Find schools and get information on thesis, the program that’s right for what the hell is a statement, you.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in surgery, a while, it can be hard to know where to start. Is Persuasive Speech. What experiences and thesis surgery, accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and ways to end an essay, trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and thesis surgery, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Causes. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on thesis surgery it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.

For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). What Statement. Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in thesis, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of an essay, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to surgery, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and art school essays, accomplishments are visible on the top third of in cardiac surgery, your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is what the hell statement going to thesis in cardiac, see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on what is persuasive reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is thesis surgery when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the ways to end position you’re applying to. Thesis In Cardiac Surgery. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for causes effects essay, you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on thesis in cardiac surgery making the rest of art school essays, your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to in cardiac surgery, organize the information on your resume, but the essay good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is thesis still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to good ways an essay, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the thesis in cardiac surgery same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for good, cutting your content down , or work with a designer to thesis surgery, see how you can organize your resume to what, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out thesis in cardiac surgery, how to effects essay, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work?

Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on in cardiac that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in what is persuasive speech, order to stand out in a minute. But the in cardiac surgery most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on art school admission hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and thesis, leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Essay. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for in cardiac surgery, which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and art school, keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the thesis in cardiac surgery sea of what the hell thesis statement, Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively.

If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and thesis surgery, design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Institutional Thesis. You don’t need to include your address on thesis your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to institutional thesis, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is in cardiac that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of ways to end, time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Thesis Surgery. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Good Ways To End An Essay. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of thesis, your career history and only include the experience relevant to causes essay, the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to thesis in cardiac surgery, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). Fiji Water Carbon Study. 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!

Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and thesis surgery, then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. Good Ways To End. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in in cardiac surgery, a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for what is persuasive, writing impressive bullet points . Thesis Surgery. You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to is a statement, all of in cardiac, them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in institutional thesis, your bullet points.

How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to thesis in cardiac, achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to what speech, adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to in cardiac surgery, get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the good result you’re going for! 20.

Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.

Use our handy list of in cardiac, better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in what is persuasive, applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the thesis surgery job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the ways to end an essay most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and in cardiac surgery, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. The Hell. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the thesis job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. What Thesis Statement. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by surgery, listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in thesis statement, reverse chronological order.

But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the surgery reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about ways to end an essay whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. In Cardiac Surgery. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to good ways an essay, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university.

28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the in cardiac skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the what thesis statement relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to thesis in cardiac surgery, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Art School Admission. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out thesis surgery, one of those sections and listing it on thesis its own.

Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about thesis in cardiac surgery it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the is a thesis cause. Zhang explains here how to in cardiac, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Institutional. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and thesis, Other Sticky Resume Situations. Is Persuasive. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume.

According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. In Cardiac. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Essay. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to in cardiac surgery, downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the essay reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Thesis In Cardiac Surgery. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work.

See more tips from thesis Jenny Foss for killing it on in cardiac surgery your comeback resume. What Is Persuasive. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). In Cardiac. While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out water case study, there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).

It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is thesis surgery free and ways to end, clear of in cardiac, typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to thesis statement, take a look at thesis in cardiac surgery, it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and art school, then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out in cardiac surgery, some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and art school, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on surgery a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is what is persuasive a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and surgery, led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an to end an essay individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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comcast essay Gay Loneliness By Michael Hobbes. #x201C;I used to get so excited when the meth was all gone.#x201D; This is thesis in cardiac surgery my friend Jeremy. #x201C;When you have it,#x201D; he says, #x201C;you have to keep using it. Water Carbon Study. When it#x2019;s gone, it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Oh good, I can go back to my life now.#x2019; I would stay up all weekend and go to these sex parties and then feel like shit until Wednesday.

About two years ago I switched to thesis surgery, cocaine because I could work the art school admission, next day.#x201D; Jeremy is telling me this from a hospital bed, six stories above Seattle. Thesis. He won#x2019;t tell me the thesis statement, exact circumstances of the in cardiac surgery, overdose, only that a stranger called an ambulance and negative study he woke up here. Jeremy is not the friend I was expecting to thesis in cardiac, have this conversation with. Until a few weeks ago, I had no idea he used anything heavier than martinis. He is trim, intelligent, gluten-free, the kind of guy who wears a work shirt no matter what day of the week it is. The first time we met, three years ago, he asked me if I knew a good place to do CrossFit. Today, when I ask him how the hospital#x2019;s been so far, the first thing he says is that there#x2019;s no Wi-Fi, he#x2019;s way behind on work emails. #x201C;The drugs were a combination of boredom and loneliness,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I used to come home from work exhausted on a Friday night and it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Now what?#x2019; So I would dial out to get some meth delivered and check the good ways an essay, Internet to in cardiac, see if there were any parties happening. It was either that or watch a movie by good ways, myself.#x201D; 1. In Cardiac. That#x2019;s not his real name.

Only a few of the names of the gay men in causes effects essay this article are real. Jeremy [1] is surgery not my only gay friend who#x2019;s struggling. There#x2019;s Malcolm, who barely leaves the house except for work because his anxiety is so bad. There#x2019;s Jared, whose depression and is persuasive body dysmorphia have steadily shrunk his social life down to me, the thesis, gym and Internet hookups. And there was Christian, the second guy I ever kissed, who killed himself at 32, two weeks after his boyfriend broke up with him. Essays. Christian went to a party store, rented a helium tank, started inhaling it, then texted his ex and told him to come over, to make sure he#x2019;d find the body. 1. That#x2019;s not his real name. Only a few of the names of the in cardiac surgery, gay men in this article are real. For years I#x2019;ve noticed the admission essays, divergence between my straight friends and my gay friends. While one half of my social circle has disappeared into relationships, kids and suburbs, the other has struggled through isolation and anxiety, hard drugs and risky sex. None of thesis in cardiac surgery this fits the narrative I have been told, the one I have told myself.

Like me, Jeremy did not grow up bullied by his peers or rejected by his family. Carbon Negative. He can#x2019;t remember ever being called a faggot. He was raised in a West Coast suburb by a lesbian mom. Thesis Surgery. #x201C;She came out to me when I was 12,#x201D; he says. #x201C;And told me two sentences later that she knew I was gay. I barely knew at that point.#x201D; This is a picture of me and my family when I was 9. My parents still claim that they had no idea I was gay. They#x2019;re sweet. Jeremy and fiji water negative case I are 34. In our lifetime, the gay community has made more progress on legal and social acceptance than any other demographic group in history. Surgery. As recently as my own adolescence, gay marriage was a distant aspiration, something newspapers still put in scare quotes. Admission. Now, it#x2019;s been enshrined in law by thesis in cardiac, the Supreme Court.

Public support for admission essays gay marriage has climbed from 27 percent in 1996 to 61 percent in 2016. In pop culture, we#x2019;ve gone from #x201C;Cruising#x201D; to #x201C;Queer Eye#x201D; to #x201C;Moonlight.#x201D; Gay characters these days are so commonplace they#x2019;re even allowed to thesis surgery, have flaws. Still, even as we celebrate the scale and speed of this change, the rates of depression, loneliness and substance abuse in the gay community remain stuck in the same place they#x2019;ve been for decades. Gay people are now, depending on the study, between 2 and admission essays 10 times more likely than straight people to take their own lives. We#x2019;re twice as likely to thesis, have a major depressive episode. Water Carbon Case Study. And just like the last epidemic we lived through, the trauma appears to in cardiac, be concentrated among men. In a survey of gay men who recently arrived in New York City, three-quarters suffered from art school admission essays anxiety or depression, abused drugs or alcohol or were having risky sex#x2014;or some combination of the three. Thesis Surgery. Despite all the art school admission, talk of our #x201C;chosen families,#x201D; gay men have fewer close friends than straight people or gay women. In a survey of care-providers at HIV clinics, one respondent told researchers: #x201C;It#x2019;s not a question of them not knowing how to save their lives. It#x2019;s a question of them knowing if their lives are worth saving.#x201D;

I#x2019;m not going to pretend to be objective about in cardiac any of this. I#x2019;m a perpetually single gay guy who was raised in good a bright blue city by thesis, PFLAG parents. I#x2019;ve never known anyone who died of carbon negative study AIDS, I#x2019;ve never experienced direct discrimination and I came out in cardiac, of the closet into a world where marriage, a picket fence and a golden retriever were not just feasible, but expected. I#x2019;ve also been in and out of therapy more times than I#x2019;ve downloaded and deleted Grindr. #x201C;Marriage equality and the changes in legal status were an improvement for some gay men,#x201D; says Christopher Stults, a researcher at causes essay New York University who studies the differences in mental health between gay and straight men. #x201C;But for in cardiac surgery a lot of other people, it was a letdown. Like, we have this legal status, and yet there#x2019;s still something unfulfilled.#x201D; This feeling of emptiness, it turns out, is not just an American phenomenon. In the Netherlands, where gay marriage has been legal since 2001, gay men remain three times more likely to art school, suffer from a mood disorder than straight men, and 10 times more likely to engage in in cardiac surgery #x201C;suicidal self-harm.#x201D; In Sweden, which has had civil unions since 1995 and what the hell thesis full marriage since 2009, men married to men have triple the suicide rate of men married to women.

All of these unbearable statistics lead to the same conclusion: It is still dangerously alienating to go through life as a man attracted to in cardiac, other men. The good news, though, is is persuasive speech that epidemiologists and social scientists are closer than ever to understanding all the thesis, reasons why. Travis Salway, a researcher with the art school essays, BC Centre for Disease Control in surgery Vancouver, has spent the last five years trying to figure out why gay men keep killing themselves. #x201C;The defining feature of gay men used to be the loneliness of the closet,#x201D; he says. #x201C;But now you#x2019;ve got millions of gay men who have come out of the closet and they still feel the what is persuasive speech, same isolation.#x201D; We#x2019;re having lunch at a hole-in-the-wall noodle bar. It#x2019;s November, and he arrives wearing jeans, galoshes and a wedding ring. #x201C;Monogamous even,#x201D; he says. In Cardiac Surgery. #x201C;I think they#x2019;re gonna give us the essays, key to the city.#x201D; Salway grew up in Celina, Ohio, a rusting factory town of maybe 10,000 people, the kind of place, he says, where marriage competed with college for the 21-year-olds.

He got bullied for being gay before he even knew he was. #x201C;I was effeminate and I was in thesis in cardiac choir,#x201D; he says. #x201C;That was enough.#x201D; So he got careful. He had a girlfriend through most of high school, and tried to avoid boys#x2014;both romantically and platonically#x2014;until he could get out of what is persuasive there. By the late 2000s, he was a social worker and epidemiologist and, like me, was struck by the growing distance between his straight and gay friends. He started to wonder if the story he had always heard about thesis surgery gay men and mental health was incomplete. When the disparity first came to light in the #x2019;50s and #x2019;60s, doctors thought it was a symptom of homosexuality itself, just one of institutional thesis many manifestations of what was, at the time, known as #x201C;sexual inversion.#x201D; As the thesis in cardiac, gay rights movement gained steam, though, homosexuality disappeared from the DSM and causes effects essay the explanation shifted to trauma. Gay men were being kicked out of thesis surgery their own families, their love lives were illegal.

Of course they had alarming rates of suicide and depression. #x201C;That was the idea I had, too,#x201D; Salway says, #x201C;that gay suicide was a product of a bygone era, or it was concentrated among adolescents who didn#x2019;t see any other way out.#x201D; And then he looked at the data. The problem wasn#x2019;t just suicide, it wasn#x2019;t just afflicting teenagers and it wasn#x2019;t just happening in areas stained by homophobia. He found that gay men everywhere, at every age, have higher rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, incontinence, erectile dysfunction,#x2060; allergies and asthma#x2014;you name it, we got it. In Canada, Salway eventually discovered, more gay men were dying from suicide than from to end an essay AIDS, and thesis in cardiac surgery had been for years. (This might be the case in the U.S. too, he says, but no one has bothered to study it.) #x201C;We see gay men who have never been sexually or physically assaulted with similar post-traumatic stress symptoms to people who have been in combat situations or who have been raped,#x201D; says Alex Keuroghlian, a psychiatrist at the Fenway Institute#x2019;s Center for Population Research in LGBT Health. Gay men are, as Keuroghlian puts it, #x201C;primed to expect rejection.#x201D; We#x2019;re constantly scanning social situations for thesis ways we may not fit into them. We struggle to assert ourselves.

We replay our social failures on a loop. The weirdest thing about these symptoms, though, is that most of thesis in cardiac us don#x2019;t see them as symptoms at all. Since he looked into the data, Salway has started interviewing gay men who attempted suicide and survived. #x201C;When you ask them why they tried to kill themselves,#x201D; he says, #x201C;most of them don#x2019;t mention anything at all about being gay.#x201D; Instead, he says, they tell him they#x2019;re having relationship problems, career problems, money problems. Institutional Thesis. #x201C;They don#x2019;t feel like their sexuality is the surgery, most salient aspect of their lives. Thesis. And yet, they#x2019;re an thesis in cardiac order of art school essays magnitude more likely to kill themselves.#x201D; The term researchers use to explain this phenomenon is thesis surgery #x201C;minority stress.#x201D; In its most direct form, it#x2019;s pretty simple: Being a member of a marginalized group requires extra effort. When you#x2019;re the only woman at a business meeting, or the only black guy in your college dorm, you have to thesis, think on a level that members of the majority don#x2019;t. If you stand up to your boss, or fail to, are you playing into stereotypes of in cardiac women in the workplace? If you don#x2019;t ace a test, will people think it#x2019;s because of your race? Even if you don#x2019;t experience overt stigma, considering these possibilities takes its toll over time. For gay people, the effect is causes essay magnified by the fact that our minority status is hidden.

Not only do we have to do all this extra work and answer all these internal questions when we#x2019;re 12 , but we also have to do it without being able to talk to our friends or parents about it. For more stories that stay with you, subscribe to thesis in cardiac surgery, our newsletter. John Pachankis, a stress researcher at Yale, says the real damage gets done in the five or so years between realizing your sexuality and to end an essay starting to tell other people. Even relatively small stressors in this period have an outsized effect#x2014;not because they#x2019;re directly traumatic, but because we start to thesis in cardiac surgery, expect them. Ways To End An Essay. #x201C;No one has to thesis in cardiac, call you queer for you to adjust your behavior to what is persuasive, avoid being called that,#x201D; Salway says. James, now a mostly-out 20-year-old, tells me that in seventh grade, when he was a closeted 12-year-old, a female classmate asked him what he thought about thesis surgery another girl. #x201C;Well, she looks like a man,#x201D; he said, without thinking, #x201C;so yeah, maybe I would have sex with her.#x201D; Immediately, he says, he panicked. #x201C;I was like, did anyone catch that? Did they tell anyone else I said it that way?#x201D; This is how I spent my adolescence, too: being careful, slipping up, stressing out, overcompensating.

Once, at a water park, one of my middle-school friends caught me staring at him as we waited for a slide. #x201C;Dude, did you just check me out?#x201D; he said. I managed to deflect#x2014;something like #x201C;Sorry, you#x2019;re not my type#x201D;#x2014;then I spent weeks afterward worried about what he was thinking about me. What Is Persuasive. But he never brought it up. Thesis In Cardiac. All the bullying took place in my head. #x201C;The trauma for gay men is the art school essays, prolonged nature of it,#x201D; says William Elder, a sexual trauma researcher and thesis psychologist. Institutional. #x201C;If you experience one traumatic event, you have the kind of PTSD that can be resolved in four to six months of therapy. But if you experience years and years of small stressors#x2014;little things where you think, Was that because of my sexuality?#x2014;that can be even worse.#x201D; Or, as Elder puts it, being in the closet is like someone having someone punch you lightly on the arm, over and over. At first, it#x2019;s annoying. After a while, it#x2019;s infuriating. Eventually, it#x2019;s all you can think about. And then the stress of in cardiac surgery dealing with it every day begins to build up in your body.

Growing up gay, it seems, is bad for you in essays many of the in cardiac surgery, same ways as growing up in extreme poverty. Carbon Negative. A 2015 study found that gay people produce less cortisol, the hormone that regulates stress. Their systems were so activated, so constantly, in adolescence that they ended up sluggish as grownups, says Katie McLaughlin, one of the study#x2019;s co-authors. Thesis In Cardiac Surgery. In 2014, researchers compared straight and gay teenagers on cardiovascular risk. Essay. They found that the gay kids didn#x2019;t have a greater number of #x201C;stressful life events#x201D; (i.e. Thesis In Cardiac. straight people have problems, too), but the ones they did experience inflicted more harm on their nervous systems. Annesa Flentje, a stress researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, specializes in the effect of essays minority stress on gene expression. All those little punches combine with our adaptations to thesis surgery, them, she says, and become #x201C;automatic ways of thinking that never get challenged or turned off, even 30 years later.#x201D; Whether we recognize it or not, our bodies bring the what thesis, closet with us into thesis surgery adulthood. #x201C;We don#x2019;t have the tools to process stress as kids, and we don#x2019;t recognize it as trauma as adults,#x201D; says John, a former consultant who quit his job two years ago to make pottery and speech lead adventure tours in in cardiac the Adirondacks. #x201C;Our gut reaction is to deal with things now the to end an essay, way we did as children.#x201D;

Even Salway, who has devoted his career to understanding minority stress, says that there are days when he feels uncomfortable walking around Vancouver with his partner. Thesis Surgery. No one#x2019;s ever attacked them, but they#x2019;ve had a few assholes yell slurs at institutional thesis them in public. That doesn#x2019;t have to happen very many times before you start expecting it, before your heart starts beating a little faster when you see a car approaching. But minority stress doesn#x2019;t fully explain why gay men have such a wide array of health problems. Thesis. Because while the first round of damage happens before we come out good an essay, of the closet, the second, and thesis in cardiac surgery maybe more severe, comes afterward. the fucking jungle. No one ever told Adam not to act effeminate. Negative. But he, like me, like most of us, learned it somehow. #x201C;I never worried about my family being homophobic,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I used to do this thing where I would wrap a blanket around myself like a dress and thesis surgery dance around in the backyard. What The Hell Is A Statement. My parents thought it was cute, so they took a video and showed it to thesis in cardiac, my grandparents. When they all watched the tape, I hid behind the couch because I was so ashamed.

I must have been six or seven.#x201D; By the time he got to high school, Adam had learned to manage his mannerisms so well that no one suspected him of being gay. But still, he says, #x201C;I couldn#x2019;t trust anyone because I had this thing I was holding. Fiji Water Carbon Negative Case. I had to operate in the world as a lone agent.#x201D; He came out at 16, then graduated, then moved to San Francisco and started working in HIV prevention. But the feeling of distance from surgery other people didn#x2019;t go away. So he treated it, he says, #x201C;with lots and lots of what the hell thesis statement sex. It#x2019;s our most accessible resource in the gay community.

You convince yourself that if you#x2019;re having sex with someone, you#x2019;re having an intimate moment. That ended up being a crutch.#x201D; He worked long hours. He would come home exhausted, smoke a little weed, pour a glass of red wine, then start scanning the hookup apps for someone to invite over. Sometimes it would be two or three guys in a row. #x201C;As soon as I closed the door on the last guy, I#x2019;d think, That didn#x2019;t hit the spot, then I#x2019;d find another one.#x201D; It went on like this for years.

Last Thanksgiving, he was back home to visit his parents and thesis surgery felt a compulsive need to art school, have sex because he was so stressed out. When he finally found a guy nearby who was willing to hook up, he ran to his parents#x2019; room and started rifling through their drawers to see if they had any Viagra. #x201C;So that was the rock-bottom moment?#x201D; I ask. #x201C;That was the third or fourth, yeah,#x201D; he says. Adam#x2019;s now in thesis a 12-step program for what the hell thesis statement sex addiction. It#x2019;s been six weeks since he#x2019;s had sex. Before this, the longest he had ever gone was three or four days.

#x201C;There are people who have lots of sex because it#x2019;s fun, and that#x2019;s fine. But I kept trying to wring it out thesis in cardiac, like a rag to speech, get something out of it that wasn#x2019;t in thesis in cardiac there#x2014;social support, or companionship. It was a way of not dealing with my own life. And I kept denying it was a problem because I had always told myself, #x2018;I#x2019;ve come out, I moved to San Francisco, I#x2019;m done, I did what I had to do as a gay person.#x2019;#x201D; For decades, this is what psychologists thought, too: that the key stages in fiji carbon study identity formation for gay men all led up to coming out, that once we were finally comfortable with ourselves, we could begin building a life within a community of people who#x2019;d gone through the same thing. But over the last 10 years, what researchers have discovered is thesis that the struggle to fit in good to end an essay only grows more intense. A study published in 2015 found that rates of anxiety and depression were higher in men who had recently come out than in men who were still closeted.

#x201C;It#x2019;s like you emerge from the closet expecting to be this butterfly and in cardiac surgery the gay community just slaps the idealism out of you,#x201D; Adam says. When he first started coming out, he says, #x201C;I went to West Hollywood because I thought that#x2019;s where my people were. But it was really horrifying. Admission Essays. It#x2019;s made by gay adults, and it#x2019;s not welcoming for gay kids. You go from your mom#x2019;s house to a gay club where a lot of people are on drugs and in cardiac surgery it#x2019;s like, this is my community? It#x2019;s like the fucking jungle.#x201D; #x201C;I came out when I was 17, and I didn#x2019;t see a place for myself in the gay scene,#x201D; says Paul, a software developer. #x201C;I wanted to fall in love like I saw straight people do in movies. Speech. But I just felt like a piece of meat.

It got so bad that I used to go to the grocery store that was 40 minutes away instead of the one that was 10 minutes away just because I was so afraid to thesis, walk down the gay street.#x201D; The word I hear from Paul, from art school everyone, is #x201C;re-traumatized.#x201D; You grow up with this loneliness, accumulating all this baggage, and then you arrive in the Castro or Chelsea or Boystown thinking you#x2019;ll finally be accepted for who you are. And then you realize that everyone else here has baggage, too . Thesis. All of a sudden it#x2019;s not your gayness that gets you rejected. It#x2019;s your weight, or your income, or your race. #x201C;The bullied kids of our youth,#x201D; Paul says, #x201C;grew up and became bullies themselves.#x201D; #x201C;Gay men in effects essay particular are just not very nice to each other,#x201D; says John, the adventure tour guide. #x201C;In pop culture, drag queens are known for thesis in cardiac their takedowns and statement it#x2019;s all ha ha ha. Thesis Surgery. But that meanness is almost pathological. All of us were deeply confused or lying to ourselves for a good chunk of our adolescence. But it#x2019;s not comfortable for us to show that to other people. So we show other people what the world shows us, which is nastiness.#x201D;

Every gay man I know carries around a mental portfolio of all the shitty things other gay men have said and done to him. I arrived to a date once and the guy immediately stood up, said I was shorter than I looked in good to end my pictures and left. Thesis In Cardiac. Alex, a fitness instructor in Seattle, was told by carbon negative case, a guy on his swim team, #x201C;I#x2019;ll ignore your face if you fuck me without a condom.#x201D; Martin, a Brit living in surgery Portland, has gained maybe 10 pounds since he moved there and got a Grindr message#x2014; on Christmas Day #x2014;that said: #x201C;You used to be so sexy. Institutional Thesis. It#x2019;s a shame you messed it up.#x201D; For other minority groups, living in a community with people like them is linked to lower rates of thesis anxiety and depression.

It helps to be close to people who instinctively understand you. But for causes effects essay us, the effect is the opposite. Thesis In Cardiac Surgery. Several studies have found that living in gay neighborhoods predicts higher rates of risky sex and art school admission essays meth use and less time spent on other community activities like volunteering or playing sports. A 2009 study suggested that gay men who were more linked to the gay community were less satisfied with their own romantic relationships. #x201C;Gay and bisexual men talk about the in cardiac, gay community as a significant source of stress in their lives,#x201D; Pachankis says. The fundamental reason for this, he says, is that #x201C;in-group discrimination#x201D; does more harm to admission, your psyche than getting rejected by members of the majority.

It#x2019;s easy to ignore, roll your eyes and put a middle finger up to straight people who don#x2019;t like you because, whatever, you don#x2019;t need their approval anyway. Rejection from other gay people, though, feels like losing your only way of making friends and finding love. Being pushed away from your own people hurts more because you need them more. The researchers I spoke to explained that gay guys inflict this kind of damage on thesis in cardiac surgery, each other for two main reasons. The first, and the one I heard most frequently, is that gay men are shitty to admission essays, each other because, basically, we#x2019;re men.

#x201C;The challenges of masculinity get magnified in a community of surgery men,#x201D; Pachankis says. What Speech. #x201C;Masculinity is precarious. It has to be constantly enacted or defended or collected. We see this in studies: You can threaten masculinity among men and then look at the dumb things they do. They show more aggressive posturing, they start taking financial risks, they want to in cardiac surgery, punch things.#x201D; This helps explain the pervasive stigma against thesis feminine guys in thesis the gay community. According to Dane Whicker, a clinical psychologist and researcher at Duke, most gay men report that they want to date someone masculine, and that they wished they acted more masculine themselves. Maybe that#x2019;s because, historically, masculine men have been more able to blend into straight society. Art School Admission. Or maybe it#x2019;s internalized homophobia: Feminine gay men are still stereotyped as bottoms, the thesis, receptive partner in anal sex.

A two-year longitudinal study found that the longer gay men were out of the closet, the more likely they were to become versatile or tops. Researchers say this kind of training, deliberately trying to appear more masculine and causes taking on a different sex role, is just one of the ways gay men pressure each other to attain #x201C;sexual capital,#x201D; the equivalent of in cardiac going to the gym or plucking our eyebrows. #x201C;The only art school admission, reason I started working out thesis, was so I would seem like a feasible top,#x201D; Martin says. When he first came out, he was convinced that he was too skinny, too effeminate, that bottoms would think he was one of them. #x201C;So I started faking all this hyper-masculine behavior. Art School Essays. My boyfriend noticed recently that I still lower my voice an octave whenever I order drinks. That#x2019;s a remnant of my first few years out thesis in cardiac, of the closet, when I thought I had to speak in this Christian Bale Batman voice to get dates.#x201D; Grant, a 21-year-old who grew up on Long Island and now lives in to end Hell#x2019;s Kitchen, says he used to be self-conscious about the way he stood#x2014;hands on hips, one leg slightly cocked like a Rockette. So, his sophomore year, he started watching his male teachers for their default positions, deliberately standing with his feet wide, his arms at surgery his sides. These masculinity norms exert a toll on everyone, even their perpetrators.

Feminine gay men are at higher risk of suicide, loneliness and mental illness. Masculine gay men, for good their part, are more anxious, have more risky sex and use drugs and tobacco with greater frequency. One study investigating why living in surgery the gay community increases depression found that the effect only showed up in masculine gay guys. The second reason the gay community acts as a unique stressor on art school admission, its members is thesis in cardiac not about art school admission why we reject each other, but how . In the last 10 years, traditional gay spaces#x2014;bars, nightclubs, bathhouses#x2014;have begun to disappear, and have been replaced by social media. In Cardiac Surgery. At least 70 percent of gay men now use hookup apps like Grindr and Scruff to meet each other. In 2000, around 20 percent of what gay couples met online. By 2010, that was up to thesis surgery, 70 percent. Meanwhile, the share of gay couples who met through friends dropped from 30 percent to the hell is a statement, 12 percent. Usually when you hear about the shocking primacy of in cardiac hookup apps in gay life#x2014;Grindr, the what the hell statement, most popular, says its average user spends 90 minutes per day on thesis in cardiac, it#x2014;it#x2019;s in some panicked media story about murderers or homophobes trawling them for victims, or about the troubling #x201C;chemsex#x201D; scenes that have sprung up in London and New York. Is A Statement. And yes, those are problems.

But the real effect of the apps is quieter, less remarked-upon and, in a way, more profound: For many of us, they have become the thesis in cardiac surgery, primary way we interact with other gay people. #x201C;It#x2019;s so much easier to meet someone for a hookup on good ways an essay, Grindr than it is to go to surgery, a bar by admission essays, yourself,#x201D; Adam says. #x201C;Especially if you#x2019;ve just moved to a new city, it#x2019;s so easy to let the dating apps become your social life. It#x2019;s harder to surgery, look for social situations where you might have to make more of an effort.#x201D; #x201C;I have moments when I want to feel desired and so I get on Grindr,#x201D; Paul says. #x201C;I upload a shirtless picture and to end an essay I start getting these messages telling me I#x2019;m hot. It feels good in the moment, but nothing ever comes of it, and those messages stop coming after a few days. It feels like I#x2019;m scratching an itch, but it#x2019;s scabies. It#x2019;s just going to spread.#x201D; The worst thing about the apps, though, and surgery why they#x2019;re relevant to the health disparity between gay and straight men, is institutional not just that we use them a lot. It is that they are almost perfectly designed to underline our negative beliefs about ourselves.

In interviews that Elder, the post-traumatic stress researcher, conducted with gay men in 2015, he found that 90 percent said they wanted a partner who was tall, young, white, muscular and masculine. For the vast majority of us who barely meet one of thesis in cardiac those criteria, much less all five, the hookup apps merely provide an efficient way to feel ugly. Paul says he#x2019;s #x201C;electrified waiting for rejection#x201D; as soon as he opens them. John, the what speech, former consultant, is 27, 6-foot-1 and has a six-pack you can see through his wool sweater . And even he says most of his messages don#x2019;t get replies, that he spends probably 10 hours talking to people on the app for every one hour he spends meeting for coffee or a hookup. It#x2019;s worse for gay men of color. Thesis Surgery. Vincent, who runs counseling sessions with black and fiji negative study Latino men through the San Francisco Department of Public Health, says the apps give racial minorities two forms of feedback: Rejected (#x201C;Sorry, I#x2019;m not into black guys#x201D;) and thesis fetishized (#x201C;Hi, I#x2019;m really into black guys.#x201D;) Paihan, a Taiwanese immigrant in Seattle, shows me his Grindr inbox. Carbon Negative Study. It is, like mine, mostly hellos he has sent out to surgery, no reply. One of the few messages he received just says, #x201C;Asiiiaaaan.#x201D; None of this is negative study new, of course. Walt Odets, a psychologist who#x2019;s been writing about social isolation since the 1980s, says that gay men used to be troubled by thesis, the bathhouses in the same way they are troubled by Grindr now.

The difference he sees in causes essay his younger patients is that #x201C;if someone rejected you at a bathhouse, you could still have a conversation afterwards. Maybe you end up with a friend out of it, or at least something that becomes a positive social experience. Surgery. On the apps, you just get ignored if someone doesn#x2019;t perceive you as a sexual or romantic conquest.#x201D; The gay men I interviewed talked about the dating apps the same way straight people talk about Comcast: It sucks, but what are you gonna do? #x201C;You have to use the apps in smaller cities,#x201D; says Michael Moore, a psychologist at what speech Yale. #x201C;They serve the purpose of a gay bar. But the downside is that they put all this prejudice out there.#x201D; What the thesis in cardiac surgery, apps reinforce, or perhaps simply accelerate, is the ways to end an essay, adult version of what Pachankis calls the in cardiac surgery, Best Little Boy in the World Hypothesis. As kids, growing up in the closet makes us more likely to concentrate our self-worth into whatever the outside world wants us to good ways an essay, be#x2014;good at sports, good at school, whatever. As adults, the thesis in cardiac surgery, social norms in our own community pressure us to concentrate our self-worth even further#x2014;into our looks, our masculinity, our sexual performance. But then, even if we manage to institutional, compete there, even if we attain whatever masc-dom-top ideal we#x2019;re looking for, all we#x2019;ve really done is condition ourselves to surgery, be devastated when we inevitably lose it. #x201C;We often live our lives through the eyes of others,#x201D; says Alan Downs, a psychologist and what is persuasive speech the author of surgery The Velvet Rage , a book about gay men#x2019;s struggle with shame and what is persuasive speech social validation. Thesis In Cardiac Surgery. #x201C;We want to fiji carbon case, have man after man, more muscles, more status, whatever brings us fleeting validation. Then we wake up at 40, exhausted, and we wonder, Is that all there is? And then the in cardiac, depression comes.#x201D; the source of our wit, our resilience, dressing and what thesis statement dancing and karaoke.

Perry Halkitis, a professor at NYU, has been studying the health gap between gay people and straight people since the early #x2019;90s. He has published four books on gay culture and has interviewed men dying of HIV, recovering from party drugs and struggling to in cardiac surgery, plan their own weddings. That#x2019;s why, two years ago, his 18-year-old nephew James showed up trembling at his doorstep. He sat Halkitis and is persuasive his husband down on the couch and announced he was gay. Surgery. #x201C;We told him, #x2018;Congratulations, your membership card and welcome package are in the other room,#x2019;#x201D; Halkitis remembers. #x201C;But he was too nervous to causes effects essay, get the in cardiac surgery, joke.#x201D; James grew up in institutional thesis Queens, a beloved member of a big, affectionate, liberal family. He went to a public school with openly gay kids. #x201C;And still,#x201D; Halkitis says, #x201C;there was this emotional turmoil. He knew rationally that everything was going to be fine, but being in the closet isn#x2019;t rational, it#x2019;s emotional.#x201D; Over the years, James had convinced himself that he would never come out. He didn#x2019;t want the attention, or to thesis in cardiac surgery, have to field questions he couldn#x2019;t answer. His sexuality didn#x2019;t make sense to him#x2014;how could he possibly explain it to other people? #x201C;On TV I was seeing all these traditional families,#x201D; he tells me. What. #x201C;At the same time, I was watching a ton of gay porn, where everyone was super ripped and single and having sex all the time.

So I thought those were my two options: this fairy-tale life I could never have, or this gay life where there was no romance.#x201D; James remembers the exact moment he decided to go into the closet. He must have been 10 or 11, dragged on a vacation to thesis, Long Island by his parents. #x201C;I looked around at our whole family, and the kids running around, and I thought, #x2018;I#x2019;m never going to have this,#x2019; and I started to cry.#x201D; I realize, the second he says it, that he is describing the same revelation I had at his age, the institutional thesis, same grief. James#x2019; was in 2007. Mine was in 1992. In Cardiac. Halkitis says his was in 1977. Surprised that someone his nephew#x2019;s age could have the institutional, same experience he did, Halkitis decided his next book project would be about the trauma of the closet. #x201C;Even now, even in New York City, even with accepting parents, the coming out process is challenging, Halkitis says. #x201C;Maybe it always will be.#x201D; So what are we supposed to do about it?

When we think of marriage laws or hate crime prohibitions, we tend to think of thesis in cardiac surgery them as protections of thesis our rights. What#x2019;s less understood is thesis surgery that laws literally affect our health. One of the most striking studies I found described the the hell thesis statement, spike in thesis anxiety and depression among gay men in 2004 and 2005, the years when 14 states passed constitutional amendments defining marriage as being between a man and a woman. Gay men in those states showed a 37 percent increase in mood disorders, a 42 percent increase in good ways an essay alcoholism and a 248 percent increase in generalized anxiety disorder. The most chilling thing about those numbers is that the legal rights of thesis in cardiac gay people living in those states didn#x2019;t materially change. We couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan before the amendment passed, and we couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan after it passed. Effects Essay. The laws were symbolic. They were the majority#x2019;s way of thesis informing gay people that we weren#x2019;t wanted.

What#x2019;s worse, the rates of good an essay anxiety and in cardiac depression didn#x2019;t just jump in the states that passed constitutional amendments. They increased (though less dramatically) among gay people across the entire country. The campaign to make us suffer worked. Now square that with the fact that our country recently elected a bright orange Demogorgon whose administration is publicly, eagerly attempting to reverse every single gain the gay community has made in the last 20 years. The message this sends to gay people#x2014;especially the youngest ones, just grappling with their identity#x2014;couldn#x2019;t be clearer and more terrifying. Any discussion of gay mental health has to institutional thesis, start with what happens in schools. Despite the progress taking place around them, America#x2019;s educational institutions remain dangerous places for kids, filled with aspiring frat boys, indifferent teachers and retrograde policies. In Cardiac. Emily Greytak, the director of institutional thesis research for the anti-bullying organization GLSEN, tells me that from 2005 to 2015, the surgery, percentage of teenagers who said they were bullied for good to end their sexual orientation didn#x2019;t fall at thesis in cardiac surgery all. Only around 30 percent of school districts in the country have anti-bullying policies that specifically mention LGBTQ kids, and art school admission essays thousands of surgery other districts have policies that prevent teachers from speaking about homosexuality in a positive way. These restrictions make it so much harder for kids to cope with their minority stress.

But luckily, this doesn#x2019;t require every teacher and every teenage lacrosse bro to accept gay people overnight. For the last four years, Nicholas Heck, a researcher at Marquette University, has been running support groups for gay kids in high schools. He walks them through their interactions with their classmates, their teachers and their parents, and good to end tries to help them separate garden-variety teenage stress from the in cardiac, kind they get due to their sexuality. Fiji Water Case. One of thesis his kids, for example, was under pressure from his parents to major in art rather than finance. His parents meant well#x2014;they were just trying to encourage him into a field where he would encounter fewer homophobes#x2014;but he was already anxious: If he gave up on finance, was that surrendering to good an essay, stigma? If he went into art and in cardiac surgery still got bullied, could he tell his parents about it? The trick, Heck says, is getting kids to ask these questions openly, because one of the hallmark symptoms of minority stress is avoidance. Kids hear derogatory comments in the hall so they decide to walk down another one, or they put in earbuds. They ask a teacher for causes help and get shrugged off, so they stop looking for safe adults altogether.

But the in cardiac surgery, kids in the study, Heck says, are already starting to reject the effects essay, responsibility they used to thesis surgery, take on when they got bullied. They#x2019;re learning that even if they can#x2019;t change the environment around them, they#x2019;re allowed to stop blaming themselves for it. So for kids, the goal is to hunt out and prevent minority stress. But what can be done for those of ways to end an essay us who have already internalized it? #x201C;There has been a lot of work with queer youth, but there#x2019;s no equivalent when you#x2019;re in your 30s and 40s,#x201D; Salway tells me. #x201C;I don#x2019;t even know where you go.#x201D; The problem, he says, is that we#x2019;ve built entirely separate infrastructures around mental illness, HIV prevention and substance abuse, even though all the evidence indicates that they are not three epidemics, but one. People who feel rejected are more likely to self-medicate, which makes them more likely to in cardiac, have risky sex, which makes them more likely to contract HIV, which makes them more likely to ways, feel rejected, and so on. In the last five years, as evidence of thesis surgery this interconnectedness has piled up, a few psychologists and epidemiologists have started to treat alienation among gay men as a #x201C;syndemic#x201D;: A cluster of health problems, none of good ways to end an essay which can be fixed on their own. Pachankis, the stress researcher, just ran the thesis in cardiac surgery, country#x2019;s first randomized controlled trial of #x201C;gay-affirming#x201D; cognitive behavior therapy. Good To End. After years of emotional avoidance, many gay men #x201C;literally don#x2019;t know what they#x2019;re feeling,#x201D; he says.

Their partner says #x201C;I love you#x201D; and they reply #x201C;Well, I love pancakes.#x201D; They break it off with the guy they#x2019;re seeing because he leaves a toothbrush at surgery their house. Or, like a lot of the good ways an essay, guys I talked to, they have unprotected sex with someone they#x2019;ve never met because they don#x2019;t know how to listen to their own trepidation. Emotional detachment of this kind is pervasive, Pachankis says, and many of the men he works with go years without recognizing that the things they#x2019;re striving for#x2014;having a perfect body, doing more and better work than their colleagues, curating the ideal weeknight Grindr hookup#x2014;are reinforcing their own fear of rejection. Simply pointing out these patterns yielded huge results: Pachankis#x2019; patients showed reduced rates of anxiety, depression, drug use and condom-less sex in in cardiac surgery just three months. He#x2019;s now expanding the study to include more cities, more participants and a longer timeline. These solutions are promising, but they#x2019;re still imperfect. I don#x2019;t know if we#x2019;ll ever see the mental health gap between straight people and gay people close, at least not fully. An Essay. There will always be more straight kids than gay kids, we will always be isolated among them, and we will always, on some level, grow up alone in our families and our schools and our towns. But perhaps that#x2019;s not all bad. Our distance from the mainstream may be the source of some of what ails us, but it is also the source of our wit, our resilience, our empathy, our superior talents for dressing and dancing and thesis in cardiac surgery karaoke.

We have to recognize that as we fight for better laws and better environments#x2014;and as we figure out what is a, how to be better to each other. I keep thinking of thesis in cardiac something Paul, the software developer, told me: #x201C;For gay people, we#x2019;ve always told ourselves that when the AIDS epidemic was over we#x2019;d be fine. Then it was, when we can get married we#x2019;ll be fine. Now it#x2019;s, when the bullying stops we#x2019;ll be fine. We keep waiting for the moment when we feel like we#x2019;re not different from other people.

But the causes effects, fact is, we are different. It#x2019;s about time we accept that and work with it.#x201D;

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